The history and philosophy of science (HPS) is an academic discipline that encompasses the philosophy of science and the history of science. An academic discipline or field of study is a branch of Knowledge which is taught or Researched at the college or university level Philosophy of science is the study of assumptions foundations and implications of Science. The history of science and technology ( HST) is a field of History which examines how humanity's understanding of the natural world ( Science Although many scholars in the field are trained primarily as either historians or as philosophers, there are degree-granting departments of HPS at several prominent universities (see below).
While it may seem an umbrella term, as described above people in the field of HPS consider this fusion of history of science with philosophy of science to be perfectly natural. The origin of this hybrid approach is reflected in the career of Thomas Kuhn. Thomas Samuel Kuhn (surname ˈkuːn July 18, 1922  &ndash June 17, 1996) was an American intellectual who wrote extensively His first permanent appointment, at the University of California, Berkeley, was to a position advertised by the philosophy department, but he also taught courses from the history department. The University of California Berkeley (also referred to as Cal, Berkeley and UC Berkeley) is a major research university located in Berkeley When he was promoted to full professor in the history department only, Kuhn was offended at the philosophers' rejection because "I sure as hell wanted to be there, and it was my philosophy students who were working with me, not on philosophy but on history, were nevertheless my more important students". This attitude is also reflected in his historicist approach, as outlined in Kuhn's seminal Structure of Scientific Revolutions (1962, 2nd ed. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions ( 1962) by Thomas Kuhn, is an analysis of the History of science. 1970), wherein philosophical questions about scientific theories and, especially, theory change are understood in historical terms, employing concepts such as paradigm shift. Paradigm shift, sometimes known as extraordinary science or revolutionary science, is the term first used by Thomas Kuhn in his influential
|"History of science without philosophy of science is blind . . . philosophy of science without history of science is empty"|
Norwood Russell Hanson 
More recently the sociology of science and technology studies have become popular topics and a few HPS departments have become Science Studies departments, e. Norwood Russell Hanson (1924 &ndash 1967 was a philosopher of science. Sociology of science is the subfield of Sociology that deals with the practice of Science. Science studies is an interdisciplinary research area that seeks to situate scientific Expertise in a broad social historical and philosophical context g. , the School of History and Philosophy of Science at the University of New South Wales was known as the School of Science and Technology Studies (STS) from the mid-1980s until 2001. The University of New South Wales, also known as UNSW or colloquially as New South, is a University situated in Kensington, a suburb in For this reason it can be argued that the fields are identical and that the difference is only one of emphasis. While it may seem that STS is a broader concept, leaving room for other approaches to science such as sociology of science, HPS departments are not usually as exclusive as a literal interpretation of the name might imply.
The following universities have departments dedicated to the History and Philosophy of Science:
The following universities offer inter-departmental programs in HPS:
Many universities also have history of science programs, which do not include any philosophy of science. The University of Leeds is a major teaching and research University in Leeds, West Yorkshire; one of the largest in the United Kingdom with The University of Chicago is a Private university located principally in the Hyde Park neighborhood of Chicago. The California Institute of Technology (commonly referred to as Caltech) is a private, Coeducational research university located in Pasadena The University of California Berkeley (also referred to as Cal, Berkeley and UC Berkeley) is a major research university located in Berkeley The University of Notre Dame du Lac (or simply Notre Dame) (ˌnoʊtɚˈdeɪm is a private Roman Catholic Research university located in Leland Stanford Junior University, commonly known as Stanford University or simply Stanford, is a private Research university located in The history of science and technology ( HST) is a field of History which examines how humanity's understanding of the natural world ( Science Others may provide a philosophy of science track within normal philosophy departments. Often these departments are named to clarify this emphasis on philosophy of science: