|History of California|
|Gold Rush (1848)|
|American Civil War (1861-1865)|
|1900 to present|
The organized labor history of California remained centered in San Francisco for much of the state's early history. The City and County of San Francisco is the fourth most populous city By the opening decades of the twentieth century, labor efforts had expanded to Los Angeles, Long Beach and the Central Valley. Los Angeles (lɑˈsændʒələs los ˈaŋxeles in Spanish) is the largest City in the state of California and the American West Long Beach is a city located in southern California, USA, on the Pacific coast The Central Valley is a large flat valley that dominates the central portion of the U In 1901, the San Francisco based City Front Federation was reputed to be the strongest trade federation in the country. It grew out of intense organizational drives in every trade during the boom at the turn of the century. Employers organized as well during the building trades strike of 1900 and the (San Francisco) City Front Federation strike of 1901, which led to the founding of Building Trades Council. The open shop question was at stake. In terms of United States labor relations an open shop is a place of employment at which one is not required to join or financially support a labor union Out of the City Front strike came the Union Labor Party because workers were angry at the mayor for using the police to protect strikebreakers. The San Francisco Police Department, also known as the SFPD, is the police department of the City and County of San Francisco California. Eugene Schmitz was elected mayor in 1902 on the party's ticket, making San Francisco the only town in the United States, for a time, to be run by labor. Eugene Edward Schmitz ( August 22, 1864 San Francisco California - November 20, 1928 San Francisco California) was A combination of corruption and unscrupulous reformers culminated in graft prosecutions in 1907.
In 1910, Los Angeles was still an open shop and employers in the north threatened for a new push to open San Francisco shops. Responding, labor sent delegations south in June 1910. National organizers were sent in during a lockout of 1,200 idled metal-trades workers. Then occurred an incident that would set back Los Angeles organizing for years, On October 10, 1910, a bomb exploded at the Los Angeles Times newspaper plant that killed twenty-one workers. Events 680 - Battle of Karbala: Shia Imam Husayn bin Ali, the grandson of the Prophet Muhammad, is decapitated Year 1910 ( MCMX) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting The Los Angeles Times (also known as the LA Times) is a daily Newspaper published in Los Angeles California and distributed
In the decade following, the rapid growth of the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW, or Wobblies) in ununionized trades, logging ,wheat farming, lumber camps began extending its efforts to mines, ports and agriculture. The Industrial Workers of the World ( IWW or the Wobblies) is an international union currently headquartered in Cincinnati Ohio, USA The IWW came to public notice after the Wheatland Hop Riot when a sheriff's posse broke up a protest meeting and four persons died. The Wheatland Hop Riot, an important and highly-publicized event in California labor history was the second major labor dispute in the United States supposedly initiated It led to the first legislation protecting field labor. The IWW was harmed by anti-union drives and prosecution of members under the state's new criminal syndacalism laws. The IWW was also involved in the 1923 seamen's strike at San Pedro, where Upton Sinclair was arrested for reciting the Declaration of Independence. Upton Beall Sinclair Jr ( September 20, 1878 &ndash November 25, 1968) was a Pulitzer This article is about declarations of independence in general However, the man who became the most prominent Wobbly of all, Thomas Mooney, soon became a cause-celebre of labor and the most important political prisoner in America. Thomas Joseph Mooney ( December 8, 1882 &ndash March 6, 1942) was an American labor leader in San Francisco
The Preparedness Day Bombing killed ten people and hurt labor for decades. The Preparedness Day Bombing was a bombing in San Francisco California on July 22, 1916 when the city held a Parade in honor of Preparedness During the 1920s, the open shop efforts succeeded through a coordinated strategy called the "American Plan". For the US Presidential Primary allocation system see American Plan. In one case, the Industrial Association of San Francisco raised over a million dollars to break the building trades strikes in 1921 that led to the collapse of the building trades unions. This employers association cut wages twice in one year, and the Metal Trades Council was defeated, losing an agreement that had been in effect since 1907. An employers' organization, employers' association or employers' federation is an association of Employers A Trade union, which organizes The Seamen's Union also suffered defeat in 1921.
The labor movement resurged in the 1930s, accompanied by the passage of the 1933 National Industrial Recovery Act and the emergence of a young Australian worker, Harry Bridges as a labor leader. The National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA officially known as the Act of June 16, 1933, Ch Harry Bridges ( July 28 1901 &ndash March 30 1990) was an influential Australian American union leader in Within a few weeks after a charter had been secured from International Longshoremen's Association in 1933, more than 90% of workers on the waterfront had joined. Template talkInfobox Union for usage -->The International Longshoremen's Association is a labor union representing The dock workers took a strike vote on March 7, 1934. Events 161 - Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius dies and is succeeded by co-Emperors Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus Year 1934 ( MCMXXXIV) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. On May 15, 1934, the seamen's unions voted to join the strike, followed by ship's clerks and licensed officers' organizations. Events 1252 - Pope Innocent IV issues the Papal bull Ad exstirpanda, which authorizes but also limits the Year 1934 ( MCMXXXIV) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. on July 5, 1934, San Francisco's "Big Strike" led to the killing of two workers and the clubbing and gassing of hundreds in what became known as "Bloody Thursday" and swept most of the California unions into the 1934 West Coast Waterfront Strike. Events 1295 - Scotland and France form an alliance the beginnings of the Auld Alliance, against England. Year 1934 ( MCMXXXIV) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The 1934 West Coast Waterfront Strike (also known as the 1934 West Coast Longshoremen's Strike, as well as a number of variations on these names lasted eighty-three days triggered The Maritime Federation of the Pacific was organized in 1935.
San Francisco in the late 1930s had 120,000 union members. Longshoreman wore union buttons on their white union made caps, Teamsters drove trucks as unionists, fishermen, taxi drivers, streetcar conductors, motormen, newsboys, retail clerks, hotel employees, newspapermen and bootlacks all had representation. Against 30,000 trade union members in 1933-34, Los Angeles by the late thirties 200,000, even against a severe 1938 anti-picketing ordinance. But Los Angeles became unionized in the mass production industries of aircraft, auto, rubber, oil and at the yards of San Pedro. San Pedro is a beach community within Los Angeles California, USA Later, drives for unionization spread through musicians, teamsters, building trades, movies, actors, writers and directors.
Farm labor remained unorganized, the work brutal and underpaid. In the 1930s, 200,000 farm laborers traveled the state in tune with the seasons. Unions were accused of an "inland march" against landowners rights when they took up the early effort to organize farm labor. A number of valley towns endorsed anti-picketing ordinances to thwart organizing. In the 1933-1934 period, a wave of agricultural strikes flooded the central valley, including the Imperial Valley lettuce strike and San Joaquin Valley cotton strike. In the 1936 Salinas lettuce strike, vigilante violence shocked the nation. Again, in the spring of 1938, about three hundred men, women and children were driven by vigilantes from their homes in Grass Valley and Nevada City.
A 1938 ballot proposition against picketing, "Proposition #1," considered fascist by commentators for the state grange, became a huge political struggle. Proposition #1 failed at the polls. Soon, racist distinctions fell as California unions began to admit non-white members.
By the advent of World War II, California had an old-age assistance law, unemployment compensation, a 48 hour work week maximum for women, an apprentice law, and workplace safety rules. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including
Beginning at the turn of the twentieth century, there were several feats of engineering in Californian history. The twentieth century of the Common Era began on Among many, the first major engineering was in mining, building and railroads. Much later, the Los Angeles Aqueduct, which runs from the Owens Valley, through the Mojave Desert and its Antelope Valley, to dry Los Angeles far to the south. There are two Los Angeles Aqueducts, the First Los Angeles Aqueduct (or the Owens Valley aqueduct) (completed 1913 and the Second Los Angeles Aqueduct Owens Valley is the arid valley of the Owens River in southeastern California in the United States. For the indigenous American tribe see Mohave. The Mojave Desert (moʊˈhɑːvi or /məˈhɑːvi/ ( Hayikwiir Mat'aar in Mojave The Antelope Valley in California, United States is located in northern Los Angeles County and the southeastern portion of Kern County Finished in 1911, it was the brain-child of the self-taught William Mulholland and is still in use today. William Mulholland ( September 11 1855 &ndash July 22 1935) was a water-services Engineer in Southern California, Creeks flowing from the eastern Sierra are diverted into the aqueduct. This attracted controversy in the 1960s, since this withholds water from Mono Lake — an especially otherworldly and beautiful ecosystem — and from farmers in the Owens Valley. Mono Lake is an Alkaline and hypersaline lake in California, United States that is a critical nesting habitat for several bird species and is Owens Valley is the arid valley of the Owens River in southeastern California in the United States. See also California Water Wars. The California Water Wars describes the disputes between Los Angeles, California and the Owens Valley over Water rights The disputes
Other feats are the building of Hoover Dam (which is in Nevada, but provides power and water to Southern California), Hetch Hetchy Reservoir, Shasta Dam, and the California Aqueduct, taking water from northern California to dry and sprawling southern California. Hoover Dam, also sometimes known as Boulder Dam, is a Concrete Arch-gravity dam in the Black Canyon of the Colorado River, on the History The name "Hetch Hetchy" comes from a grass with edible seeds that grows in the valley in the Native American Sierra Miwok language. Shasta Dam is a curved gravity concrete Dam (National ID No CA10186 on the Sacramento River above Redding California near Shasta Lake City The California Aqueduct is a 444  Mile  (715  km)-long Aqueduct in the United States Another project was the draining of Lake Tulare, which, during high water was the largest fresh-water lake inside an American state. Tulare Lake is an extinct fresh-water Lake that was formerly the largest in the Western United States. This created a large wet area amid the dry San Joaquin Valley and swamps abounded at its shores. The San Joaquin Valley (ˌsæn wɑːˈkiːn refers to the area of the Central Valley of California that lies south of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta By the 1970s, it was completely drained, but it attempts to resurrect itself during heavy rains.
Automobile travel became important after 1910. A key route was the Lincoln Highway, which was America's first transcontinental road for motorized vehicles, connecting New York City to San Francisco. The Lincoln Highway was the first automobile road across America. The creation of the Lincoln Highway in 1913 was a major stimulus on the development of both industry and tourism in the state. Similar effects occurred in 1926 with the creation of Route 66. US Route 66 (also known as the Will Rogers Highway after the humorist, and colloquially known as the "Main Street of America" or the "Mother
In the 1920s, oil was discovered, first near Newhall, in northern Los Angeles County. Newhall is the southernmost and oldest district of Santa Clarita California. Los Angeles County is a county in California and is by far the most populous county in the United States. Soon, more oil was found all over the L. A. Basin and other parts of California. It soon became the most profitable industry in the southern part of the state.
The first decades of the twentieth century saw the rise of the studio system. A movie studio (aka film studio) is in the established sense of the term a company that distributes films. MGM, Universal and Warner Brothers all acquired land in Hollywood, which was then a small subdivision known as "Hollywoodland" on the outskirts of Los Angeles. Universal Studios (sometimes called Universal Pictures or Universal City Studios) a subsidiary of NBC Universal, is a major Global American Warner Bros Entertainment Inc (or Warner Bros, Warner Bros Pictures) is one of the world's largest producers of Film and
Soon, Americans from all over the country, especially the Midwest, were attracted to the mild Mediterranean climate, cheap land, and a wide variety of geography within a short drive by truck. Many westerns of this era were shot in the Owens Valley, east of the Sierra Nevada mountain range, wherein rises Mount Whitney, the tallest mountain in the contiguous United States. Owens Valley is the arid valley of the Owens River in southeastern California in the United States. Mount Whitney is the highest summit in the Contiguous United States with an elevation of. Desert movies were shot in the Mojave or in Death Valley, the lowest point and hottest place in the western hemisphere. Death Valley is the lowest driest and hottest Valley in the United States. Pirate movies were shot in Carmel. Winter movies were shot in the San Bernardino Mountains. Movies set in the Mediterranean or the eastern U. S. were shot on location, or in outdoor sets on studio land, with simulated rain or snow as needed.
By the 1930s the show-biz population had extended its reach into radio, and by mid-century Southern California had also become a major center of television production, hosting studios for major networks such as NBC and CBS. In the 1934 Governor's election, novelist Upton Sinclair was the narrowly defeated Democratic nominee, running on the programme of the socialist EPIC Movement, a radical response to the Great Depression. The Governor of California is the highest executive authority in the state government whose responsibilities include making annual "State of the State" addresses Upton Beall Sinclair Jr ( September 20, 1878 &ndash November 25, 1968) was a Pulitzer Socialism refers to a broad set of economic theories of social organization advocating state or collective ownership and administration of the Means of production and distribution Short for End Poverty in California, EPIC was an effort for well-known Muckraking writer and former Socialist Upton Sinclair to implement
During World War II, California's mild climate became a major resource for the war effort. Numerous air-training bases were established in Southern California, where most aircraft manufacturers, including Douglas Aircraft and Hughes Aircraft expanded or established factories. The Douglas Aircraft Company was an American Aerospace manufacturer, based in Long Beach California. Hughes Aircraft Company was a major aerospace and defense company founded by Howard Hughes. Major naval, shipyards were established or expanded in San Diego, Long Beach and San Francisco Bay. Long Beach is a city located in southern California, USA, on the Pacific coast San Francisco was the home of the liberty ships. History and service In 1936 the American Merchant Marine Act was passed to subsidize the annual construction of 50 commercial merchant vessels to be used in wartime by
After the war, hundreds of land developers bought land cheap, subdivided it, built on it, and got rich. Real-estate development replaced oil and agriculture as Southern California's principal industry. In 1955, Disneyland opened in Anaheim. In 1958, Major League Baseball's Dodgers and Giants left New York City and came to Los Angeles and San Francisco, respectively. The Los Angeles Dodgers are a Major League Baseball team based in Los Angeles California, USA The San Francisco Giants are a Major League Baseball team based in, that currently play in the National League West Division. The population of California expanded dramatically, to nearly 20 million by 1970. This was the coming-of-age of the baby boom. A baby boom is any period of greatly increased birth rate during a certain period and usually within certain geographical bounds and when the birth rate exceeds 2% of the population
In the late 1960s the baby-boom generation reached draft age, and many risked arrest to oppose the war in Vietnam. The Vietnam War, also known as the Second Indochina War, or the Vietnam Conflict, occurred in Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia There were numerous demonstrations and strikes, most famously on the prestigious Berkeley campus of the University of California, across the bay from San Francisco. The University of California Berkeley (also referred to as Cal, Berkeley and UC Berkeley) is a major research university located in Berkeley The University of California ( UC) is a Public university system in the state of California. In 1965, race riots erupted in Watts, in the South-Central area of Los Angeles. The term Watts Riots refers to a large-scale Race riot which lasted six days in the Watts neighborhood of Los Angeles California, in August The hippie riots on the Sunset Strip in Los Angeles were also immortalized by the Buffalo Springfield in "For What It's Worth. " (1966). Some commentators predicted revolution. Then the federal government promised to withdraw from the Vietnam War, which at last happened in 1974. The Vietnam War, also known as the Second Indochina War, or the Vietnam Conflict, occurred in Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia Year 1974 ( MCMLXXIV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. The radical political movements, having achieved a large part of their aim, lost members and funding.
California still was a land of free spirits, open hearts, easy-going living. Popular music of the period bore titles such as "California Girls", "California Dreamin'", "San Francisco", "Do You Know the Way to San Jose?" and "Hotel California". " California Dreamin' " is a song by The Mamas & the Papas, first released in 1965. " Do You Know the Way to San José " is a popular song by Burt Bacharach and Hal David, which was written specifically for Dionne Warwick. " Hotel California " is the title song from the Eagles ' album of the same name and was released as a single in early 1977 These reflected the Californian promise of easy living in a paradisiacal climate. The surfing culture burgeoned. Surfing is a surface water sport in which the participant is carried along the face of a breaking wave, most commonly using a Surfboard, although wave-riders Many took low-paying jobs and joined the surfers living in trailers at the beach and many others forsook ambition and joined the hippies free living in cities.
The most famous hippie hangout was the Haight-Ashbury district of San Francisco. Haight-Ashbury is a district of San Francisco, California, US, named for the intersection of Haight and Ashbury Streets The state's cities, especially San Francisco, became famous for their gentility and tolerance. A distinctive and idyllic Californian culture emerged for a time. The peak of this culture, in 1967, was known as the Summer of Love. Year 1967 ( MCMLXVII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. This article refers to the summer of 1967 For the film of a similar name please go to My Summer of Love. California became known elsewhere in the U. S. often derogatorily, and with envy as the "land of fruits and nuts," but Californians themselves knew this as a pleasant life.
Conversely, during the same period, the Golden State also attracted commercial and industrial expansion of astronomical rates. The adoption of a Master Plan for Higher Education in 1960 allowed the development of a highly efficient system of public education in the Community Colleges and the University of California and California State University systems; by creating an educated workforce, it attracted investment, particularly in areas related to high technology. The California Master Plan for Higher Education of 1960 was developed by Clark Kerr during the administration of Governor Pat Brown. The University of California ( UC) is a Public university system in the state of California. History Today's California State University system is the direct descendant of the California State Normal School (now San José State University) a By 1980, California became recognized as the world's eighth-largest economy. Millions of workers were needed to fuel the expansion. The high population of the time caused tremendous problems with urban sprawl, traffic, pollution, and, to a lesser extent, crime.
Urban sprawl created a backlash in many urban areas, with the local governments limiting growth beyond certain boundaries, reducing lot sizes for building homes, and so on. Open Space Districts were created in several parts of the state specifically to obtain, manage, and preserve undeveloped land. For example, in the San Francisco Bay Area, the open space districts have created a nearly contiguous range of permanently undeveloped land running through the coastal range and hills surrounding the Bay's urban valleys, enabling the creation of huge natural parks and envisioning a hiking trail that will eventually circumnavigate the Bay in an unbroken loop. The San Francisco Bay Area, commonly known as the Bay Area, or the Bay, is a geographically and ethnically diverse metropolitan region that surrounds the
The immense problem with air pollution (smog) that had developed by the early 1970s also caused a backlash. Air pollution is the human introduction into the atmosphere of Chemicals Particulate matter, or Biological materials that cause harm or discomfort Smog is a kind of Air pollution; the word "smog" is a Portmanteau of Smoke and Fog. With schools being closed routinely in urban areas for "smog days" when the ozone levels became too unhealthy and the hills surrounding urban areas seldom visible even within a mile, Californians were ready for changes. Over the next three decades, California enacted some of the strictest anti-smog regulations in the United States and has been a leader in encouraging nonpolluting strategies for various industries, including automobiles. For example, carpool lanes normally allow only vehicles with two/three or more occupants (whether the base number is two or three depends on what freeway you are on), but electric cars can use the lanes with only a single occupant. In Transportation engineering and Transportation planning, a high-occupancy vehicle lane (or HOV lane) is a lane reserved for Vehicles with An electric car is a type of alternative fuel Car that utilizes Electric motors and Motor controllers instead of an Internal combustion engine As a result, smog is significantly reduced from its peak, although local Air Quality Management Districts still monitor the air and generally encourage people to avoid polluting activities on hot days when smog is expected to be at its worst. Environmental engineering is the application of Science and Engineering principles to improve the environment (air water and/or land resources
Traffic and transportation remain a problem in urban areas. Solutions are implemented, but inevitably the implementation expense and the time required to plan, approve, and build infrastructure can't keep pace with the population growth. There have been some improvements. Carpool lanes have become common in urban areas, which are intended to encourage people to drive together rather than in individual automobiles. In Transportation engineering and Transportation planning, a high-occupancy vehicle lane (or HOV lane) is a lane reserved for Vehicles with San Jose is gradually building a light rail system (ironically, often over routes of an original turn-of-the-century electric railroad line that was torn out and paved over to encourage the advent of the automobile age). For specific light rail systems many of which use the words "light rail" as part of their name see List of light-rail transit systems. None of the implemented solutions are without their critics. The sprawling nature of the Bay Area and of the Los Angeles Basin makes it difficult to build mass transit that can reach and serve a significant portion of the population.
In the 1970s, the end of the wars in southeast Asia inspired a new wave of newcomers from those countries, especially Viet Nam, many of whom settled in California. This article is about the Decade 1970-1979 For the Year 1970 see 1970. Most worked hard and lived under difficult circumstances. Little Saigons were established in Westminster and Garden Grove in Orange County. This article deals exclusively with the Vietnamese communities within the United States of America; for other communities outside Vietnam refer to the Overseas Vietnamese Westminster is a city in Orange County, California, United States. Garden Grove is a city located in northern Orange County, California, United States.
During the 1960s, under the aegis of Chief Justice Roger J. Traynor, California became liberal and progressive, emphasizing the rights of defendants even as the crime rate soared. Roger John Traynor ( February 12, 1900 &ndash May 14, 1983) served as the 23rd Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of California from Traynor's term as Chief Justice (from 1964 to 1970) was marked by a number of firsts: California was the first state to create true strict liability in product liability cases, the first to allow the action of negligent infliction of emotional distress (NIED) even in the absence of physical injury to the plaintiff, and the first to allow bystanders to sue for NIED where the only physical injury was to a relative. Strict liability is a Legal doctrine that makes a person responsible for the damage and loss caused by his/her acts and omissions regardless of Culpability (or fault Product liability is the area of law in which manufacturers distributors suppliers retailers and others who make products available to the public are held responsible for the injuries The Tort of negligent infliction of emotional distress (NIED is a controversial legal theory and is not accepted in many United States Jurisdictions
Starting in the 1960s, California became a leader in family law. Family law is an area of the Law that deals with family-related issues and Domestic relations including but not limited to the nature of California was the first state to allow true no-fault divorce, with the passage of the Family Law Act of 1969. No-fault divorce is a Divorce in which the dissolution of a marriage requires neither a showing of wrong-doing of either party nor any evidentiary proceedings at all In 1994, the Legislature took family law out of the Civil Code and created a new Family Code. In 2002, the Legislature granted registered domestic partners the same rights under state law as married spouses (although domestic partners are still treated as unmarried cohabitants for many purposes by federal law).
Since the mid-1980s, the California Supreme Court has become more conservative, particularly with regard to the rights of criminal defendants. This is commonly seen as a reaction against the strict anti-death penalty stance of Chief Justice Rose Bird in the early 1980s, which she maintained even as violent crime soared to record heights statewide. Capital punishment, the death penalty or execution, is the Killing of a person by judicial process as Punishment. Rose Elizabeth Bird ( November 2, 1936 &ndash December 4, 1999) served for 10 years as the 25th Chief Justice (and first female Justice & only A violent crime or crime of violence is a Crime in which the offender uses or threatens to use violent force upon the victim The state's outraged electorate responded by removing her (and two of her anti-death penalty allies) from the court in November of 1986.
Starting in the 1950s, high technology companies in Northern California began a spectacular growth that continued through the end of the century. Northern California is the northern portion of the US state of California. The major products included personal computers, video games, and networking systems. A personal computer ( PC) is any Computer whose original sales price size and capabilities make it useful for individuals and which is intended to be operated A video game is a Game that involves interaction with a User interface to generate visual feedback on a video device. A computer network is a group of interconnected Computers. Networks may be classified according to a wide variety of characteristics The majority of these companies settled along a highway stretching from Palo Alto to San Jose, notably including Santa Clara and Sunnyvale, California, all in the Santa Clara Valley, the so-called "Silicon Valley," named after the material used to produce the integrated circuits of the era. Palo Alto (ˌpæloʊˈæltoʊ from Spanish: palo: "stick" and alto: "high" i Santa Clara California (ˌsæntəˈklærə founded in 1777 and incorporated in 1852 is a city in Santa Clara County, in the U Sunnyvale ( or) is a city in Santa Clara County, California, United States. See Silicon Valley for a discussion of the technological aspects of the Santa Clara Valley For the valley nicknamed "Silicone Valley" see San Fernando Valley. Microchipsjpg|right|thumb|200px|Microchips ( EPROM memory with a transparent window showing the integrated circuit inside This era peaked in 2000, by which time demand for skilled technical professionals had become so high that the high-tech industry had trouble filling all of its positions and therefore pushed for increased visa quotas so that they could recruit from overseas. 2000 ( MM) was a Leap year that started on Saturday of the Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. When the "Dot-Com bubble" burst in 2001, jobs evaporated overnight and, for the first time over the next two years, more people moved out of the area than moved in. This somewhat mirrored the collapse of the aerospace industry in southern California some twenty years earlier. This article is about the field of research and industry for the corporation see The Aerospace Corporation Aerospace comprises the
By 2004, it seemed that many of the coveted high-tech jobs were either "off-shored" to India at ten percent of the labor costs in the U. S. , or "on-shored" by recruiting newcomers from among the billions in India and China. New laws have removed caps to visas, especially since the adoption of NAFTA. Tens of millions of people from the third world have entered the U. Third World is a name given to nations that are generally considered to be underdeveloped economically S. since 1960, settling at first mainly in California and the Southwest, but now throughout the continent. In 1960 (when the birth rate nearly equaled the replacement rate) the population of the U. S. was 180 million; in 2000, it was 280 million.
Although air pollution problems have been reduced, health problems associated with pollution have continued. The brown haze known as "smog," has been substantially abated, however, asthma continues as a problem. Smog is a kind of Air pollution; the word "smog" is a Portmanteau of Smoke and Fog. Pollution from storm water drains began to kill organisms near the inhabited seacoast, inspiring numerous conservation organizations. Lagoons at creek mouths along the coast disappeared under urban building projects, leading to restrictions on coastal development.
Electric power supply became an occasional issue. For example, in the spring and summer of 2000, rolling blackouts were used by electricity providers such as Southern California Edison and Pacific Gas and Electric Company to prevent demand from exceeding supply. A rolling blackout, also referred to as load shedding, is an intentionally-engineered electrical Power outage. Southern California Edison (or SCE Corp the largest subsidiary of Edison International ( is the primary electricity supply company for much of Southern California For the 1970s rock music band see Pacific Gas & Electric (band. In the 1990s, a phylloxera epidemic came into California vineyards, killing wine grapes, and causing billions of dollars of damage. This article is about the grape phylloxera For the Genus, see Phylloxera (genus.
Still, the ongoing demand for skilled workers over the decades continued. Housing prices in urban areas continued to increase, with reversals during times of economic slow-down. An average home that, in the 1960s, cost $25,000, cost half a million dollars or more in urban areas by 2005. More people commuted longer hours to afford a home in more rural areas while earning larger salaries in the urban areas. This pattern began to change in 2007, when housing prices began to decline. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century.
In the 2002 gubernatorial campaign, Democratic incumbent Gray Davis defeated Republican challenger Bill Simon. A governor is a governing official usually the executive (at least nominally to different degrees also politically and administratively of a non-sovereign level of government The Democratic Party is one of two major Political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. Joseph Graham Davis Jr (born December 26 1942 better known as Gray Davis, is an American politician who served as California 's 37th Governor William Edward Simon Jr (born June 20, 1951) best known as Bill Simon, is an American Businessman and Politician
On October 7, 2003, Davis was successfully recalled, with 55. Events 3761 BC - The epoch (origin of the modern Hebrew calendar ( Proleptic Julian calendar) Year 2003 ( MMIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. 4% of the voters supporting the recall (see results of the 2003 California recall). The 2003 California recall election was a special Election permitted under California law With a plurality of 48. 6% of the vote, Republican Arnold Schwarzenegger was chosen as the new governor. Arnold Alois Schwarzenegger ( German ˌaɐnɔlt aloʏs ˈʃvaɐtsənɛɡɐ born July 30 1947 is an Austrian American Bodybuilder, Actor Lieutenant Governor Cruz Bustamante received 31. Cruz Miguel Bustamante (born January 4 1953 is an American Politician. 5% of the vote, and Republican State Senator Tom McClintock received 13. Thomas Miller McClintock II (born July 10, 1956, in White Plains, New York) is a California State Senator, representing the 19th 5% of the vote.
Schwarzenegger began his shortened term with a soaring approval rating and soon after began implementing a conservative agenda. This initially resulted in sparring with the heavily Democratic Assembly and Senate over the state budget, battles which provided his infamous "girly men" comment but also began taking their toll on his approval rating. Schwarzenegger then embarked on a campaign to enact several ballot propositions in a 2005 Special Election touted as reforming California's budget system, redistricting powers, and union political fundraising. The union-led campaign spearheaded by the California Nurses Association contributed heavily to the defeat of every proposition in the Special Election. Since this conspicuous failure, Schwarzenegger has made a turn back to the left, criticizing the Bush Administration at many junctures, reviving his environmental agenda, and compromising with the legislature on the traditionally Democratic issue of education spending. His approval rating has also been revived, and he was re-elected in 2006.