|This article is part of the|
History of Algeria series
|Prehistoric Central North Africa|
|North Africa during the Classical Period|
|Medieval Muslim Algeria|
|Ottoman rule in Algeria|
|French rule in Algeria|
|Nationalism and resistance in Algeria|
|Algerian War of Independence|
|History of Algeria since the 1960s to the 1980s|
|Algerian Civil War (1990s)|
|2000s in Algeria (2000s)|
The fertile coastal plain of North Africa, especially west of Tunisia, is often called the Maghreb (or Maghrib). The cave Paintings found at Tassili-n-Ajjer, north of Tamanrasset, Algeria and at other locations depict vibrant and vivid scenes of everyday life in the central See also History of North Africa Carthage and the Berbers See also Carthage Phoenician traders arrived on the North African coast Medieval Muslim Algeria spans from the 600s to the 1600s Unlike the invasions of previous religions and cultures the coming of Islam, which was spread by Arabs At about the time Spain was establishing its Presidios in the Maghreb, the Muslim Privateer brothers Aruj and Khair French rule of Algeria lasted from 1830 to 1962 under a variety of governmental systems Algerian nationalism A new generation of Muslim leadership emerged in Algeria at the time of World War I and grew to maturity during the 1920s and 1930s The Algerian War ( French: Guerre d'Algérie; 1954-1962 also known as Algerian War of Independence, led to Algeria 's independence from History of the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, 1962&ndashpresent In preparation for independence the CNRA (Conseil National de la Révolution Algérienne The Algerian Civil War was an armed conflict between the Algerian government and various Islamist rebel groups which began in 1991 Algeria in the 2000s emerged from the civil war that plagued the nation in the 1990s. A coastal plain is an area of flat low-lying land adjacent to a seacoast and separated from the interior by other features North Africa or Northern Africa is the Northernmost Region of the African Continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Tunisia (تونس Tūnis officially the Tunisian Republic ( is a country located in North Africa. The Maghreb (المغرب العربي al-Maġrib al-ʿArabī) also rendered Maghrib (or rarely Moghreb) meaning "place of Sunset North Africa served as a transit region for people moving towards Europe or the Middle East. North Africa or Northern Africa is the Northernmost Region of the African Continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan The Middle East is a Subcontinent with no clear boundaries often used as a synonym to Near East, in opposition to Far East. Thus, the region's inhabitants have been influenced by populations from other areas. Out of this mix developed the Berber people, whose language and culture, although pushed from coastal areas by conquering and colonizing Carthaginians, Romans, and Byzantines, dominated most of the land until the spread of Islam and the coming of the Arabs. Berbers are the indigenous peoples of North Africa west of the Nile Valley. Carthage (Καρχηδών Karkhēdōn, Carthago from the Phoenician קרת חדשת phn-Latn Qart-ḥadašt meaning new town) refers Ancient Rome was a Civilization that grew out of a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 10th century BC For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. The araB gene Promoter is a bacterial promoter activated by e L-arabinose binding The most significant forces in the country's history have been the spread of Islam, Arabization, Ottoman and French colonization, and the struggle for independence. For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish Colonisation (also known as Colonization) occurs whenever any one or more species populates a new area Modern Algeria is mainly Arabic-speaking, but a large minority still speak the indigenous Berber language, surviving from Neolithic times. Algeria ( ar [[Arabic]] الجزائر, Al Jaza'ir ælʤæˈzæːʔir Amazigh: ⴷⵥⴰⵢⴻⵔ Dzayer) officially the People's Nomenclature The term Berber has been used in Europe since at least the 17th century and is still used today The Neolithic (from Greek νεολιθικός — neolithikos from νέος neos, "new" + λίθος lithos
Early inhabitants of the central Maghreb left behind significant remains including remnants of hominid occupation from ca. The cave Paintings found at Tassili-n-Ajjer, north of Tamanrasset, Algeria and at other locations depict vibrant and vivid scenes of everyday life in the central 200,000 B. C. found near Saïda. Saida ( Arabic: سعيدة is the capital city of Saida Province, Algeria. Neolithic civilization (marked by animal domestication and subsistence agriculture) developed in the Saharan and Mediterranean Maghrib between 6000 and 2000 B. The Neolithic (from Greek νεολιθικός — neolithikos from νέος neos, "new" + λίθος lithos Domestication (from Latin domesticus) refers to the process whereby a Population of Animals Subsistence agriculture is self-sufficient farming in which farmers grow only enough food to feed the family and to pay taxes or feudal dues C. This type of economy, so richly depicted in the Tassili-n-Ajjer cave paintings in southeastern Algeria, predominated in the Maghrib until the classical period. Tassili n'Ajjer ( Tamazight, "Plateau of the Rivers" is a Mountain range in the Sahara Desert in southeast Algeria, Cave paintings are Paintings on Cave walls and ceilings and the term is used especially for those dating to Prehistoric times The amalgam of peoples of North Africa coalesced eventually into a distinct native population, the Berbers lacked a written language and hence tended to be overlooked or marginalized in historical accounts.
Madghis (Madghacen) was a king  of independent kingdoms of the Numide, between -12 at -3 B. Madghacen or Medghassen or Madghis also spelled Imadghassen, or Medghacen means mausoleum tomb of King Berber Imadghassen which stands near C.
During the pre-Roman era, several successive Independent States (Massaesyles, Massyles, Moors . The description Moors has referred to several historic and modern populations of Muslim (and earlier non-Muslim people of Berber and Arab descent . . etc).
After that the king Massinissa unifing the Numidia . Masinissa or Massinissa (c 240 or 238 BC - c 148 BC was the first King of Numidia, an ancient North African nation of Ancient Libyan tribes Numidia (202 BC – 46 BC was an ancient Berber kingdom in present-day Algeria and part of Tunisia ( North Africa) that later alternated      
According to historians of the Middle Ages, the Berbers are divided into two branches, two are from their ancestor Mazigh. In sum, the two branches Botr and Barnès are also divided into tribes. each Maghreb region is made up of several tribes. The large Berber tribes or peoples are Sanhadja, Houaras, Zenata, Masmouda, Kutama, Awarba, Berghwata . The Sanhaja (also commonly spelled "Sanhadja" were one of the largest Berber tribal confederations of the Maghreb, along with the Zanata The Zenata are one of the main divisions of the medieval Berbers, along with Senhaja and Masmuda. The Masmuda were one of the largest Berber tribal confederacies in the Maghreb, along with the Zanata and the Sanhaja. The Kutama were a Berber tribein the region of Jijel a member of the great Bavares orientaux confederation of the Maghreb The Barghawata (also Barghwata or Berghouata) were a medieval Berber tribe confederation of the Atlantic coast of Morocco, belonging . . etc. Each tribe is divided into sub tribes. All these tribes have independence and territorial decisions.  
Several Berber dynasties have emerged during the Middle Ages to the Maghreb, Sudan, in Andalusia, Italy, in Mali, Niger, Senegal, Egypt . . . etc. . Ibn Khaldoun is a table summarizing the Maghreb dynasties whose Berber Dynasties: Zirid, Banu Ifran, Maghrawa, Almoravid, Hammadid, Almohad, Merinid, Abdalwadid, Wattasid , Meknassa, ,,. The Zirids (زيريون were a Berber dynasty originating in Petite Kabylie among the Kutama tribe that ruled Ifriqiya (in modern day Eastern Banu Ifran (بنو يفرن a Berber tribe prominent in the affairs of Algeria in Aures eastern Algeria History They were one of the four major tribes The Magrawa were a Berber tribe in Morocco and central and western Algeria. The Almoravids, was a Berber dynasty from the Sahara that spread over a wide area of North-Western Africa and the Iberian peninsula during The Hammadids, an offshoot of the Zirids were a Berber dynasty who ruled an area roughly corresponding to modern Algeria for about a century and a half The Almohad Dynasty (From Arabic الموحدون al-Muwahhidun, i The Anglicised name used for this article derives from the Arabic Banu Marin (also Benī Merīn, which is the source of the Spanish name Abdalwadid is the name of a Berber Zenata dynasty in North Africa The Wattassids (وطاسيون waṭāsīyūn or Banû Watâs (بنو الوطاس banū al-waṭās were an Amazigh dynasty of Kingdom of Fez. Meknes (مكناس is a city in northern Morocco, located 130 kilometres from the capital Rabat and 60 kilometres from Fes. . . Hafsides dynasties.  
The Almohads were able to unify the Maghreb. The Almohad Dynasty (From Arabic الموحدون al-Muwahhidun, i And the Berbers of the Middle Ages have contributed to the Arabization of the Maghreb, which is a historical fact 
Since the 5th century BC, the indigenous peoples of northern Africa (identified by the Romans as Berbers) were pushed back from the coast by successive waves of Phoenician, Roman, Vandal, Byzantine, Arab, Turkish, and, finally, French invaders. See also History of North Africa Carthage and the Berbers See also Carthage Phoenician traders arrived on the North African coast The term Indigenous Peoples or autochthonous peoples can be used to describe any Ethnic group who inhabit a geographic region with which they have the earliest historical North Africa or Northern Africa is the Northernmost Region of the African Continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Phoenicia ( Phoenician: Phoenician nunsvg|12px|נ]]Phoenician nun Ancient Rome was a Civilization that grew out of a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 10th century BC The araB gene Promoter is a bacterial promoter activated by e L-arabinose binding Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics.
Phoenician traders arrived on the North African coast around 900 B. C. and established Carthage (in present-day Tunisia) around 800 B. Carthage (Καρχηδών Karkhēdōn, Carthago from the Phoenician קרת חדשת phn-Latn Qart-ḥadašt meaning new town) refers Tunisia (تونس Tūnis officially the Tunisian Republic ( is a country located in North Africa. C. During the classical period, Berber civilization was already at a stage in which agriculture, manufacturing, trade, and political organization supported several states. Trade links between Carthage and the Berbers in the interior grew, but territorial expansion also resulted in the enslavement or military recruitment of some Berbers and in the extraction of tribute from others.
The Carthaginian state declined because of successive defeats by the Romans in the Punic Wars, and in 146 B. The Punic Wars were a series of three wars fought between Rome and Carthage between 264 and 146 BC and were probably the largest wars yet of the ancient C. the city of Carthage was destroyed. As Carthaginian power waned, the influence of Berber leaders in the hinterland grew. By the 2nd century BC, several large but loosely administered Berber kingdoms had emerged. Berber territory was annexed to the Roman Empire in A. The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial D. 24. Increases in urbanization and in the area under cultivation during Roman rule caused wholesale dislocations of Berber society, and Berber opposition to the Roman presence was nearly constant. The prosperity of most towns depended on agriculture, and the region was known as the “granary of the empire. ” Christianity arrived in the second century. Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings By the end of the fourth century, the settled areas had become Christianized, and some Berber tribes had converted en masse.
The greatest cultural impact came from the Arab invasions of the 8th and 11th centuries AD, which brought Islam and the Arabic language. Medieval Muslim Algeria spans from the 600s to the 1600s Unlike the invasions of previous religions and cultures the coming of Islam, which was spread by Arabs The 8th century is the period from 701 to 800 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian / Common Era. For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. Arabic (ar الْعَرَبيّة (informally ar عَرَبيْ) in terms of the number of speakers is the largest living member of the Semitic language The introduction of Islam and Arabic had a profound impact on North Africa (or the Maghreb) beginning in the seventh century. For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. Arabic (ar الْعَرَبيّة (informally ar عَرَبيْ) in terms of the number of speakers is the largest living member of the Semitic language The Maghreb (المغرب العربي al-Maġrib al-ʿArabī) also rendered Maghrib (or rarely Moghreb) meaning "place of Sunset The new religion and language introduced changes in social and economic relations, established links with a rich culture, and provided a powerful idiom of political discourse and organization. From the great Berber dynasties of the Almoravids and Almohads to the militants seeking an Islamic state in the 1990s, the call to return to true Islamic values and practices has had social resonance and political power. The Almoravids, was a Berber dynasty from the Sahara that spread over a wide area of North-Western Africa and the Iberian peninsula during The Almohad Dynasty (From Arabic الموحدون al-Muwahhidun, i
The first Arab military expeditions into the Maghrib, between 642 and 669, resulted in the spread of Islam. The Umayyads (a Muslim dynasty based in Damascus from 661 to 750) recognized that the strategic necessity of dominating the Mediterranean dictated a concerted military effort on the North African front. By 711 Umayyad forces helped by Berber converts to Islam had conquered all of North Africa. In 750 the Abbasids succeeded the Umayyads as Muslim rulers and moved the caliphate to Baghdad. A caliphate (from the Arabic خلافة or khilāfa) is the political leadership of the Muslim community in classical and medieval Islamic history Baghdad (بغداد) is the Capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate, with which it is also coterminous Under the Abbasids, the Rustumid imamate (761–909) actually ruled most of the central Maghrib from Tahirt, southwest of Algiers. Tiaret ( Berber:; Tihert or Tahert, ie "station" تيارت is the name of a large Algerian town one that gives its name to the wider farming The imams gained a reputation for honesty, piety, and justice, and the court of Tahirt was noted for its support of scholarship. The Rustumid imams failed, however, to organize a reliable standing army, which opened the way for Tahirt’s demise under the assault of the Fatimid dynasty.
With their interest focused primarily on Egypt and Muslim lands beyond, the Fatimids left the rule of most of Algeria to the Zirids (972–1148), a Berber dynasty that centered significant local power in Algeria for the first time. The Zirids (زيريون were a Berber dynasty originating in Petite Kabylie among the Kutama tribe that ruled Ifriqiya (in modern day Eastern This period was marked by constant conflict, political instability, and economic decline. Following a large incursion of Arab bedouin from Egypt beginning in the first half of the eleventh century, the use of Arabic spread to the countryside, and sedentary Berbers were gradually Arabized.
The Almoravid (“those who have made a religious retreat”) movement developed early in the eleventh century among the Sanhaja Berbers of the western Sahara. The Almoravids, was a Berber dynasty from the Sahara that spread over a wide area of North-Western Africa and the Iberian peninsula during The movement’s initial impetus was religious, an attempt by a tribal leader to impose moral discipline and strict adherence to Islamic principles on followers. But the Almoravid movement shifted to engaging in military conquest after 1054. By 1106 the Almoravids had conquered Morocco, the Maghrib as far east as Algiers, and Spain up to the Ebro River. Morocco (المغرب "al-Maghrib" officially the Kingdom of Morocco (المملكة المغربية is a country located in North Africa The Ebro ( Ebre) is Spain 's most voluminous river Its source is in Fontibre ( Cantabria)
Like the Almoravids, the Almohads (“unitarians”) found their inspiration in Islamic reform. The Almohad Dynasty (From Arabic الموحدون al-Muwahhidun, i The Almohads took control of Morocco by 1146, captured Algiers around 1151, and by 1160 had completed the conquest of the central Maghrib. The zenith of Almohad power occurred between 1163 and 1199. For the first time, the Maghrib was united under a local regime, but the continuing wars in Spain overtaxed the resources of the Almohads, and in the Maghrib their position was compromised by factional strife and a renewal of tribal warfare.
In the central Maghrib, the Zayanids founded a dynasty at Tlemcen in Algeria. For more than 300 years, until the region came under Ottoman suzerainty in the sixteenth century, the Zayanids kept a tenuous hold in the central Maghrib. Many coastal cities asserted their autonomy as municipal republics governed by merchant oligarchies, tribal chieftains from the surrounding countryside, or the privateers who operated out of their ports. Nonetheless, Tlemcen, the “pearl of the Maghrib,” prospered as a commercial center.
The final triumph of the 700-year Christian reconquest of Spain was marked by the fall of Granada in 1492. The Reconquista (a Spanish and Portuguese word for "Reconquest" Arabic: الاسترداد, "Recapturing" was a period Granada is a city and the capital of the province of Granada, in the autonomous region of Andalusia, Spain. Christian Spain imposed its influence on the Maghrib coast by constructing fortified outposts and collecting tribute. But Spain never sought to extend its North African conquests much beyond a few modest enclaves. Privateering was an age-old practice in the Mediterranean, and North African rulers engaged in it increasingly in the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries because it was so lucrative. Algeria became the privateering city-state par excellence, and two privateer brothers were instrumental in extending Ottoman influence in Algeria. At about the time Spain was establishing its presidios in the Maghrib, the Muslim privateer brothers Aruj and Khair ad Din—the latter known to Europeans as Barbarossa, or Red Beard—were operating successfully off Tunisia. Oruç Reis (also called Barbarossa or Redbeard) ( Turkish: Aruj or Oruç Reis, Arabic: عروج بربروس Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha ( Turkish: Barbaros Hayreddin Paşa or Hızır Hayreddin Paşa; also Hızır Reis before being promoted to the In 1516 Aruj moved his base of operations to Algiers but was killed in 1518. Khair ad Din succeeded him as military commander of Algiers, and the Ottoman sultan gave him the title of beylerbey (provincial governor).
Under Khair ad Din’s regency, Algiers became the center of Ottoman authority in the Maghrib. At about the time Spain was establishing its Presidios in the Maghreb, the Muslim Privateer brothers Aruj and Khair For 300 years, Algeria was a province of the Ottoman Empire under a regency that had Algiers as its capital (see Dey). Algeria ( ar [[Arabic]] الجزائر, Al Jaza'ir ælʤæˈzæːʔir Amazigh: ⴷⵥⴰⵢⴻⵔ Dzayer) officially the People's The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish Algiers (الجزائر Algerian Arabic: Dzayer ( (From kabyle pronunciation Kabyle: Ledzayer, Alger) is the Capital and largest Dey (Arabic داي from Turkish Dayı) was the title given to the rulers of the Regency of Algiers ( Algeria) and Tunis ( Tunisia) under Subsequently, with the institution of a regular Ottoman administration, governors with the title of pasha ruled. Turkish was the official language, and Arabs and Berbers were excluded from government posts. In 1671 a new leader took power, adopting the title of dey. In 1710 the dey persuaded the sultan to recognize him and his successors as regent, replacing the pasha in that role.
Although Algiers remained a part of the Ottoman Empire, the Ottoman government ceased to have effective influence there. European maritime powers paid the tribute demanded by the rulers of the privateering states of North Africa (Algiers, Tunis, Tripoli, and Morocco) to prevent attacks on their shipping. A privateer was a private Warship authorized by a country's Government by Letters of marque to attack foreign shipping Tripolis ( Arabic: طرابلس Ṭarābulus - also طرابلس الغرب Ṭarā-bu-lus al-Gharb Libyan vernacular: The Napoleonic wars of the early nineteenth century diverted the attention of the maritime powers from suppressing what they derogatorily called piracy. But when peace was restored to Europe in 1815, Algiers found itself at war with Spain, the Netherlands, Prussia, Denmark, Russia, and Naples. Algeria and surrounding areas, collectively known as the Barbary States, were responsible for piracy in the Mediterranean Sea, as well as the enslaving of Christians, actions which brought them into the First and Second Barbary War with the United States of America. The Barbary Coast, or Barbary, was the term used by Europeans from the 16th until the 19th century to refer to the middle and western coastal regions of North Africa—what Piracy is Robbery committed at sea or sometimes on shore without a commission from a sovereign Nation (as distinct from Privateering A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth The First Barbary War (1801&ndash1805 also known as the Barbary Coast War or the Tripolitan War, was the first of two wars fought between the United The Second Barbary War (1815 also known as the Algerine or Algerian War) was the second of two wars fought between the United States of America The United States of America —commonly referred to as the
North African boundaries have shifted during various stages of the conquests. French rule of Algeria lasted from 1830 to 1962 under a variety of governmental systems The borders of modern Algeria were created by the French, whose colonization began in 1830 (French invasion began on July 5). Colonisation (also known as Colonization) occurs whenever any one or more species populates a new area Events 1295 - Scotland and France form an alliance the beginnings of the Auld Alliance, against England. To benefit French colonists, most of whom were farmers and businessmen, northern Algeria was eventually organized into overseas departments of France, with representatives in the French National Assembly. The French National Assembly. The other is the Senate ( “Sénat”) France controlled the entire country, but the traditional Muslim population in the rural areas remained separated from the modern economic infrastructure of the European community.
As a result of what the French considered an insult to the French consul in Algiers by the dey in 1827, France blockaded Algiers for three years. In 1830, France invaded and occupied the coastal areas of Algeria, citing a diplomatic incident as casus belli. Casus belli is a Latin language expression meaning the justification for acts of war Hussein Dey went into exile. Hussein Dey (also spelled Husayn Dey; 1765 - 1838 (حسين داي was the last of the Ottoman provincial rulers of Algiers (or Deys. French colonization then gradually penetrated southwards, and came to have a profound impact on the area and its populations. See Colony and Colonization for examples of colonialism which do not refer to Western colonialism The European conquest was, however, immediately met by a rebellion, led by Abdel Kadir, which took several years for the French troops to put down. `Abd al-Qādir al-Jazā'irī ( 6 September, 1808 - 26 May, 1883, in Arabic عبد القادر الجزائري was an France then used the failure of the blockade as a reason for a military expedition against Algiers in 1830. By 1848 nearly all of northern Algeria was under French control, and the new government of the Second Republic declared the occupied lands an integral part of France. Three "civil territories"—Algiers, Oran, and Constantine—were organized as French départements (local administrative units) under a civilian government.
In addition to enduring the affront of being ruled by a foreign, non-Muslim power, many Algerians lost their lands to the new government or to colonists. Traditional leaders were eliminated, coopted, or made irrelevant, and the traditional educational system was largely dismantled; social structures were stressed to the breaking point. Viewed by the Europeans with condescension at best and contempt at worst, the Algerians endured 132 years of colonial subjugation. In the earlier part of the French colonization, native Muslims and Jews were viewed as French nationals, but not French citizens. PLEASE TAKE NOTE************
However, in 1865, Napoleon III allowed them to apply for full French citizenship, a measure that few took, since it involved renouncing the right to be governed by sharia law in personal matters, and was considered a kind of apostasy; in 1870, French citizenship was made automatic for Jewish natives, a move which largely angered the Muslims, who began to consider the Jews as the accomplices of the colonial power. Napoléon III, also known as Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte (full name Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte) (20 April 1808 9 January 1873 was the first President Sharia ( Arabic: ar شريعة) is the body of Islamic Religious law. Nonetheless, this period saw progress in health, some infrastructures, and the overall expansion of the economy of Algeria, as well as the formation of new social classes, which, after exposure to ideas of equality and political liberty, would help propel the country to independence. Under French administration the economy of Algeria developed greatly the total imports and exports at the time of the French occupation (1830 did not exceed £ 175000 During the years of French domination, the struggles to survive, to co-exist, to gain equality, and to achieve independence shaped a large part of the Algerian national identity.
A new generation of Muslim leadership emerged in Algeria at the time of World War I and grew to maturity during the 1920s and 1930s. Algerian nationalism A new generation of Muslim leadership emerged in Algeria at the time of World War I and grew to maturity during the 1920s and 1930s A Muslim (مسلم pronounced Muslim, not Muzlim) is an adherent of the Religion World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All Various groups were formed in opposition to French rule, most notable the National Liberation Front (FLN) and the National Algerian Movement. The Mouvement National Algérien (الحركة الوطنية الجزائرية or MNA ( French, Algerian National Movement) was an organization founded
Colons (colonists), or, more popularly, pieds noirs (literally, black feet) dominated the government and controlled the bulk of Algeria’s wealth. Throughout the colonial era, they continued to block or delay all attempts to implement even the most modest reforms. But from 1933 to 1936, mounting social, political, and economic crises in Algeria induced the indigenous population to engage in numerous acts of political protest. The government responded with more restrictive laws governing public order and security. Algerian Muslims rallied to the French side at the start of World War II as they had done in World War I. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All But the colons were generally sympathetic to the collaborationist Vichy regime established following France’s defeat by Nazi Germany. Vichy France, or the Vichy regime are the common terms used to describe the government of France from July 1940 to August 1944 Nazi Germany and the Third Reich are the common English names for Germany under the regime of Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist German Workers After the fall of the Vichy regime in Algeria (November 11 1942), the Free French commander in chief in North Africa slowly rescinded repressive Vichy laws, despite opposition by colon extremists. The Free French Forces (Forces Françaises Libres FFL) were French fighters in World War II who decided to continue fighting against Axis forces
In March 1943, Muslim leader Ferhat Abbas presented the French administration with the Manifesto of the Algerian People, signed by 56 Algerian nationalist and international leaders. Ferhat Abbas ( 24 October, 1899 &ndash 23 December, 1985) ( Algerian: Ferḥat Ɛebbas Arabic: فرحات عباس was an The manifesto demanded an Algerian constitution that would guarantee immediate and effective political participation and legal equality for Muslims. Instead, the French administration in 1944 instituted a reform package, based on the 1936 Viollette Plan, that granted full French citizenship only to certain categories of "meritorious" Algerian Muslims, who numbered about 60,000. The tensions between the Muslim and colon communities exploded on May 8, 1945, V-E Day. Victory in Europe Day ( V-E Day or VE Day) was May 7 and May 8, 1945, the dates when the World War II Allies When a Muslim march was met with violence, marchers rampaged. The army and police responded by conducting a prolonged and systematic ratissage (literally, raking over) of suspected centers of dissidence. According to official French figures, 1,500 Muslims died as a result of these countermeasures. Other estimates vary from 6,000 to as high as 45,000 killed.
In April 1945 the French had arrested the Algerian nationalist leader Messali Hadj. Ahmed Ben Messali Hadj ( Arabic, مصالي الحاج (b 1898 in Algeria, d On May 1 the followers of his Parti du Peuple Algérien (PPA) participated in demonstrations which where violently put down by the police. Events 305 - Diocletian and Maximian retire from the office of Roman Emperor. The Algerian People's Party (in french, Parti du Peuple Algerien PPA) was a successor organization of the North African Star ( Étoile Nord-Africaine A demonstration is an historically and geographically common form of Nonviolent action by groups of people Several Algerians were killed. But it was on May 8, when France celebrated Germany's unconditional surrender, that more deaths provoked a violent uprising by the Algerian population in and around Sétif. Events 589 - Reccared summons the Third Council of Toledo 1450 - Jack Cade's Rebellion: Kentishmen Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Unconditional surrender is a surrender without conditions except for those provided by International law. Sétif (سطيف Kabyle: Sṭif; formerly Sitifis Colonia) is a town in northeastern Algeria. The army set villages on fire, and between 6,000 and 8,000 people were killed, according to Yves Bénot; other sources, including the present Algerian government, put the death toll as high as 50,000. Many nationalists drew the conclusion that independence could not be won by peaceful means, and so started organizing for violent rebellion including use of terrorism. Terrorism is the systematic use of terror especially as a means of coercion
In August 1947, the French National Assembly approved the government-proposed Organic Statute of Algeria. The French National Assembly. The other is the Senate ( “Sénat”) This law called for the creation of an Algerian Assembly with one house representing Europeans and "meritorious" Muslims and the other representing the remaining 8 million or more Muslims. Muslim and colon deputies alike abstained or voted against the statute but for diametrically opposed reasons: the Muslims because it fell short of their expectations and the colons because it went too far.
The Algerian War of Independence (1954–1962), brutal and long, was the most recent major turning point in the country's history. The Algerian War ( French: Guerre d'Algérie; 1954-1962 also known as Algerian War of Independence, led to Algeria 's independence from The Algerian War ( French: Guerre d'Algérie; 1954-1962 also known as Algerian War of Independence, led to Algeria 's independence from Although often fratricidal, it ultimately united Algerians and seared the value of independence and the philosophy of anticolonialism into the national consciousness. Anti-imperialism, strictly speaking is a term that may be applied to or movement opposed to some form of Imperialism. Abusive tactics of the French Army remains a controversial subject in France to this day. The French Army, officially the Armée de Terre (Land Army is the land-based component of the French Armed Forces and its largest
In the early morning hours of November 1, 1954, the National Liberation Front (Front de Libération Nationale—FLN) launched attacks throughout Algeria in the opening salvo of a war of independence. The National Liberation Front ( Arabic: جبهة التحرير الوطني transliterated: Jabhat al-Taḩrīr al-Waţanī French: Front The Algerian War ( French: Guerre d'Algérie; 1954-1962 also known as Algerian War of Independence, led to Algeria 's independence from An important watershed in this war was the massacre of civilians by the FLN near the town of Philippeville in August 1955. The government claimed it killed 1,273 guerrillas in retaliation; according to the FLN, 12,000 Muslims perished in an orgy of bloodletting by the armed forces and police, as well as colon gangs. After Philippeville, all-out war began in Algeria.
Eventually, protracted negotiations led to a cease-fire signed by France and the FLN on March 18, 1962, at Evian, France. Events 37 - The Roman Senate annuls Tiberius ' will and proclaims Caligula emperor Year 1962 ( MCMLXII) was a Common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Évian-les-Bains or Évian is a commune of France, in the northern part of the Haute-Savoie département, on the shores of The Evian accords also provided for continuing economic, financial, technical, and cultural relations, along with interim administrative arrangements until a referendum on self-determination could be held. The Évian Accords comprise a Treaty which was signed on March 18, 1962 in Évian-les-Bains, France by France and the A referendum (plural referendums or referenda) ballot question, or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita The Evian accords guaranteed the religious and property rights of French settlers, but the perception that they would not be respected led to the exodus of one million pieds-noirs and harkis.
Between 1 and 2 million Algerians are estimated to have died during the war, and an additional 2 or 3 million, out of a total Muslim population of 9 or 10 million, were made into refugees or forcibly relocated into government-controlled camps. A Muslim (مسلم pronounced Muslim, not Muzlim) is an adherent of the Religion Much of the countryside and agriculture was devastated, along with the modern economy, which had been dominated by urban European settlers (the pied-noirs). Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants and fungi and the raising of domesticated Animals The study of agriculture An economic system is a System that involves the production, distribution and consumption of goods and services between A settler is a person who has migrated to an area and established permanent residence there often to colonize the area Pied-Noir ("Black-Foot" plural Pieds-Noirs, pronounced /pje These nearly one million people of mostly French descent were forced to flee the country at independence due to the unbridgeable rifts opened by the civil war and threats from units of the victorious FLN; along with them fled Algerians of Jewish descent and those Muslim Algerians who had supported a French Algeria (harkis). PLEASE TAKE NOTE************ Harki (adjective from the Arabic harka, standard Arabic haraka حركة "war party" or "movement" i Post-war infighting, armed chaos and lynch trials of supposed traitors contributed to tens of thousands of deaths after the pullback of French troops, until the new Algerian government, led by Ben Bella, was able to secure control. Mohamed Ahmed Ben Bella (Muhammad Ahmad Bin Balla (أحمد بن بلّة (born December 25 1918, Maghnia, Algeria) was the first President
The referendum was held in Algeria on July 1, 1962, and France declared Algeria independent on July 3. History of the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, 1962&ndashpresent In preparation for independence the CNRA (Conseil National de la Révolution Algérienne "July 1st" redirects here For the Ayumi Hamasaki song see H (song. Year 1962 ( MCMLXII) was a Common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Events 324 - Battle of Adrianople Constantine I defeats Licinius, who flees to Byzantium. On September 8, 1963, a constitution was adopted by referendum, and later that month, Ahmed Ben Bella was formally elected the first president. Events 70 - Roman forces under Titus sack Jerusalem. 1264 - The Statute of Kalisz Year 1963 ( MCMLXIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. A constitution is a system for government often Codified as a written document that establishes the rules and principles of an autonomous political entity Mohamed Ahmed Ben Bella (Muhammad Ahmad Bin Balla (أحمد بن بلّة (born December 25 1918, Maghnia, Algeria) was the first President The war of national liberation and its aftermath had severely disrupted Algeria's society and economy. In addition to the physical destruction, the exodus of the colons deprived the country of most of its managers, civil servants, engineers, teachers, physicians, and skilled workers. The homeless and displaced numbered in the hundreds of thousands, many suffering from illness, and some 70 percent of the work force was unemployed.
The months immediately following independence witnessed the pell-mell rush of Algerians, their government, and its officials to claim the property and jobs left behind by the Europeans. In the 1963 March Decrees, Ben Bella declared that all agricultural, industrial, and commercial properties previously owned and operated by Europeans were vacant, thereby legalizing confiscation by the state. A new constitution drawn up under close FLN supervision was approved by nationwide referendum in September 1963, and Ben Bella was confirmed as the party's choice to lead the country for a five-year term.
Under the new constitution, Ben Bella as president combined the functions of chief of state and head of government with those of supreme commander of the armed forces. Head of state is the generic term for the individual or collective office that serves as the chief public representative of a Monarchic or Republican Nation-state This article focuses on the cases where the Head of Government is a separate office from the Head of State He formed his government without needing legislative approval and was responsible for the definition and direction of its policies. There was no effective institutional check on its powers. Opposition leader Hocine Aït-Ahmed quit the National Assembly in 1963 to protest the increasingly dictatorial tendencies of the regime and formed a clandestine resistance movement, the Front of Socialist Forces (Front des Forces Socialistes—FFS) dedicated to overthrowing the Ben Bella regime by force. Hocine Aït Ahmed (in Kabyle: Ḥusin Ait Ḥmed (b 20 August 1926 in Ain El Hammam, Kabylie) is an Algerian politician The Socialist Forces Front ( Front des Forces socialistes, FFS is a Social democratic and Secularist Political party in Algeria.
Late summer 1963 saw sporadic incidents attributed to the FFS. More serious fighting broke out a year later. The army moved quickly and in force to crush the rebellion. As minister of defense, Houari Boumédienne had no qualms about sending the army to put down regional uprisings because he felt they posed a threat to the state. Houari Boumédienne (original name Mohamed Ben Brahim Boukharouba) ( August 23, 1932 – December 27, 1978) (هواري بومدين However, when Ben Bella attempted to co-opt allies from among some of those regionalists, tensions increased between Houari Boumédienne and Ahmed Ben Bella. Mohamed Ahmed Ben Bella (Muhammad Ahmad Bin Balla (أحمد بن بلّة (born December 25 1918, Maghnia, Algeria) was the first President In 1965 the military toppled Ahmed Ben Bella, and Houari Boumedienne became head of state. The military has dominated Algerian politics until today.
On June 19, 1965, Houari Boumédienne deposed Ahmed Ben Bella in a military coup d'état that was both swift and bloodless. Ben Bella "disappeared", and would not be seen again until he was released from house arrest in 1980 by Boumédienne's successor, Colonel Chadli Bendjedid. A forced disappearance occurs when an organization forces a person to vanish from Public view either by Murder or by simple Sequestration. Chadli Bendjedid (شاذلي بن جديد (born April 14, 1929 at Bouteldja near Annaba) was President of Algeria from February Boumédienne immediately dissolved the National Assembly and suspended the 1963 constitution. Political power resided in the Council of the Revolution, a predominantly military body intended to foster cooperation among various factions in the army and the party.
Houari Boumédienne’s position as head of government and of state was initially not secure partly because of his lack of a significant power base outside the armed forces; he relied strongly on a network of former associates known as the Oujda group (after his posting as ALN leader in the Moroccan border town of Oujda during the war years), but he could not fully dominate the fractious regime. The Armée de Libération Nationale or ALN ( French, National Liberation Army) was the armed wing of the Nationalist Front de Libération Morocco (المغرب "al-Maghrib" officially the Kingdom of Morocco (المملكة المغربية is a country located in North Africa Oujda (وجدة is a city in eastern Morocco with an estimated population of half a million inhabitants This situation may have accounted for his deference to collegial rule.
Following attempted coups --most notably that of chief-of-staff Col. Tahar Zbiri in December 1967-- and a failed assassination attempt in (April 25, 1968), Boumédienne consolidated power and forced military and political factions to submit to what was essentially his personal rule. Colonel ( RP ˈkɜnəl GA ˈkɜrnəl is a Military rank of a Commissioned officer, with corresponding ranks existing in almost every country AssassiNation is the sixth album by Krisiun, released in 2006 on Century Media. Events 1607 - Eighty Years' War: The Dutch fleet destroys the anchored Spanish fleet at Gibraltar. Year 1968 ( MCMLXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. He took a systematic, authoritarian approach to state building, arguing that Algeria needed stability and an economic base before any political institutions.
Eleven years after Houari Boumédienne took power, after much public debate, a long-promised new constitution was promulgated in November 1976, and Boumédienne was elected president with 95 percent of the cast votes. Houari Boumédienne (original name Mohamed Ben Brahim Boukharouba) ( August 23, 1932 – December 27, 1978) (هواري بومدين Boumédienne’s death on December 27, 1978 set off a struggle within the FLN to choose a successor. To break a deadlock between two candidates, Colonel Chadli Bendjedid, a moderate who had collaborated with Boumédienne in deposing Ahmed Ben Bella, was sworn in on February 9, 1979. Chadli Bendjedid (شاذلي بن جديد (born April 14, 1929 at Bouteldja near Annaba) was President of Algeria from February Mohamed Ahmed Ben Bella (Muhammad Ahmad Bin Balla (أحمد بن بلّة (born December 25 1918, Maghnia, Algeria) was the first President He was re-elected in 1984 and 1988. After violent riots, a new constitution was adopted in 1989 that allowed the formation of political associations other than the FLN. The 1988 October Riots were a series of street-level disturbances and Riotous demonstrations by Algerian youth in the autumn of 1988 which indirectly led to the fall It also removed the armed forces, which had run the government since the days of Boumédienne, from a role in the operation of the government. For the military meaning see Armed forces. For the Soviet sports society see Armed Forces (sports society Armed Forces
Among the scores of parties that sprang up under the new constitution, the militant Islamic Salvation Front (FIS) was the most successful, winning more than 50% of all votes cast in municipal elections in June 1990 as well as in first stage of national legislative elections held in December 1991. The Islamic Salvation Front ( Arabic: الجبهة الإسلامية للإنقاذ al-Jabhah al-Islāmiyah lil-Inqādh) (Front Islamique du Salut is an outlawed A township (or Municipality) is a settlement which has the status and powers of a unit of local government
The surprising first round of success for the fundamentalist FIS party in the December 1991 balloting caused the army to intervene, crack down on the FIS, and postpone subsequent elections. The fundamentalist response has resulted in a continuous low-grade civil conflict with the secular state apparatus, which nonetheless has allowed elections featuring pro-government and moderate religious-based parties.
In 1996 a referendum introduced changes to the constitution, enhancing presidential powers and banning Islamist parties. Presidential elections were held in April 1999. Although seven candidates qualified for election, all but Abdelaziz Bouteflika, who appeared to have the support of the military as well as the FLN, withdrew on the eve of the election amid charges of electoral fraud. Abdelaziz Bouteflika (abdəlazɪz butəflika ( عبد العزيز بوتفليقة) (born March 2 1937 in Oujda, Morocco) has been the President Bouteflika went on to win with 70 percent of the cast votes.
Following his election to a five-year term, Bouteflika concentrated on restoring security and stability to the strife-ridden country. As part of his endeavor, he successfully campaigned to provide amnesty to thousands of members of the banned FIS. The so-called Civil Concord was approved in a nationwide referendum in September 2000. The reconciliation by no means ended all violence, but it reduced violence to manageable levels. An estimated 80% of those fighting the regime accepted the amnesty offer.
The president also formed national commissions to study reforms of the education system, judiciary, and state bureaucracy. President Bouteflika was rewarded for his efforts at stabilizing the country when he was elected to another five-year term in April 2004, in an election contested by six candidates without military interference. In September 2005, another referendum -—this one to consider a proposed Charter for Peace and National Reconciliation—- passed by an overwhelming margin. The charter coupled another amnesty offer to all but the most violent participants in the Islamist uprising with an implicit pardon for security forces accused of abuses in fighting the rebels.