The High Middle Ages was the period of European history in the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries (AD 1000–1450). Periodization is the attempt to categorize or divide Time into discrete named blocks The history of Europe describes the passage of time from humans inhabiting the European continent to the present day The High Middle Ages were preceded by the Early Middle Ages and followed by the Late Middle Ages, which by convention end around 1500. The Early Middle Ages is a period in the History of Europe following the fall of the Western Roman Empire spanning roughly five centuries from AD 500 The Late Middle Ages is a term used by historians to describe European history in the period of the 14th and 15th centuries (AD 1300–1499
The key historical trend of the High Middle Ages was the rapidly increasing population of Europe, which brought about great social and political change from the preceding era. Medieval Demography is the study of human Demography in Europe during the Middle Ages. By 1250 the robust population increase greatly benefited the economy, reaching levels it would not see again in some areas until the 19th century. The 19th century of the Common Era began on January 1, 1801 and ended on December 31, 1900, according to the Gregorian calendar This trend was checked in the Late Middle Ages by a series of calamities, notably the Black Death but also including numerous wars and economic stagnation. Around the start of the 14th century a series of events began that brought centuries of European prosperity and growth to a halt The Black Death, or the Black Plague, was one of the deadliest Pandemics in human history widely thought to have been caused by a bacterium named Yersinia
From about the year 1000 onwards, Western Europe saw the last of the barbarian invasions and became more politically organized. An invasion is a military offensive consisting of all or large parts of the Armed forces of one geopolitical entity aggressively entering territory The Vikings had settled in the British Isles, France and elsewhere, whilst Norse Christian kingdoms were developing in their Scandinavian homelands. A Viking is one of the Norse ( Scandinavian Explorers Warriors Merchants, and pirates who raided and colonized wide areas The British Isles (Irish variously Na hOileáin Bhriotanacha, Oileáin Iarthair Eorpa, Éire agus an Bhreatain Mhór; Ellanyn Goaldagh Eileanan This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Terminology and usage As a cultural term "Scandinavia" has no official definition and is subject to usage by those who identify with the culture in question as well The Magyars had ceased their expansion in the 10th century, and by the year 1000, a Christian Kingdom of Hungary was recognized in central Europe. Hungarians (or Magyars, magyarok are an Ethnic group primarily associated with Hungary. The Kingdom of Hungary (short form Hungary) was a considerable state in Central Europe that existed from 1001 to 1918 then from 1919 to 1946 With the brief exception of the Mongol invasions, major barbarian incursions ceased. The Mongol Empire emerged in the course of the 13th century by a series of conquests and invasions throughout Central and Western Asia, reaching Eastern Europe
In the 11th century, populations north of the Alps began to settle new lands, some of which had reverted to wilderness after the end of the Roman Empire. The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial In what is known as the "great clearances," vast forests and marshes of Europe were cleared and cultivated. At the same time settlements moved beyond the traditional boundaries of the Frankish Empire to new frontiers in eastern Europe, beyond the Elbe River, tripling the size of Germany in the process. Francia or Frankia, later also called the Frankish Empire (imperium Francorum Frankish Kingdom (Latin regnum Francorum, "Kingdom of the The Elbe ( die Elbe Low German: de Ilv) is one of the major Rivers of Central Europe. Crusaders founded European colonies in the Levant, the majority of Iberian Peninsula was conquered from the Moors, and the Normans colonized southern Italy, all part of the major population increase and resettlement pattern. The Crusader states were a number of mostly 12th- and 13th-century feudal states created by Western European Crusaders in Asia Minor, Greece and See also Names of the Levant The Levant (lə'vænt is a geographical term that denotes a large area in Western Asia, roughly bounded on the north by the The Reconquista (a Spanish and Portuguese word for "Reconquest" Arabic: الاسترداد, "Recapturing" was a period The Normans were the people who gave their names to Normandy, a region in northern France.
The High Middle Ages produced many different forms of intellectual, spiritual and artistic works. Medieval art covers a vast scope of time and place over 1000 years of Art history in Europe, the Middle East and North Africa. This age saw the rise of modern nation-states in Western Europe and the ascent of the great Italian city-states. Western Europe at its most general meaning means 'all the countries in the West of Europe ' A city-state is a Region controlled exclusively by a City, usually having Sovereignty. The still-powerful Roman Church called armies from across Europe to a series of Crusades against the Seljuk Turks, who occupied the Holy Land. The Crusades were a series of military campaigns of a religious character waged by much of Christian Europe against external and internal opponents The Seljuq (also Seljuq Turks, Seldjuks, Seldjuqs, Seljuks; in Turkish Selçuklular; in Ṣaljūqīyān; in The Holy Land ( Arabic: الأرض المقدسة al-Arḍ ul-Muqaddasah;Ancient Aramaic: ארעא קדישא Ar'a Qaddisha; Hebrew: ארץ_הקודש The rediscovery of the works of Aristotle led Thomas Aquinas and other thinkers to develop the philosophy of Scholasticism. Aristotle (Greek Aristotélēs) (384 BC – 322 BC was a Greek philosopher a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. Scholasticism was the dominant form of theology and philosophy in the Latin West in the Middle Ages, particularly in the 12th 13th and 14th centuries In architecture, many of the most notable Gothic cathedrals were built or completed during this era. See also Gothic art Gothic architecture is a style of Architecture which flourished during the high and late medieval period.
In England, the Norman Conquest of 1066 resulted in a kingdom ruled by a Francophone nobility. The Bayeux Tapestry (Tapisserie de Bayeux is a 50 cm by 70 m (20 in by 230 ft long embroidered cloth which explains the events leading up to the 1066 Norman invasion of The Battle of Hastings was the decisive Norman victory in the Norman Conquest of England. Great Britain during the Middle Ages (from the 5th century withdrawal of Roman forces from the province of Britannia The history of Scotland in the High Middle Ages covers Scotland in the era between the death of Domnall II in 900 AD and the death of king Alexander III England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people The Normans invaded Ireland in force in 1169 and soon established themselves throughout most of the country, though their stronghold was the southeast. Likewise, Scotland and Wales were subdued to vassalage at about the same time, though Scotland later regained her independence. Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain. The Exchequer was founded in the 12th century under King Henry I, and the first parliaments were convened. The Exchequer was (and in some cases still is a part of the governments of England (latterly to include Wales) Scotland, and Northern Ireland Henry I (c 1068/1069 – 1 December 1135) was the fourth son of William I the Conqueror, the first King of England after the Norman The Parliament of England was the Legislature of the Kingdom of England. In 1215, after the loss of Normandy, King John signed the Magna Carta into law, which limited the power of English monarchs. Normandy (Normandie Norman: Normaundie) is a geographical region corresponding to the former Duchy of Normandy. John (24 December 1167 &ndash 19 October 1216 reigned as a King of England from 6 April 1199 until his death Magna Carta ( Latin for Great Charter, literally " Great Paper " also called Magna Carta Libertatum ( Great Charter of Freedoms The Kings of Wessex, who conquered Kent and Sussex from Mercia in 825 became increasingly dominant over the other kingdoms of England during
From the mid-tenth to the mid-eleventh centuries, the Scandinavian kingdoms were unified and Christianized, resulting in an end to Viking raids, and greater involvement in European politics. This article covers the history of the Kingdom of Denmark and of the areas comprising modern-day Denmark. From around the time of the Roman Empire until about 800 AD many stone inscriptions can be found written in Runes The Swedish pre-history ended around 800 CE when the Viking Age began Terminology and usage As a cultural term "Scandinavia" has no official definition and is subject to usage by those who identify with the culture in question as well A Viking is one of the Norse ( Scandinavian Explorers Warriors Merchants, and pirates who raided and colonized wide areas King Cnut of Denmark ruled over both England and Norway. } Canute the Great, also known as Cnut in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles, or Knut ( Old Norse: Knútr inn ríki, Norwegian The Kingdom of Denmark ( ˈd̥ænmɑɡ̊ (archaic ˈd̥anmɑːɡ̊ commonly known as Denmark, is a country in the Scandinavian region of northern Europe Norway ( Norwegian: Norge ( Bokmål) or Noreg ( Nynorsk) officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Constitutional After Knut’s death in 1035, England and Norway were lost, and with the defeat of Valdemar II in 1227, Danish predominance in the region came to an end. "Valdemar the Victorious" redirects here For the novel by Bernhard Severin Ingemann, see Valdemar the Victorious (novel. Meanwhile, Norway extended its Atlantic possessions, ranging from Greenland to the Isle of Man, while Sweden, under Birger jarl, built up a power base in the Baltic Sea. Greenland (Kalaallit Nunaat meaning "Land of the Greenlanders" Grønland is a self-governing Danish Province located between the The Isle of Man (Ellan Vannin ˈɛlʲən ˈvanɪn or Mann (Mannin) is a self-governing Crown dependency, located in the Irish Sea at the geographical "Sverige" redirects here For other uses see Sweden (disambiguation and Sverige (disambiguation. born Birger Magnusson (c 1210 – 21 October 1266) was a Swedish statesman a member of the House of Bjelbo, who played a pivotal role The Baltic Sea is a Brackish inland sea located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N Latitude and from 20°E to 26°E Longitude.
By the time of the High Middle Ages, the Carolingian Empire had been divided and replaced by separate successor kingdoms called France and Germany, although not with their modern boundaries. France in the Middle Ages covers an area roughly corresponding to modern day France, from the death of Charlemagne in 814 to the middle of the 15th Despite the lack of a German nation state prior to 1871 the History of Germany dates back to the era of the Germanic tribes. Carolingian Empire is a historiographical term sometimes used to refer to the realm of the Franks under the Carolingian dynasty. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Germany was under the banner of the Holy Roman Empire, which reached its high-water mark of unity and political power. The Holy Roman Empire ( HRE; German Heiliges Römisches Reich (HRR, Latin Sacrum Romanum Imperium (SRI was a union of territories in
Much of the Iberian peninsula had been occupied by the Moors after 711, although the northernmost portion was divided between several Christian states. After the disorders of the passage of the Vandals and Alans down the Mediterranean coast of Hispania from 408, the history of Medieval Spain This is the History of Italy during the Middle Ages. Late Antiquity Gothic Wars and the Lombard conquest Italy was invaded by the Visigoths The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra The description Moors has referred to several historic and modern populations of Muslim (and earlier non-Muslim people of Berber and Arab descent Events By Place Europe April 30 — Ummayad troops led by Tariq ibn Ziyad land at Gibraltar, and begin In the 11th century, and again in the thirteenth, the Christian kingdoms of the north gradually drove the Muslims from central and most of southern Iberia.
In Italy, independent city states grew affluent on eastern maritime trade. These were in particular the thalassocracies of Pisa, Amalfi, Genoa and Venice. The term thalassocracy (from the θάλασσα meaning sea and κρατείν meaning "to rule" giving θαλασσοκρατία "rule of the sea" Pisa is a city in Tuscany, central Italy, on the right bank of the mouth of the Arno River on the Ligurian Sea. Amalfi is also a town in the Antioquia Departament in Colombia. Genoa ( Genova, ˈdʒɛːnova in Italian; Zena in Genoese and Ligurian; Genua in Latin and archaically in English Venice ( Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venesia or Venexia) is a city in Northern Italy, the capital of the
The High Middle Ages saw the height and decline of the Slavic state of Kievan Rus' and the emergence of Poland. Kievan Rus′ (Ки́евская Русь romanised: Kievskaya Rus', rusʲ also written as Kyivan Rus′ (Ки́ївська Русь or Kievan In the first centuries of its existence the Polish nation was led by a series of strong rulers who converted the Poles to Christendom, created a strong Central European Later, the Mongol invasion in the 13th century had great impact on Eastern Europe, as many countries of that region were invaded, pillaged, conquered and vassalized. Eastern Europe is a general term that refers to the Geopolitical region encompassing the easternmost part of the European continent.
During the first half of this period (c. 1025-1185) the Byzantine Empire dominated the Balkans south of the Danube, and under the Comnenian emperors there was a revival of prosperity and urbanisation; however, their domination of the region came to an end with a successful Bulgarian rebellion in 1185, and henceforth the region was divided between the Byzantines in Greece and some parts of Macedonia and Thrace, the Bulgarians in Moesia and most of Thrace and Macedonia and the Serbians to the north-west. The state of Bulgaria (България transliterated bg-Latn ''Balgaria'' The country preserves the traditions (in ethnic name language and alphabet of the First Bulgarian Greece (Ελλάδα transliterated: Elláda, historically, Ellás,) officially the Hellenic Republic (Ελληνική Δημοκρατία Macedonia is a Geographical and historical region of the Balkan peninsula in southeastern Europe whose area was re-defined in the early 20th century Thrace (Тракия Trakiya or "Trakija" or Trakia, Θράκη Thráki, Trakya is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe The Bulgarians (българи balgari) are a South Slavic people generally associated with the Republic of Bulgaria and the Bulgarian language Moesia (Μοισία Moisía; Мизия Miziya; Moesia Мезија Mezija) was an ancient region and Roman province situated in the The Eastern and Western churches had formally split in the 11th century, and despite occasional periods of co-operation during the twelfth century, in 1204 the Fourth Crusade used treachery to capture Constantinople. The Fourth Crusade (1202&ndash1204 was originally designed to conquer Muslim Jerusalem by means of an invasion through Egypt. Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis, or gr ἡ Πόλις hē Polis, Latin: la CONSTANTINOPOLIS This severely damaged the Byzantines, and their power was ultimately usurped by the Ottoman Empire in the 15th century. The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish The power of the Latin Empire, however, was shortly lived after the Crusader army was routed by the Bulgarian Emperor Kaloyan in the battle of Adrianople (1205). The Latin Empire or Latin Empire of Constantinople (original Latin name Imperium Romaniae, " Empire of Romania " is the This is a list of Bulgarian monarchs from the earliest historical records to 1946 when the monarchy in the country was abolished Kaloyan the Romanslayer (Калоян Ромеоубиец Ivan I (Иван I also Йоан I Ioan I, in English John I) ruled as emperor ( The Battle of Adrianople occurred on April 14 1205 between Bulgarians under Tsar Kaloyan of Bulgaria, and Crusaders
The Medieval Warm Period, the period from 10th century to about the 14th century in Europe, was a relatively warm and gentle interval ended by the generally colder Little Ice Age. The Medieval Warm Period (MWP or Medieval Climate Optimum was a time of unusually Warm Climate in the North Atlantic region lasting from about The Little Ice Age (LIA was a period of cooling occurring after a warmer era known as the Medieval Warm Period or Medieval Climate Optimum Farmers grew wheat well north into Scandinavia, and wine grapes in northern England, although the maximum expansion of vineyards appears to occur within the Little Ice Age period. Wheat ( Triticum spp is a worldwide cultivated grass from the Levant area of the Middle East. Terminology and usage As a cultural term "Scandinavia" has no official definition and is subject to usage by those who identify with the culture in question as well Wine is an Alcoholic beverage made from the fermentation of Grape juice England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland This protection from famine allowed Europe's population to increase, despite the famine in 1315 that killed 1. A famine is a widespread shortage of food that may apply to any Faunal species which phenomenon is usually accompanied by regional Malnutrition, Starvation 5 million people. This increased population contributed to the founding of new towns and an increase in industrial and economic activity during the period. Food production also increased during this time as new ways of farming were introduced, including the use of a heavier plow, horses instead of oxen, and a three-field system that allowed the cultivation of a greater variety of crops than the earlier two-field system - notably legumes, the growth of which prevented the depletion of important nitrogen from the soil.
Household heavy cavalry (knights) became common in the 11th century across Europe, and tournaments were invented. Knight is the English term for a social position originating in the Middle Ages. This article is about the tournaments of the Middle Ages For the general article on tournaments see Tournament. Although the heavy capital investment in horse and armor was a barrier to entry, knighthood became known as a way for serfs to earn their freedom. In the 12th century, the Cluny monks promoted ethical warfare and inspired the formation of orders of chivalry, such as the Templar Knights. The town and commune of Cluny or Clugny lies in the modern-day département of Saône-et-Loire in the région Chivalric orders are orders of Knights that were created by European monarchs in imitation of the Military orders of the Crusades. The Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Pauperes commilitones Christi Templique Solomonici commonly known as the Knights Templar or the Order Inherited titles of nobility were established during this period. In 13th-century Germany, knighthood became another inheritable title, although one of the less prestigious, and the trend spread to other countries. "Heir" and "Heiress" redirect here For the men and women fragrances endorsed by Paris Hilton see Heiress (fragrance.
The East-West Schism of 1054 formally separated the Christian church into two parts: Western Catholicism in Western Europe and Eastern Orthodoxy in the east. The East-West Schism, or the Great Schism, divided medieval Christendom into Eastern (Greek and Western (Latin branches which later became known as the The Eastern Orthodox Church is the second largest single Christian Communion in the world It occurred when Pope Leo IX and Patriarch Michael I excommunicated each other, mainly over disputes as to the existence of papal authority over the four Eastern patriarchs. Pope Michael I Cerularius (c 1000-1059 also known as Michael Keroularios or Patriarch Michael I, was the Patriarch of Constantinople from 1043 to 1059 Excommunication is a religious Censure used to deprive or suspend membership in a religious community Originally a patriarch was a man who exercised autocratic authority as a Pater familias over an extended family
One of the most important events of the period was the series of religious wars known as the Crusades, in which Christians fought to retake Palestine from the Seljuk Turks. The Crusades were a series of military campaigns of a religious character waged by much of Christian Europe against external and internal opponents A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth Palestine is a name which has been widely used since Roman times to refer to the region between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River. The Seljuq (also Seljuq Turks, Seldjuks, Seldjuqs, Seljuks; in Turkish Selçuklular; in Ṣaljūqīyān; in The Crusades impacted all levels of society in the High Middle Ages, from the kings and emperors who themselves led the Crusades, to the lowest peasants whose lords were often absent in the east. The height of the Crusades was the 12th century, following the First Crusade and the foundation of the Crusader states; in the 13th century and beyond, Crusades were also directed against fellow Christians, and in eastern and northern Europe, non-Muslim pagans. The Crusader states were a number of mostly 12th- and 13th-century feudal states created by Western European Crusaders in Asia Minor, Greece and
In the context of the crusades, monastic military orders were founded that would become the template for the late medieval chivalric orders. military order is a Christian Order of knighthood that is founded for crusading, i Chivalric orders are orders of Knights that were created by European monarchs in imitation of the Military orders of the Crusades.
The Knights Templar were a Christian military order founded after the First Crusade to help protect Christian pilgrims from hostile Muslims. The Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Pauperes commilitones Christi Templique Solomonici commonly known as the Knights Templar or the Order The First Crusade was launched in 1095 by Pope Urban II with the dual goals of conquering the sacred city of Jerusalem and the Holy Land and freeing The order was deeply involved in banking, and in 1307 Philip the Fair (Philippe le Bel) had the entire order arrested in France and was dismantled on charges of heresy. They were secretly pardoned by Pope Clement V in 1314. Pope Clement V' (About 1264 &ndash April 20, 1314) born Raymond Bertrand de Got (also occasionally spelled de Gouth and de
The new Christian method of learning was influenced by Anselm of Canterbury (1033-1109) from the rediscovery of the works of Aristotle through Medieval Jewish and Muslim Philosophy (Maimonides, Avicenna, and Averroes) and those whom he influenced, most notably Albertus Magnus, Bonaventure and Abélard. Scholasticism was the dominant form of theology and philosophy in the Latin West in the Middle Ages, particularly in the 12th 13th and 14th centuries A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth Saint Anselm of Canterbury (1033 &ndash April 21, 1109) was an Italian medieval Philosopher, theologian, and church official Aristotle (Greek Aristotélēs) (384 BC – 322 BC was a Greek philosopher a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. Moses Maimonides ( March 30 1135 – December 13 1204) also known as the Rambam, was a Rabbi, Physician, and TemplateInfobox Muslim scholars --> ( Persian /ابو علی الحسین ابن عبدالله ابن سینا (born Abū 'l-Walīd Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad ibn Rushd (Arabicأبو الوليد محمد بن احمد بن رشد better known just as Ibn Rushd (ابن رشد and in European Saint Bonaventure of Bagnoregio (San Bonaventura (1221 &ndash July 15, 1274) born John of Fidanza (Giovanni di Fidanza was the eighth Minister Scholastics believed in empiricism and supporting Roman Catholic doctrines through secular study, reason, and logic. In Philosophy, empiricism is a theory of Knowledge which asserts that knowledge arises from Experience. They opposed Christian mysticism, and the Platonist-Augustinian beliefs in mind dualism and the view of the world as inherently evil. Christian Mysticism is traditionally practised through the disciplines of Prayer (including oratio meditation and Contemplation In Philosophy of mind, dualism is a set of views about the relationship between mind and matter which begins with the claim that mental phenomena are in some The most famous of the scholastics was Thomas Aquinas (later declared a "Doctor of the Church"), who led the move away from the Platonic and Augustinian and towards Aristotelianism. Doctor of the Church ( Latin doctor, teacher from Latin docere, to teach is a title given by a variety of Christian Churches to individuals Platonism is the Philosophy of Plato or the name of other philosophical systems considered closely derived from it Aquinas developed a philosophy of mind by writing that the mind was at birth a tabula rasa ("blank slate") that was given the ability to think and recognize forms or ideas through a divine spark. Philosophy of mind is the branch of Philosophy that studies the nature of the Mind, Mental events Mental functions mental properties MIND ( Moving In New Directions) (est 1975 is an alternative education high school in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Tabula rasa ( Latin: blank slate) refers to the epistemological thesis that individual human beings are born with no built-in mental content Other notable scholastics included Roscelin, Abélard, and Peter Lombard. Roscellinus, also called Roscelin of Compiègne or in Latin Roscellinus Compendiensis and Rucelinus (c Peter Lombard or Petrus Lombardus; (c 1100 — July 20, 1160 in Paris) was a scholastic theologian and Bishop and author One of the main questions during this time was the problem of the universals. Prominent anti-scholastics included as Duns Scotus, William of Ockham, Anselm of Canterbury, Peter Damian, Bernard of Clairvaux, and the Victorines. William of Ockham (also Occam, Hockham, or any of several other spellings ˈɒkəm (c Saint Anselm of Canterbury (1033 &ndash April 21, 1109) was an Italian medieval Philosopher, theologian, and church official Saint Peter Damian, OSB ( Petrus Damiani, also Pietro Damiani or Pier Damiani; c Bernard of Clairvaux, OCist ( 1090 - August 20, 1153) was a French abbot and the primary builder of the reforming Cistercian monastic order
Heresy existed in Europe before the 11th century but only in small numbers and of local character: a rogue priest, or a village returning to pagan traditions; but beginning in the 11th century mass-movement heresies appeared. Heresy is an introduced change to some system of belief especially a religion that conflicts with the previously established canon of that belief The roots of this can be found with the rise of urban cities, free merchants and a new money-based economy. The rural values of monasticism held little appeal to urban people who began to form sects more in tune with urban culture. The first heretical movements originated in the newly urbanized areas such as southern France and northern Italy. They were mass movements on a scale the Church had never seen before, and the response was one of elimination for some, such as the Cathars, and the acceptance and integration of others, such as St. Francis, the son of an urban merchant who renounced money.
Catharism was a movement with Gnostic elements that originated around the middle of the 10th century, branded by the contemporary Roman Catholic Church as heretical. Carcassonne (Carcassona is a fortified French town in the Aude département, of which it is the Prefecture, Gnosticism (γνώσις gnōsis, Knowledge) refers to a diverse Syncretistic Religious movement consisting of various Belief systems Heresy is an introduced change to some system of belief especially a religion that conflicts with the previously established canon of that belief It existed throughout much of Western Europe, but its home was in Languedoc and surrounding areas in southern France. Western Europe at its most general meaning means 'all the countries in the West of Europe ' Languedoc ( in French Lengadòc in Occitan) is a former Province of France, now continued in the modern-day ''régions'' of Languedoc-Roussillon This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics.
The name Cathar most likely originated from Greek katharos, "pure". Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly One of the first recorded uses is Eckbert von Schönau who wrote on heretics from Cologne in 1181: "Hos nostra Germania catharos appellat. "
The Cathars are also called Albigensians. This name originates from the end of the 12th century, and was used by the chronicler Geoffroy du Breuil of Vigeois in 1181. Geoffroy du Breuil of Vigeois was a 12th century French Chronicler He was trained at the Benedictine abbey of Saint-Martial of Limoges The name refers to the southern town of Albi (the ancient Albiga). For the city in Calabria Italy see Albi Italy. Albi is a commune in southern France. The designation is hardly exact, for the centre was at Toulouse and in the neighbouring districts. Toulouse ( pronounced in standard French, and in the local accent ( Occitan: Tolosa, pronounced) is a city in southwest
The Albigensians were strong in southern France, northern Italy, and the southwestern Holy Roman Empire. The Holy Roman Empire ( HRE; German Heiliges Römisches Reich (HRR, Latin Sacrum Romanum Imperium (SRI was a union of territories in
Peter Waldo of Lyon was a wealthy merchant who gave up his wealth around 1175 after a religious experience and became a preacher. The Albigensian Crusade or Cathar Crusade (1209&ndash1229 was a 20-year military campaign initiated by the Roman Catholic Church to eliminate the Cathar Simon IV de Montfort Seigneur de Montfort-l'Amaury 5th Earl of Leicester (1160 &ndash June 25, 1218) also known as Simon de Montfort the elder, was Montségur is a commune in the Ariège department in southwestern France. The Château de Quéribus (in Occitan Castèl de Queribús) is a ruined Castle in the commune of Cucugnan in the Aude Peter Waldo, Valdo, or Waldes ( c. 1140 &ndash c. 1218 also Pierre Vaudès or de Vaux, was the founder of the ||-||} Lyon, also known as Lyons in English is a city in east-central France. He founded the Waldensians which became a Christian sect believing that all religious practices should have scriptural basis. General description The earliest Waldensians believed in poverty and austerity promoting true poverty public preaching and the personal study of the scriptures Waldo was denied the right to preach his sermons by the Third Lateran Council in 1179, which he did not obey and continued to speak freely until he was excommunicated in 1184. Waldo was critical of the Christian clergy saying they did not live according to the word. He rejected the practice of selling indulgences, as well as the common saint cult practices of the day.
In Northern Europe, the Hanseatic League was founded in the 12th century, with the foundation of the city of Lübeck in 1158–1159. The Hanseatic League (also known as the Hansa) was an alliance of trading cities and their Guilds that established and maintained trade Lübeck ( is the second largest City in Schleswig-Holstein, in Northern Germany, and one of the major Many northern cities of the Holy Roman Empire became hanseatic cities, including Amsterdam, Cologne, Bremen, Hannover and Berlin. Amsterdam (pronounced) is the capital and largest city of the Netherlands, located in the province of North Holland in the west Bremen (ˈbʁeːmən is a Hanseatic city in northwestern Germany (official name Stadtgemeinde Bremen / City Municipality of Bremen Hanover (i ( haˈnoːfɐ on the river Leine, is the capital of the federal state of Lower Saxony ( Niedersachsen Berlin is the capital city and one of sixteen states of Germany. Hanseatic cities outside the Holy Roman Empire were, for instance, Bruges and the Polish city of Gdańsk(Danzig). Bruges (Brugge is the capital and largest city of the province of West Flanders in the Flemish Region of Belgium. Gdańsk ( Polish pronunciation; 'Danzig', Gduńsk Gedania Dantiscum is the City at the centre of the fourth-largest Metropolitan area in Poland In Bergen, Norway and Novgorod, Russia the league had factories and middlemen. is the second largest city in Norway. It is located on the south-western coast of Norway in the county of Hordaland in between a group of mountains known as De syv fjell Veliky Novgorod (Вели́кий Но́вгород is the foremost historic city of North-Western Russia and the administrative center of Novgorod In this period the Germans started colonising Eastern Europe beyond the Empire, into Prussia and Silesia. Prussia ( Latin: Borussia, Prutenia; Prūsija Prūsija Prusy Old Prussian: Prūsa) was most recently a historic state Etymology One theory claims that the name Silesia is derived from the Silingi, who were most likely a Vandalic (East Germanic people
In the late 13th century, a Venetian explorer named Marco Polo became one of the first Europeans to travel the Silk Road to China. Venice ( Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venesia or Venexia) is a city in Northern Italy, the capital of the Marco Polo ( September 15 1254 – January 9 1324 at earliest but no later than June 1325 was a Venetian trader and explorer The Silk Road, or Silk Routes, are an extensive interconnected network of Trade routes across the Asian continent connecting East South and Western Asia with the China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National Westerners became more aware of the Far East when Polo documented his travels in Il Milione. The Travels of Marco Polo is the usual English title of Marco Polo 's travel book nicknamed Il Milione ( The Million He was followed by numerous Christian missionnaries to the East, such as William of Rubruck, Giovanni da Pian del Carpini, Andrew of Longjumeau, Odoric of Pordenone, Giovanni de Marignolli, Giovanni di Monte Corvino, and other travellers such as Niccolò da Conti. William of Rubruck (c 1220 in Rubrouck Flanders - c 1293 was a Flemish Franciscan missionary and explorer Giovanni da Pian del Carpine, or John of Plano Carpini or John of Pian de Carpine or Joannes de Plano (c Andrew of Longjumeau (Original French name André de Longjumeau) was a 13th century Dominican missionary and diplomat and one of the most active Occidental diplomats Odoric of Pordenone (real name Odoric Mattiussi or Mattiuzzi) ( c. Giovanni de' Marignolli, a notable traveller to the Far East in the 14th century born probably before 1290 and sprung from a noble family in Florence. John of Montecorvino, or Giovanni Da/di Montecorvino in Italian also spelled Monte Corvino (1246 Montecorvino, Southern Italy - 1328 Niccolò Da Conti (also Nicolò de' Conti) (1395&ndash1469 was a Venetian merchant and explorer born in Chioggia, who traveled to India and
Philosophical and scientific teaching of the Early Middle Ages was based upon few copies and commentaries of ancient Greek texts that remained in Western Europe after the collapse of the Western Roman Empire. The Early Middle Ages is a period in the History of Europe following the fall of the Western Roman Empire spanning roughly five centuries from AD 500 The Western Roman Empire refers to the western half of the Roman Empire, from its division by Diocletian in 285 the other half of the Roman Empire was the Eastern
This scenario changed during the Renaissance of the 12th century. The Renaissance of the 12th century was a period of many changes during the High Middle Ages. The intellectual revitalization of Europe started with the birth of medieval universities. This article is about Western European institutions See also Medieval university (Asia and Byzantine university Medieval university The increased contact with the Islamic world in Spain and Sicily, and during the Reconquista and the Crusades, allowed Europeans access to scientific Arabic and Greek texts, including the works of Aristotle, Alhazen, and Averroes. Al-Andalus (الأندلس was the Arabic name given to those parts of the Iberian Peninsula governed by Muslims or The Islamic conquest and rule of Sicily, Malta, and parts of Southern Italy was a process whose origin can be traced back through the general The Reconquista (a Spanish and Portuguese word for "Reconquest" Arabic: الاسترداد, "Recapturing" was a period The Crusades were a series of military campaigns of a religious character waged by much of Christian Europe against external and internal opponents Arabic (ar الْعَرَبيّة (informally ar عَرَبيْ) in terms of the number of speakers is the largest living member of the Semitic language Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly Aristotle (Greek Aristotélēs) (384 BC – 322 BC was a Greek philosopher a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. TemplateInfobox Muslim scholars --> ( Arabic: ابو علی، حسن بن حسن بن هيثم Latinized Abū 'l-Walīd Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad ibn Rushd (Arabicأبو الوليد محمد بن احمد بن رشد better known just as Ibn Rushd (ابن رشد and in European The European universities aided materially in the translation and propagation of these texts and started a new infrastructure which was needed for scientific communities. The Renaissance of the 12th century saw a major search by European scholars for new learning which led them to the Arabic fringes of Europe especially to Islamic
At the beginning of the 13th century there were reasonably accurate Latin translations of the main works of almost all the intellectually crucial ancient authors, allowing a sound transfer of scientific ideas via both the universities and the monasteries. By then, the natural science contained in these texts began to be extended by notable scholastics such as Robert Grosseteste, Roger Bacon, Albertus Magnus and Duns Scotus. Scholasticism was the dominant form of theology and philosophy in the Latin West in the Middle Ages, particularly in the 12th 13th and 14th centuries Robert Grosseteste (c 1175 &ndash October 9, 1253) English statesman scholastic philosopher, Theologian and Bishop of For the Nova Scotia premier see Roger Bacon (politician. Roger Bacon, O Precursors of the modern scientific method can be seen already in Grosseteste's emphasis on mathematics as a way to understand nature, and in the empirical approach admired by Bacon, particularly in his Opus Majus. Scientific method refers to bodies of Techniques for investigating phenomena The Opus Majus ( Latin for "Greater Work" is the most important work of Roger Bacon.
During the 12th and 13th century in Europe there was a radical change in the rate of new inventions, innovations in the ways of managing traditional means of production, and economic growth. Medieval technology refers to the technology used in medieval Europe, which generally does not include the parts of Europe under Arab rule, such as Islamic The Artes Mechanicae (mechanical arts are a medieval concept juxtaposed to the seven Artes liberales. In less than a century there were more inventions developed and applied usefully than in the previous thousand years of human history all over the globe. The period saw major technological advances, including the adoption or invention of windmills, watermills, printing, gunpowder, the astrolabe, spectacles, a better clock, and greatly improved ships. Technology is a broad concept that deals with a Species ' usage and knowledge of Tools and Crafts and how it affects a species' ability to control and adapt A windmill is a machine that is powered by the energy of the wind This article is about a type of structure For other locational uses see Milldam. Printing is a process for reproducing text and image typically with ink on Paper using a printing press Gunpowder is a an explosive mixture of Sulfur, Charcoal and Potassium nitrate (also known as saltpetre/saltpeter that burns rapidly producing volumes The astrolabe is a historical Astronomical instrument used by classical astronomers, Navigators Glasses, also called eyeglasses or spectacles, are frames bearing lenses worn in front of the Eyes normally for vision correction, Circadian Locomotor Output Cycles Kaput, or Clock is a gene which encodes proteins regulating Circadian rhythm. A ship /ʃɪp/ is a large vessel that floats on water Ships are generally distinguished from Boats based on size The latter two advances made possible the dawn of the Age of Exploration. The Age of Discovery or Age of Exploration was a period from the early 15th century and continuing into the early 17th century during which Europeans explored Many of these inventions were adapted from other countries, such as China. These inventions were influenced by foreign culture and society.
Alfred Crosby described some of this technological revolution in The Measure of Reality: Quantification in Western Europe, 1250-1600 and other major historians of technology have also noted it.
Art in the High Middle Ages includes these major periods or movements:
Other areas of study include regional surveys (Anglo-Saxon art and Jewish art for example) or areas of speciality such as Illuminated manuscripts. Christian art is Art produced in an attempt to illustrate supplement and portray in tangible form the principles of Christianity. Anglo-Saxon art covers art produced within the Anglo-Saxon period of English history particularly from the time of King Alfred (871-899 when there Secular Jewish culture embraces several related phenomena above all it is the Culture of secular communities of Jewish people but it can also include An illuminated manuscript is a Manuscript in which the text is supplemented by the addition of decoration such as decorated Initials borders and
Gothic architecture superseded the Romanesque style by combining flying buttresses, gothic (or pointed) arches and ribbed vaults. A fan vault is a form of vault used in the Perpendicular Gothic style in which the ribs are all of the same curve and spaced equidistantly in a manner resembling The Abbey Church of Saint Peter Bath, commonly known as Bath Abbey, is an Anglican Parish church and a former Benedictine Monastery See also Gothic art Gothic architecture is a style of Architecture which flourished during the high and late medieval period. Regional characteristics of Romanesque architecture|Romanesque art Romanesque architecture is the term that is used to describe the architecture of Middle Ages Europe which A flying buttress, or arc-boutant, is a specific type of Buttress usually found on a religious building such as a Cathedral. An arch is a structure that spans a space while supporting weight (e The intersection of two or three Barrel vaults produces a rib-vault or ribbed vault when they are edged with piped masonry often carved in decorative patterns It was influenced by the spiritual background of the time, being religious in essence: thin horizontal lines and grates made the building strive towards the sky. Architecture was made to appear light and weightless, as opposed to the dark and bulky forms of the previous Romanesque style. Regional characteristics of Romanesque architecture|Romanesque art Romanesque architecture is the term that is used to describe the architecture of Middle Ages Europe which Saint Augustine of Hippo taught that light was an expression of God. Architectural techniques were adapted and developed to build churches that reflected this teaching. Colorful glass windows enhanced the spirit of lightness. GlassWindowjpg|thumb|right|190px|A stained glass panel depicting Biblical scenes at a historic church in Scotland]] A window is an opening As color was much rarer at medieval times than today, it can be assumed that these virtuoso works of art had an awe-inspiring impact on the common man from the street. High-rising intricate ribbed, and later fan vaultings demonstrated movement toward heaven. A fan vault is a form of vault used in the Perpendicular Gothic style in which the ribs are all of the same curve and spaced equidistantly in a manner resembling Veneration of God was also expressed by the relatively large size of these buildings. A gothic cathedral therefore not only invited the visitors to elevate themselves spiritually, it was also meant to demonstrate the greatness of God. The floor plan of a gothic cathedral corresponded to the rules of scholasticism: According to Erwin Panofsky's Gothic Architecture and Scholasticism,the plan was divided into sections and uniform subsections. A floor plan ( floorplan) in Architecture and Building engineering is a Diagram, usually to scale, of the relationships between rooms These characteristics are exhibited by the most famous sacral building of the time: Notre Dame de Paris. NotreDameFlyingButtressjpg|right|thumb|250px|Notre Dame de Paris Flying Buttress]] Notre Dame de Paris is a Gothic Cathedral on the eastern half of the
A variety of cultures influenced the literature of the High Middle Ages, one of the strongest among them being Christianity. Medieval literature is a broad subject encompassing essentially all written works available in Europe beyond and during the Middle Ages (encompassing the one thousand The connection to Christianity was greatest in Latin literature, which influenced the vernacular languages in the literary cycle of the Matter of Rome. Latin literature, the body of written works in the Latin language remains an enduring legacy of the culture of Ancient Rome. Vernacular refers to the Native language of a country or a locality Literary cycles are groups of stories grouped around common figures often (though not necessarily based on mythical figures or loosely on historic ones According to the mediæval poet Jean Bodel, the Matter of Rome was the literary cycle made up of Greek and Roman mythology Other literary cycles, or interrelated groups of stories, included the Matter of France (stories about Charlemagne and his court), the Acritic songs dealing with the chivalry of Byzantium's frontiersmen, and perhaps the best known cycle, the Matter of Britain, which featured tales about King Arthur, his court, and related stories from Brittany, Cornwall, Wales and Ireland. The Matter of France, also known as the Carolingian cycle, is a body of Legendary history that springs from the Old French Medieval literature Charlemagne (ˈʃɑrlɨmeɪn Carolus Magnus or Karolus Magnus meaning Charles the Great) (747 – 28 January 814 was King of the Franks from 768 to his The acritic songs ( Greek: ακριτικά τραγούδια &mdash frontiersmen songs) are the Heroic or Epic poetry that emerged The Matter of Britain is a name given collectively to the Legends that concern the Celtic and legendary History of Great Britain, especially those King Arthur is a legendary British leader who according to medieval histories and romances, led the defence of Britain against the Saxon invaders Brittany (Breizh bʁejs Bretagne; Gallo: Bertaèyn) is a former independent Celtic kingdom and Duchy, now incorporated into Cornwall ( Kernow ˈkɛɹnɔʊ is the most southwesterly county of England, on the Peninsula that lies to the west of the River Tamar Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world There was also a quantity of poetry and historical writings which were written during this period, such as Historia Regum Britanniae by Geoffrey of Monmouth. The Historia Regum Britanniae ( English: The History of the Kings of Britain) is a pseudohistorical account of British history Geoffrey of Monmouth ( Gruffudd ap Arthur or Sieffre o Fynwy) (c
Southern France gave birth to Provençal literature, which is best known for troubadours who sang of courtly love. Occitan literature — still sometimes called Provençal literature — is a body of texts written in Occitan in what is nowadays the South of France A troubadour ( IPA:, originally) was a composer and performer of Occitan Lyric poetry during the High Middle Ages (1100&ndash1350 Courtly love was a Medieval European conception of ennobling love which found its genesis in the ducal and princely courts of Aquitaine, Provence It included elements from Latin literature and Arab-influenced Spain and North Africa. Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. North Africa or Northern Africa is the Northernmost Region of the African Continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Later its influence spread to several cultures in Western Europe, Portugal, the Minnesänger in Germany, Sicily and Northern Italy, giving birth to the Italian Dolce Stil Nuovo of Petrarca and Dante, who wrote the most important poem of the time, the Divine Comedy. The Divine Comedy
The surviving music of the High Middle Ages is primarily religious in nature, since music notation developed in religious institutions, and the application of notation to secular music was a later development. The term medieval music encompasses European music written during the Middle Ages. See also Modern musical symbols Music notation or musical notation is any system which represents aurally perceived Music through the use Early in the period, Gregorian chant was the dominant form of church music; other forms, beginning with organum, and later including clausulae, conductus and the motet, developed using the chant as source material. History Gregorian chant was organized codified and notated mainly in the Frankish lands of western and central Europe during the 12th and 13th centuries with later additions Organum (ˈɔrgənəm though the stress is now sometimes incorrectly put on the second syllable from Ancient Greek ὄργανον - organon "organ instrument A clausula (plural clausulae) is a Polyphonic composition performed as a musical alternative to the original Plainchant passage that it is intended to replace In Medieval music, conductus (plural conductus) is a type of sacred but non-liturgical vocal composition for one or more voices In Western music, motet is a word that is applied to a number of highly varied choral musical compositions
During the eleventh century, Guido of Arezzo was one of the first to develop musical notation, which made it easier for singers to remember Gregorian chants. Guido of Arezzo or Guido Aretinus or Guido da Arezzo or Guido Monaco or Guido D'Arezzo (991/992&ndashafter 1033 was a music theorist
It was during the 12th and 13th centuries that Gregorian plainchant gave birth to polyphony, which appeared in the works of French Notre Dame School (Léonin and Pérotin). Léonin (also Leoninus, Leonius, Leo) ( fl 1150s — d ? 1201) is the first known significant Pérotin ( fl c 1200 also called Perotin the Great, was a European Composer, believed to be French, who lived Later it evolved into the ars nova (Philippe de Vitry, Guillaume de Machaut) and the musical genres of late Middle Ages. Ars nova was a stylistic period in Music of the Late Middle Ages, centered in France, which encompassed the period roughly from the preparation Philippe de Vitry ( October 31, 1291 &ndash June 9, 1361) was a French Composer, music theorist and Poet Guillaume de Machaut, sometimes spelled Machault (c 1300 – April 1377 was an important Medieval French Poet and Composer. An important composer during the 12th century was the nun Hildegard of Bingen. A Nun is a Woman who has taken special vows committing her to a religious life Hildegard of Bingen (Hildegard von Bingen Hildegardis Bingensis 1098 – 17 September 1179) also known as Blessed Hildegard and Saint Hildegard
The most significant secular movement was that of the troubadours, who arose in the south of France in the late 11th century. A troubadour ( IPA:, originally) was a composer and performer of Occitan Lyric poetry during the High Middle Ages (1100&ndash1350 This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. The troubadours were often itinerant, came from all classes of society, and wrote songs on a variety of topics, especially courtly love. Courtly love was a Medieval European conception of ennobling love which found its genesis in the ducal and princely courts of Aquitaine, Provence Their style went on to influence the trouvères of northern France, the minnesingers of Germany, and the composers of secular music of the Trecento in northern Italy. Trouvère ( MWCD: /trü'ver trü'vər/ sometimes spelled trouveur, is the Northern French ( Langue d'oïl) form of the word Troubadour Minnesang was the tradition of lyric and Song writing in Germany which flourished in the 12th century and continued into the 14th century Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. The Trecento was a period of vigorous activity in Italy in the arts including painting architecture literature and music