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History of Bosnia and Herzegovina
This is a history of Bosnia and Herzegovina. the boundaries of today’s Bosnia and Herzegovina there have been many layers of prehistoric cultures whose creation and disappearance are linked to migrations of unidentified ethnic groups The Byzantines restored control over Bosnia at the end of 10th century but not for long as it was soon taken by Emperor Samuil of Bulgaria. The arrival of the Ottoman Turks marked a new era in Bosnian history Though an Austro-Hungarian occupying force quickly subjugated initial armed resistance upon take-over in Bosnia and Herzegovina, tensions remained Following the war Bosnia was incorporated into the South Slav kingdom of Serbs Croats and Slovenes (soon renamed Yugoslavia Once the kingdom of Yugoslavia was conquered by Nazi forces in World War II, all of Bosnia was ceded to the Nazi-puppet state of Croatia. Because of its central geographic position within the Yugoslavian federation post-war Bosnia was strategically selected as a base for the development of the military defense industry The War in Bosnia and Herzegovina, commonly known as the Bosnian War, was an international armed conflict that took place between March 1992 and November 1995 Bosnia and Herzegovina ( Latin script: Bosna i Hercegovina, Cyrillic script: Босна и Херцеговина is a country on the Balkan Culture of Bosnia and Herzegovina encompasses Ancient cultural heritage To Paleolithic times (c This article is a list of rulers of Bosnia This is a list of prominent people from Bosnia and Herzegovina (including Bosniaks, Croats, Serbs, and others Arts Literature Demographic data from the CIA World Factbook Population 4552198 (July 2007 est Ethnic Bosnians are people of Bosnian origin or people who were born or live in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and identify themselves as Bosnian not This page discusses the Economy of Bosnia and Herzegovina since Bosnia and Herzegovina's declaration of sovereignty in October 1991 and the declaration of independence Structure See also Chiefs of Joint Staff of the Armed Forces of Bosnia-Herzegovina Chairman of the Joint Staff - Lt The modern Bosniaks, often referred to as Bosnian Muslims, descend from Slavic converts to Islam in the 15th and 16th centuries that lived in the medieval Bosnian Kingdom The independent history of the Orthodox Church in Bosnia and Herzegovina goes back to 1219 when the Eparchy of Zahumlje and Herzegovina was founded as part of the The Roman Catholic Church in Bosnia and Herzegovina is part of the worldwide Roman Catholic Church, under the spiritual leadership of the Pope and The Jewish community of Bosnia and Herzegovina has a rich and varied history surviving World War II and the Yugoslav Wars, after having History is the study of the past particularly the written record Those who study history as a Profession are called Historians Etymology Bosnia and Herzegovina ( Latin script: Bosna i Hercegovina, Cyrillic script: Босна и Херцеговина is a country on the Balkan
Bosnia has been inhabited at least since Neolithic times. the boundaries of today’s Bosnia and Herzegovina there have been many layers of prehistoric cultures whose creation and disappearance are linked to migrations of unidentified ethnic groups The Neolithic (from Greek νεολιθικός — neolithikos from νέος neos, "new" + λίθος lithos in the late Bronze Age, the Neolithic population was replaced by more warlike Indo-European tribes known as the Illyres or Illyrians. The term Bronze Age refers to a period in human cultural development when the most advanced Metalworking (at least in systematic and widespread use included techniques for Illyrians has come to refer to a broad ill-defined " Indo-European " group of peoples who inhabited the western Balkans ( Illyria, roughly Celtic migrations in the 4th and 3rd century BCE displaced many Illyrian tribes from their former lands, but some Celtic and Illyrian tribes mixed. Celts (ˈkɛlts or /ˈsɛlts/, see Names of the Celts The 4th century BC started the first day of 400 BC and ended the last day of 301 BC. The 3rd century BC started the first day of 300 BC and ended the last day of 201 BC  Concrete historical evidence for this period is scarce, but overall it appears that the region was populated by a number of different peoples speaking distinct languages.  Conflict between the Illyrians and Romans started in 229 BCE, but Rome wouldn't complete its annexation of the region until 9 CE. Ancient Rome was a Civilization that grew out of a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 10th century BC In the Roman period, Latin-speaking settlers from all over the Roman empire settled among the Illyrians and Roman soldiers were encouraged to retire in the region. The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial
Christianity had already arrived in the region by the end of the 1st century, and numerous artifacts and objects from the time testify to this. Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings Following events from the years 337 and 395 when the Empire split, Dalmatia and Pannonia were included in the Western Roman Empire. The Western Roman Empire refers to the western half of the Roman Empire, from its division by Diocletian in 285 the other half of the Roman Empire was the Eastern The region was conquered by the Ostrogoths in 455, and further exchanged hands between the Alans and Huns in the years to follow. The Ostrogoths (Ostrogothi or Austrogothi were a branch of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe that played a major role in the political events of the late The Alans or Alani (occasionally but more rarely termed Alauni or Halani) were an Iranian nomadic group among the Sarmatian people The Huns were an early confederation of Central Asian equestrian nomads or semi-nomads with a Turkic core of aristocracy By the 6th century, Emperor Justinian had re-conquered the area for the Byzantine Empire. Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus ( Greek: Φλάβιος Πέτρος Σαββάτιος Ιουστινιανός; known in English as Justinian I or The Slavs, a migratory people from northeastern Europe, were subjugated by the Eurasian Avars in the 6th century, and together they invaded the Eastern Roman Empire in the 6th and 7th centuries, settling in what is now Bosnia and Herzegovina and the surrounding lands. The Caucasian Avars are a modern people of Caucasus, mainly of Dagestan.  More South Slavs (namely Croats and Serbs) came in a second wave, and according to some scholars were invited by Emperor Heraclius to drive the Avars from Dalmatia. Heraclius, or Herakleios (Flavius Heraclius Augustus;) (c 575 - February 11, 641) was a Byzantine Emperor, who ruled the East 
Modern knowledge of the in the west Balkans during the dark ages is patchy. The Byzantines restored control over Bosnia at the end of 10th century but not for long as it was soon taken by Emperor Samuil of Bulgaria. This article is about the phrase "Dark Age(s" as a characterization of the Early Middle Ages in Western Europe Upon their arrival, the Slavs brought with them a tribal social structure, which probably fell apart and gave way to feudalism only with Frankish penetration into the region in the late 9th century (Bosnia probably originated as one such pre-feudal Slavic entity). Feudalism, a term first used in the early modern period (17th century in its most classic sense refers to a Medieval Europe Political system composed The Franks or Frankish people (Franci or gens Francorum) were West Germanic tribes first identified in the 3rd century as an Ethnic group  It was also around this time that the south Slavs were Christianized. Bosnia, due to its geographic position and terrain, was probably one of the last areas to go through this process, which presumably originated from the urban centers along the Dalmatian coast. Dalmatia ( Croatian: Dalmacija, see names in other languages) is a region on the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea, situated mostly in modern  The region of Bosnia had been part of the kingdoms of Serbia and Croatia, whose borders were often fluctuant. Serbia (Србија Srbija) officially the Republic of Serbia (Република Србија Republika Srbija) is a Landlocked Country Croatia (Hrvatska ˈxȓvatska officially the Republic of Croatia ( Republika Hrvatska) is a southern Central European country at the crossroads between However, by the high middle ages Croatia had been acquired by the Hungarian Kingdom, and the Serbian state to the southeast was in a period of stagnation. The High Middle Ages was the period of European history in the 11th 12th and 13th centuries (AD 1000&ndash1299 Control over Bosnia subsequently was contested between the Kingdom of Hungary and the Byzantine empire, with the Byzantines initially claiming it. The Kingdom of Hungary (short form Hungary) was a considerable state in Central Europe that existed from 1001 to 1918 then from 1919 to 1946 Following the death of the Byzantine Emperor, Hungary appointed a Ban, one Kulin, to rule the province under vassalage. However, this vassalage was largely nominal.
The first notable Bosnian ruler, Ban Kulin, presided over nearly three decades of peace and stability during which he strengthened the country's economy through treaties with Dubrovnik and Venice. Ban Kulin (1163 &ndash 1204 was a powerful Bosnian Ban who ruled from 1180 to 1204 first as a Vassal The Republic of The Most Serene Republic of Venice ((Serenìsima Repùblica Vèneta or Repùblica de Venesia Serenissima Repubblica His rule also marked the start of a controversy with the Bosnian Church, an indigenous Christian sect considered heretical by both the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches. The Bosnian Church ( crkva bosanska, ecclesia bosniensis) seems to have been a Catholic monastic order that separated itself from the wider Church possibly over the The Eastern Orthodox Church is the second largest single Christian Communion in the world In response to Hungarian attempts to use church politics regarding the issue as a way to reclaim sovereignty over Bosnia, Kulin held a council of local church leaders to renounce the heresy in 1203. Despite this, Hungarian ambitions remained unchanged long after Kulin's death in 1204, waning only after an unsuccessful invasion in 1254.
Bosnian history from then until the early 14th century was marked by the power struggle between the Šubić and Kotromanić families. The Šubić were one of the twelve tribes which constituted Croatian statehood in the Middle Ages they held the county of Bribir (Varvaria in The Kotromanić dynasty is a Bosnian ruling house that ruled in the regions of Bosnia and the surrounding lands from the 13th century as Bans until the This conflict came to an end in 1322, when Stjepan II Kotromanić became ban. Stephen II Kotromanić of Bosnia ( Bosnian and language|Croatian] Stjepan II Kotromanić, Serbian: Стефан II Котроманић) By the time of his death in 1353, he had succeeded in annexing territories to the north and west, as well as Zahumlje and parts of Dalmatia. He was succeeded by his nephew Tvrtko who, following a prolonged struggle with nobility and inter-family strife, gained full control of the country in 1367. Stephen Tvrtko I ( Bosnian, Croatian: Stjepan Tvrtko; Serbian: Stefan Tvrtko, Cyrillic: Стефан (1338 Under Tvrtko, Bosnia grew in both size and power, finally becoming an independent kingdom in 1377. Following his death in 1391 however, Bosnia fell into a long period of decline. The Ottoman Empire had already started its conquest of Europe and posed a major threat to the Balkans throughout the first half of the 15th century. The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish The wars of the Ottoman Empire in Europe are also sometimes referred to as the Ottoman Wars or as Turkish Wars, particularly in older European Finally, after decades of political and social instability, Bosnia officially fell in 1463. Herzegovina would follow in 1482, with a Hungarian-backed reinstated "Bosnian Kingdom" being the last to succumb in 1527.
The Ottoman conquest of Bosnia marked a new era in the country's history and introduced tremendous changes in the political and cultural landscape of the region. Although the kingdom had been crushed and its high nobility executed, the Ottomans nonetheless allowed for the preservation of Bosnia's identity by incorporating it as an integral province of the Ottoman Empire with its historical name and territorial integrity - a unique case among subjugated states in the Balkans.  Within this sandžak (and eventual vilayet) of Bosnia, the Ottomans introduced a number of key changes in the territory's socio-political administration; including a new landholding system, a reorganization of administrative units, and a complex system of social differentiation by class and religious affiliation. Sanjak and Sandjak (other variants sinjaq sanjaq) are the most common English transcriptions of the Turkish word sancak A wilāyah (ولاية or vilâyet (in Persian and Ottoman Turkish) is an administrative division usually 
The four centuries of Ottoman rule also had a drastic impact on Bosnia's population make-up, which changed several times as a result of the empire's conquests, frequent wars with European powers, migrations, and epidemics.  A native Slavic-speaking Muslim community emerged and eventually became the largest of the ethno-religious groups (mainly as a result of a gradually rising number of conversions to Islam), while a significant number of Sephardi Jews arrived following their expulsion from Spain in the late 15th century. For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. Sephardi Jews ( Hebrew: ספרדי, Standard Səfardi Tiberian Səp̄arədî; plural The Spanish Inquisition started and was established in 1478 by Catholic Monarchs Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile to maintain The Bosnian Christian communities also experienced major changes. The Bosnian Franciscans (and the Catholic population as a whole) were protected by official imperial decree, although on the ground these guarantees were often disregarded and their numbers dwindled. The term Franciscan is commonly used to refer to members of Catholic As a Christian Ecclesiastical term Catholic —from the Greek adjective, meaning "general" or "universal"—is described  The Orthodox community in Bosnia, initially confined to Herzegovina and Podrinje, spread throughout the country during this period and went on to experience relative prosperity until the 19th century. The Eastern Orthodox Church is the second largest single Christian Communion in the world  Meanwhile, the schismatic Bosnian Church disappeared altogether.
As the Ottoman Empire thrived and expanded into Central Europe, Bosnia was relieved of the pressures of being a frontier province and experienced a prolonged period of general welfare and prosperity.  A number of cities, such as Sarajevo and Mostar, were established and grew into major regional centers of trade and urban culture. Demographics 1971 Croats - 37782 (396% Bosniaks ( ie Bosnian Muslims - 33645 (36 Within these cities, various Sultans and governors financed the construction of many important works of Bosnian architecture (such as the Stari most and Gazi Husrev-beg's Mosque). Architecture of Bosnia and Herzegovina is largely influenced by 4 major periods where political and social changes influenced the creation of distinct cultural and architectural Stari Most ( English translation "The Old Bridge" is a 16th century Turkish Bridge in the city of Mostar, Bosnia and The Gazi Husrev-Beg Mosque ( Bosnian: Gazi Husrev-begova Džamija, Turkish: Gazi Hüsrev Bey Camii) often referred to as the Beg's Furthermore, numerous Bosnians played influential roles in the Ottoman Empire's cultural and political history during this time.  Bosnian soldiers formed a large component of the Ottoman ranks in the battles of Mohács and Krbava field, two decisive military victories, while numerous other Bosnians rose through the ranks of the Ottoman military bureaucracy to occupy the highest positions of power in the Empire, including admirals, generals, and grand viziers. The Battle of Mohács (mohácsi csata or mohácsi vész/Bane of Mohács; Schlacht bei Mohács Mohačka bitka Мохачка битка/Mohačka bitka Bitka pri Moháči The Battle of Krbava field ( Krbavsko polje) Korbávmezei csata was fought between the Kingdom of Croatia and Ottoman forces on September 9  Many Bosnians also made a lasting impression on Ottoman culture, emerging as mystics, scholars, and celebrated poets in the Turkish, Arabic, and Persian languages. 
However, by the late 17th century the Empire's military misfortunes caught up with the country, and the conclusion of the Great Turkish War with the treaty of Karlowitz in 1699 once again made Bosnia the Empire's westernmost province. The Great Turkish War refers to a series of conflicts between the Ottoman Empire and contemporary European powers then joined into a Holy League The Treaty (Peace of Karlowitz (Karlovci was signed on January 26, 1699 in Sremski Karlovci ( Serbian Cyrillic: Сремски Карловци The following hundred years were marked by further military failures, numerous revolts within Bosnia, and several outbursts of plague.  The Porte's efforts at modernizing the Ottoman state were met with great hostility in Bosnia, where local aristocrats stood to lose much through the proposed reforms. When Selim III came to the throne in 1789 an ambitious effort of military reform was launched geared towards securing the Ottoman Empire.  This, combined with frustrations over political concessions to nascent Christian states in the east, culminated in a famous (albeit ultimately unsuccessful) revolt by Husein Gradaščević in 1831. Husein-kapetan Gradaščević ( August 31 1802 &ndash August 17, 1834) was a Bosniak general who  Related rebellions would be extinguished by 1850, but the situation continued to deteriorate. Later agrarian unrest eventually sparked the Herzegovinian rebellion, a widespread peasant uprising, in 1875. The Herzegovinian Rebellion of 1875 ( Serbian and Croatian: Hercegovački ustanak, Cyrillic: Херцеговачки устанак The conflict rapidly spread and came to involve several Balkan states and Great Powers, which eventually forced the Ottomans to cede administration of the country to Austria-Hungary through the treaty of Berlin in 1878. 
Though an Austro-Hungarian occupying force quickly subjugated initial armed resistance upon take-over, tensions remained in certain parts of the country (particularly Herzegovina) and a mass emigration of predominantly Muslim dissidents occurred. Though an Austro-Hungarian occupying force quickly subjugated initial armed resistance upon take-over in Bosnia and Herzegovina, tensions remained  However, a state of relative stability was reached soon enough and Austro-Hungarian authorities were able to embark on a number of social and administrative reforms which intended to make Bosnia and Herzegovina into a "model colony". This article is about a type of political territory For other uses see Colony (disambiguation.  With the aim of establishing the province as a stable political model that would help dissipate rising South Slav nationalism, Habsburg rule did much to codify laws, to introduce new political practices, and generally to provide for modernization. The term nationalism can refer to an Ideology, a sentiment, a form of Culture, or a Social movement that focuses on the Nation 
Although successful economically, Austro-Hungarian policy - which focused on advocating the ideal of a pluralist and multi-confessional Bosnian nation (largely favored by the Muslims) - failed to curb the rising tides of nationalism. A nation is a Human Cultural and Social Community. In as much as most members never meet each other yet feel a common bond it may be considered  The concept of Croat and Serb nationhood had already spread to Bosnia and Herzegovina's Catholics and Orthodox communities from neighboring Croatia and Serbia in the mid 19th century, and was too well-entrenched to allow for the wide-spread acceptance of a parallel idea of Bosnian nationhood.  By the latter half of the 1910s, nationalism was an integral factor of Bosnian politics, with national political parties corresponding to the three groups dominating elections.
The idea of a unified South Slavic state (typically expected to be spear-headed by independent Serbia) became a popular political ideology in the region at this time, including in Bosnia and Herzegovina. See also Kingdom of Yugoslavia, Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Yugoslavia ( Serbo-Croatian  The Austro-Hungarian government's decision to formally annex Bosnia-Herzegovina in 1908 (i. e. Bosnian Crisis) added to a sense of urgency among these nationalists. The Bosnian Crisis of 1908-1909 also known as the Annexation crisis, erupted into public view when on October 5, 1908, Bulgaria declared its independence  The political tensions caused by all this culminated on June 28, 1914, when Serb nationalist youth Gavrilo Princip assassinated the heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, Archduke Franz Ferdinand, in Sarajevo; an event that proved to be the spark that set off World War I. Events 1098 - Fighters of the First Crusade defeat Kerbogha of Mosul. Year 1914 ( MCMXIV) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Gavrilo Princip ( Cyrillic: Гаврило Принцип gaʋ'rilɔ 'prinʦip ( &ndash) was a Bosnian Serb and proclaimed himself to be a Yugoslav Franz Ferdinand ( December 18, 1863 &ndash June 28, 1914) was an Archduke of Austria-Este, Prince Imperial of World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All Although some Bosnians died serving in the armies of the various warring states, Bosnia and Herzegovina itself managed to escape the conflict relatively unscathed. 
Following World War I, Bosnia was incorporated into the South Slav kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (soon renamed Yugoslavia). Following the war Bosnia was incorporated into the South Slav kingdom of Serbs Croats and Slovenes (soon renamed Yugoslavia The Kingdom of Yugoslavia (Serbo-Croato-Slovene ie Serbo-Croatian, Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian, Slovene: Kraljevina Jugoslavija Political life in Bosnia at this time was marked by two major trends: social and economic unrest over property redistribution, and formation of several political parties that frequently changed coalitions and alliances with parties in other Yugoslav regions.  The dominant ideological conflict of the Yugoslav state, between Croatian regionalism and Serbian centralization, was approached differently by Bosnia's major ethnic groups and was dependent on the overall political atmosphere.  Although the initial split of the country into 33 oblasts erased the presence of traditional geographic entities from the map, the efforts of Bosnian politicians such as Mehmed Spaho ensured that the six oblasts carved up from Bosnia and Herzegovina corresponded to the six sanjaks from Ottoman times and, thus, matched the country's traditional boundary as a whole. Oblast (во́бласць oblast о́бласт oblast о́бласть област/ oblast; oblasť област о́бласть is a type of Administrative division Mehmed Spaho (born 1883 died 1939 in Sarajevo) was a prominent and influential Bosnian Muslim political figure 
The establishment of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in 1929, however, brought the redrawing of administrative regions into banates that purposely avoided all historical and ethnic lines, removing any trace of a Bosnian entity. The Kingdom of Yugoslavia (Serbo-Croato-Slovene ie Serbo-Croatian, Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian, Slovene: Kraljevina Jugoslavija  Serbo-Croat tensions over the structuring of the Yugoslav state continued, with the concept of a separate Bosnian division receiving little or no consideration. The famous Cvetković-Maček agreement that created the Croatian banate in 1939 encouraged what was essentially a partition of Bosnia between Croatia and Serbia. Dragiša Cvetković ( Serbian Cyrillic: Драгиша Цветковић ( 1893 - February 18 1969) was a Yugoslav Politician Vladko Maček ( June 20, 1879 &ndash May 15, 1964) was a Croatian politician from the first half of the 20th century  However, outside political circumstances forced Yugoslav politicians to shift their attention to the rising threat posed by Adolf Hitler's Nazi Germany. Hi and welcome to Wikipedia! Please understand that this article is frequently vandalized and vandalism is reverted immediately Nazi Germany and the Third Reich are the common English names for Germany under the regime of Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist German Workers Following a period that saw attempts at appeasement, the signing of the Tripartite Treaty, and a coup d'état, Yugoslavia was finally invaded by Germany on April 6, 1941. The Tripartite Treaty (1906 also refers to a 1906 treaty concerning the Nile river (see Hydropolitics in the Nile Basin. Events 46 BC - Julius Caesar defeats Caecilius Metellus Scipio and Marcus Porcius Cato in the Battle of Thapsus Year 1941 ( MCMXLI) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (the link will display 1941 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. 
Once the kingdom of Yugoslavia was conquered by Nazi forces in World War II, all of Bosnia was ceded to the Nazi-puppet state of Croatia. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including The Independent State of Croatia ( Croatian: Nezavisna Država Hrvatska, NDH was a Puppet state of the Axis powers. The Nazi rule over Bosnia led to widespread persecution. The Jewish population was nearly exterminated. Many Serbs in the area took up arms and joined the Chetniks; a Serb nationalist and royalist resistance movement that both conducted guerrilla warfare against the Nazis but also committed numerous atrocities against chiefly Bosnian Muslim civilians in regions under their control. The Chetnik movement or the Chetniks ( Serbian: Četnici, Cyrillic script: Четници were a Serbian -nationalist/ royalist Guerrilla warfare is the unconventional warfare and combat with which a small group of combatants use mobile tactics (ambushes raids etc  Consequently, several Bosnian Muslim paramilitary units joined the Axis powers to counter their own persecution in the hands of the Serbs in Bosnia.
Starting in 1941, Yugoslav communists under the leadership of Josip Broz Tito organized their own multi-ethnic resistance group, the partisans, who fought against both Axis and Chetnik forces. The Yugoslav Partisans, or simply the Partisans, ( Serbo-Croatian, Croatian, Serbian, Macedonian, Slovene: Partizani  On November 25, 1943 the Anti-Fascist Council of National Liberation of Yugoslavia with Tito at its helm held a founding conference in Jajce where Bosnia and Herzegovina was reestablished as a republic within the Yugoslavian federation in its Ottoman borders. Events 1034 - Máel Coluim mac Cináeda, King of Scots dies Donnchad, the Year 1943 ( MCMXLIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. AVNOJ ( Antifašističko V(ijeće Narodnog Oslobođenja Jugoslavije) standing for " Anti-Fascist Council of National Liberation of Yugoslavia " Jajce is a town and municipality located in the central part of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Military success eventually prompted the Allies to support the Partisans, and the end of the war resulted in the establishment of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, with the constitution of 1946 officially making Bosnia and Herzegovina one of six constituent republics in the new state. The Allies of World War II were the countries officially opposed to the Axis powers during the Second World War. The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia ( Serbo-Croatian, Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian, Slovene, Macedonian: The Constitution of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY was the supreme law of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and its predecessor the Federal 
Because of its central geographic position within the Yugoslavian federation, post-war Bosnia was strategically selected as a base for the development of the military defense industry. Because of its central geographic position within the Yugoslavian federation post-war Bosnia was strategically selected as a base for the development of the military defense industry This contributed to a large concentration of arms and military personnel in Bosnia; a significant factor in the war that followed the break-up of Yugoslavia in the 1990s. The War in Bosnia and Herzegovina, commonly known as the Bosnian War, was an international armed conflict that took place between March 1992 and November 1995  However, Bosnia's existence within Yugoslavia, for the large part, was peaceful and prosperous. Being one of the poorer republics in the early 1950s it quickly recovered economically, taking advantage of its extensive natural resources to stimulate industrial development. The Yugoslavian communist doctrine of "brotherhood and unity" particularly suited Bosnia's diverse and multi-ethnic society that, because of such an imposed system of tolerance, thrived culturally and socially. Brotherhood and unity ( Bratstvo i jedinstvo /Братство и јединство Братство и единство Bratstvo in enotnost Bashkim dhe Vëllazërim
Though considered a political backwater of the federation for much of the 50s and 60s, the 70s saw the ascension of a strong Bosnian political elite. While working within the communist system, politicians such as Džemal Bijedić, Branko Mikulić and Hamdija Pozderac reinforced and protected the sovereignty of Bosnia and Herzegovina  Their efforts proved key during the turbulent period following Tito's death in 1980, and are today considered some of the early steps towards Bosnian independence. Communism is a Socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless Society based Džemal Bijedić ( April 12, 1917 – January 18, 1977) was a Yugoslav Communist politician from Bosnia and Herzegovina Branko Mikulić ( June 10, 1928 - April 12, 1994) was a Communist politician and statesman in the Yugoslavia. Hamdija Pozderac (pronounced h'amdiya po'zděratz ( January 15, 1924 - April 7, 1988) was a Bosnian politician and the president However, the republic hardly escaped the increasingly nationalistic climate of the time unscathed. With the fall of communism and the start of the break-up of Yugoslavia, the old communist doctrine of tolerance began to lose its potency, creating an opportunity for nationalist elements in the society to spread their influence.
The 1990 parliamentary elections led to a national assembly dominated by three ethnically-based parties, which had formed a loose coalition to oust the communists from power. Croatia and Slovenia's subsequent declarations of independence and the warfare that ensued placed Bosnia and Herzegovina and its three constituent peoples in an awkward position. Slovenia, officially the Republic of Slovenia (Republika Slovenija) is a Country in southern Central Europe bordering Italy to the west A significant split soon developed on the issue of whether to stay with the Yugoslav federation (overwhelmingly favored among [(Serbs)] or seek independence (overwhelmingly favored among Bosniaks and Croats). A declaration of sovereignty in October of 1991 was followed by a referendum for independence from Yugoslavia in February and March 1992 boycotted by the great majority of Bosnian Serbs. With a voter turnout of 64%, 98% of which voted in favor of the proposal, Bosnia and Herzegovina became an independent state.  Following a tense period of escalating tensions and sporadic military incidents, open warfare began in Sarajevo on April 6. Events 46 BC - Julius Caesar defeats Caecilius Metellus Scipio and Marcus Porcius Cato in the Battle of Thapsus  International recognition of Bosnia and Herzegovina meant that the Yugoslav People's Army (JNA) officially withdrew from the republic's territory, although their Bosnian Serb members merely joined the Army of Republika Srpska. The Yugoslav People's Army (JNA YPA ( Serbo-Croatian, Croatian, Serbian, Macedonian: Jugoslavenska Narodna Armija or Jugoslovenska The Army of the Republika Srpska (Војска Републике Српске (ВРС Serbian, Bosnian, Croatian Vojska Republike Srpske Armed and equipped from JNA stockpiles in Bosnia, supported by volunteers, Republika Srpska's offensives in 1992 managed to place much of the country under its control.  By 1993, when an armed conflict erupted between the Sarajevo government and the Croat statelet of Herzeg-Bosnia, about 70% of the country was controlled by the Serbs. The Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia (Hrvatska Republika Herceg-Bosna was an unrecognised entity in Bosnia and Herzegovina that existed between 1991 and 1994 as a result of 
In March 1994, the signing of the Washington accords between the leaders of the republican government and Herzeg-Bosnia led to the creation of a joint Bosniak-Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina ( Federacija Bosne i Hercegovine Федерација Босне и Херцеговине) is one of the two political This, along with international outrage at Serb war crimes and atrocities (most notably the genocidal killing of 2,000 Bosniak males in Srebrenica in July, 1995). This article refers to Genocide during the 1992-1995 Bosnian War. To kill, killing or to have killed means to cause the Death of a Living Organism. Srebrenica ( Cyrillic: Сребреница srɛbrɛnitsa is a Town and municipality in the east of Bosnia and Herzegovina, in the Republika Srpska Srebrenica overall: 8000 Bosniaks and 4000 Serbs from begin of war. The signing of the Dayton Agreement in Paris by the presidents of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Alija Izetbegović), Croatia (Franjo Tuđman), and Yugoslavia (Slobodan Milošević) brought a halt to the fighting, roughly establishing the basic structure of the present-day state. The General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, also known as the Dayton Agreement, Dayton Accords, Paris Protocol Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city Alija Izetbegović (8 August 1925 &ndash 19 October 2003 was a Bosniak activist Lawyer, Author, Philosopher and Politician, who Franjo Tuđman ( May 14, 1922 - December 10, 1999. Tuđman was elected to the position of President of Croatia by the Parliament The three years of war and bloodshed had left between 95,000 and 100,000 people killed and more than 2 million displaced. 
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