High-definition (HD) video generally refers to any video system of higher resolution than standard-definition (SD) video, most commonly at display resolutions of 1280×720 (720p) or 1920×1080 (1080i or 1080p). Image resolution describes the detail an Image holds The term applies equally to Digital images film images and other types of images This article discusses the general concepts of high-definition video, as opposed to its specific applications in television broadcast (HDTV), video recording formats (HDCAM, HDCAM-SR, DVCPRO HD, D5 HD, XDCAM HD, HDV and AVCHD), the optical disc delivery system Blu-ray Disc and the video tape format D-VHS. High-definition television (HDTV is a Digital television Broadcasting system with higher resolution than traditional television systems (standard-definition HDCAM, introduced in 1997, is an HD version of Digital Betacam, using an 8-bit DCT compressed 311 recording in 1080i -compatible HDCAM, introduced in 1997, is an HD version of Digital Betacam, using an 8-bit DCT compressed 311 recording in 1080i -compatible Digital Video (DV is a Digital video format created by Sony JVC Panasonic and other video camera procuers and launched in 1995 and in its smaller tape Form factor D-5 is a professional Digital video format introduced by Panasonic in 1994 XDCAM is tapeless professional video system introduced by Sony in 2003 HDV is a High-definition_video format that uses MPEG2 compression to record HD content onto tapes originally designed for standard definition DV recording AVCHD ( Advanced Video Codec High Definition) is a high-definition and Standard-definition recording format for use in digital Tapeless camcorders D-VHS is a Digital video format developed by JVC, in collaboration with Hitachi, Matsushita, and Philips.
Original HD specifications date back to the early 1980s, when Japan developed an 1125-line TV standard operating at 30 frames per second (fps). Japan presented their standard at an international meeting of television engineers in Algiers in 1981 and Japan's NHK presented its analog HDTV system at Swiss conference in 1983. Algiers (الجزائر Algerian Arabic: Dzayer ( (From kabyle pronunciation Kabyle: Ledzayer, Alger) is the Capital and largest For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. or Japan Broadcasting Corporation, is Japan 's Public broadcaster. The NHK system was standardized in the United States as SMPTE (Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers) standard #240M in the early 1990s.
The current high definition video standards were developed during the course of the advanced television process initiated by the Federal Communications Commission in 1987 at the request of American broadcasters. The FCC process, led by the Advanced Television Systems Committee (ATSC) adopted a range of standards from interlaced 1080 line video (a technical descendant of the original analog NHK 1125/30fps system) with a maximum frame rate of 30 fps, and 720 line video, progressively scanned, with a maximum frame rate of 60 fps. The FCC officially adopted the ATSC transmission standard (which included both HD and SD video standards) in 1996, with the first broadcasts on October 28, 1998. Events 306 - Maxentius is proclaimed Roman Emperor. 312 - Battle of Milvian Bridge: Constantine Year 1998 ( MCMXCVIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar)
High definition video (prerecorded and broadcast) is defined threefold, by:
For commercial naming of the product, either the frame rate or the field rate is dropped, e. The field rate of an Interlaced video image is twice the effective Frame rate, since interlacing draws only half of the image (the odd- or even-numbered lines at g. a "1080i television set" label indicates only the image resolution.  Often, the rate is inferred from the context, usually assumed to be either 50 or 60, except for 1080p, which denotes 1080p24, 1080p25, and 1080p30, but also 1080p50 and 1080p60 in the future.
A frame or field rate can also be specified without a resolution. Frame rate, or frame frequency, is the measurement of the Frequency (rate at which an imaging device produces unique consecutive images called frames The For example 24p means 24 progressive scan frames per second and 50i means 25 interlaced frames per second, consisting of 50 interlaced fields per second. Most HDTV systems support some standard resolutions and frame or field rates. The most common are noted below. High-definition signals require a high-definition television or computer monitor in order to be viewed. High-definition video has an aspect ratio of 16:9 (1. 78:1). The aspect ratio of regular widescreen film shot today is typically 1. 85:1 or 2. 39:1 (sometimes traditionally quoted at 2. 35:1). Standard-definition television (SDTV) has a 4:3 (1. 33:1) aspect ratio, although in recent years many broadcasters have transmitted programs "squeezed" horizontally in 16:9 anamorphic format, in hopes that the viewer has a 16:9 set which stretches the image out to normal-looking proportions, or a set which "squishes" the image vertically to present a "letterbox" view of the image, again with correct proportions.
|Resolution (W×H)||Pixels||Aspect Ratio||Video Format||Description|
|1024×768||786,432||16:9 (non-square pixels)||720p/XGA||Used on PDP HDTV displays with non square pixels|
|1280×720||921,600||16:9||720p/WXGA||Used on Digital television, DLP, LCD and LCOS projection HDTV displays|
|1366×768||1,049,088||16:9||720p/WXGA—HDTV standard format||Used on LCD/PDP HDTV displays (HD Ready, HD Ready 720p,1080i)|
|1024×1080||1,105,920||16:9 (non-square pixels)||1080p||Used on PDP HDTV displays (Full HD, HD Ready 1080p)|
|1280×1080||1,382,400||16:9 (non-square pixels)||1080p||Used on PDP HDTV displays (Full HD, HD Ready 1080p)|
|1920×1080||2,073,600||16:9||1080p—HDTV standard format||Used on all types of HDTV technologies (Full HD, HD Ready 1080p)|
|4096×2160||8,847,360||16:9||2160p DCI Cinnema 4k standard format||Quad HDTV, (there is no HD Ready 2160p Quad HDTV format)|
A common resolution used in HD Ready LCD TV panels is 1366 × 768 pixels instead of the ATSC Standard 1280 × 720 pixels. 720p is the shorthand name for a category of HDTV video modes XGA, the Extended Graphics Array, is an IBM display standard introduced in 1990. A plasma display panel (PDP is a type of Flat panel display now commonly used for large TV displays (typically above 37-inch or 940 mm 720p is the shorthand name for a category of HDTV video modes Comparison chart WQUXGA display - 3840 x 2400 pixels (commercially available since Nov 2007 Digital television (DTV is the sending and receiving of moving images and sound by discrete ( digital) signals in contrast to the analog signals used by 720p is the shorthand name for a category of HDTV video modes Comparison chart WQUXGA display - 3840 x 2400 pixels (commercially available since Nov 2007 A plasma display panel (PDP is a type of Flat panel display now commonly used for large TV displays (typically above 37-inch or 940 mm HD ready concerns the abilities of Television receivers to display high-definition pictures 720p is the shorthand name for a category of HDTV video modes A plasma display panel (PDP is a type of Flat panel display now commonly used for large TV displays (typically above 37-inch or 940 mm A plasma display panel (PDP is a type of Flat panel display now commonly used for large TV displays (typically above 37-inch or 940 mm HD ready concerns the abilities of Television receivers to display high-definition pictures In Digital imaging, a pixel ( pict ure el ement is the smallest piece of information in an image This is due to maximization of manufacturing yield and resolution of VGA, VRAM that comes with a 768 pixel format. The term Video Graphics Array ( VGA) refers specifically to the display hardware first introduced with the IBM PS/2 line of computers in 1987, but through its widespread Hence, LCD manufacturers adopt the 16:9 ratio compatible for the HD Ready 1080p standard. HD ready concerns the abilities of Television receivers to display high-definition pictures Nevertheless, every HDTV has an overscan processing chipset to fix resolution scaling and color rendering, e. High-definition television (HDTV is a Digital television Broadcasting system with higher resolution than traditional television systems (standard-definition Overscan is extra image area around the four edges of a Video image that is not normally seen by the viewer g. LG XD Engine, Sony BRAVIA Engine. is a multinational conglomerate corporation headquartered in Minato Tokyo, Japan, and one of the world's largest Media conglomerates with Only when viewing 1080i/1080p HD contents under HD Ready 1080p where there is true pixel-for-pixel reproduction, and for HD ready LCD TV, do some signals undergo a scaling process which results in a 3-5% loss of picture. HD ready concerns the abilities of Television receivers to display high-definition pictures HD ready concerns the abilities of Television receivers to display high-definition pictures Most HD-ready CRT TVs use 1080i resolution.
High-definition image sources include terrestrial broadcast, direct broadcast satellite, digital cable, high definition disc (BD), internet downloads and the latest generation of video game consoles.
The high resolution photographic film used for cinema projection is exposed at the rate of 24 frames per second but usually projected at 48, each frame getting projected twice helping to minimise flicker. This article is mainly concerned with Still photography film For Motion picture film please see Film stock. Depending upon available bandwidth and the amount of detail and movement in the image, the optimum format for video transfer is either 720p24 or 1080p24. When shown on television in PAL system countries, film must be projected at the rate of 25 frames per second by accelerating it by 4. 1 per cent. In NTSC standard countries, the projection rate is 30 frames per second, using a technique called 3:2 pull-down. One film frame is held for three video fields (1/20 of a second), and the next is held for two video fields (1/30 of a second) and then the process is repeated, thus achieving the correct film projection rate with two film frames shown in 1/12 of a second.
Older (pre-HDTV) recordings on video tape such as Betacam SP are often either in the form 480i60 or 576i50. Telecine (ˈtɛləˌsɪni/ /ˌtɛləˈsɪni/ ˌtɛləˈsɪnə also /ˌtɛləˈsiːn/ — "tel-e-Sin-ee" "tel-e-Sin-a" as 'cine' is the same root as in 'cinema' Betacam is a family of half-inch professional Videotape products developed by Sony from 1982 onwards These may be upconverted to a higher resolution format (720i), but removing the interlace to match the common 720p format may distort the picture or require filtering which actually reduces the resolution of the final output. 720i is a term referring to a theoretical High-definition television format utilizing 720 horizontal lines of resolution Interlaced However while the 1080-line HDTV 720p is the shorthand name for a category of HDTV video modes
Non-cinematic HDTV video recordings are recorded in either the 720p or the 1080i format. Deinterlacing is the process of converting Interlaced video like common Analog television signals into a non-interlaced form 720p is the shorthand name for a category of HDTV video modes The format used is set by the broadcaster (if for television broadcast). In general, 720p is more accurate with fast action, because it progressively scans frames, instead of the 1080i, which uses interlaced fields and thus might degrade the resolution of fast images.
720p is used more for Internet distribution of high-definition video, because computer monitors progressively scan; 720p video has lower storage-decoding requirements than either the 1080i or the 1080p. This is also the medium for High Definition Broadcasts around the world and 1080p is used for Blu-ray movies.
Film as a medium has inherent limitations, such as difficulty of viewing footage whilst recording, and suffers other problems, caused by poor film development/processing, or poor monitoring systems. Given that there is increasing use of computer-generated or computer-altered imagery in movies, and that editing picture sequences is often done digitally, some directors have shot their movies using the HD format via high-end digital video cameras. Whilst the quality of HD video is very high compared to SD video, and offers improved signal/noise ratios against comparable sensitivity film, film remains able to resolve more image detail than current HD video formats. In addition some film has a wider dynamic range (ability to resolve extremes of dark and light areas in a scene) than even the best HD cameras. Thus the most persuasive arguments for the use of HD are currently cost savings on film stock and the ease of transfer to editing systems for special effects. Notable directors who have used HD to a large degree thus far are: George Lucas, Michael Mann, Steven Soderbergh, and Robert Rodriguez. George Walton Lucas Jr (born May 14, 1944) is an Academy Award -winning American Film director, producer, Screenwriter Michael Kenneth Mann (born February 5 1943 is an American Film director, Screenwriter, and producer. Steven Andrew Soderbergh (born January 14 1963 is an American Film producer, Screenwriter, Cinematographer, editor, and Robert Anthony Rodriguez (born June 20 1968 is an American director, writer, producer, Cinematographer, editor and Musician
Many television shows with science fiction themes and special effects such as Star Trek: Enterprise, Stargate SG-1, Stargate Atlantis and the re-imagined Battlestar Galactica have also begun to use digital cameras. Star Trek Enterprise (simply titled Enterprise prior to season three is a Science fiction Television program created by Brannon Stargate Atlantis (often abbreviated as SGA) is an American - Canadian Science fiction Television program, part of the The Battlestar Galactica Science fiction franchise which began as a 1978 TV series, was "reimagined" in 2003 into a TV miniseries
Movies that have been shot on HD digital video include:
Most major motion pictures are shot on film. Helvetica is an independent feature-length Documentary film about Typography and Graphic design, centred around the typeface of the same Crank is a 2006 action / thriller Film, written and directed by both Mark Neveldine and Brian Taylor. One Six Right The Romance of Flying is an Independent film about the General aviation industry as seen through a local airport The Quiet is a 2005 film directed by Jamie Babbit, and starring Elisha Cuthbert and Camilla Belle. Star Wars Episode II Attack of the Clones is a 2002 Film directed by George Lucas and written by Lucas and Jonathan Hales Star Wars Episode III Revenge of the Sith is a 2005 Space opera Film written and directed by George Lucas. Spy Kids 2 Island Of Lost Dreams is a 2002 family-oriented Spy film that includes Science fantasy elements Spy Kids 3-D Game Over ( Spy Kids 3 Game Over on VHS releases Pay-Per-View and pay channels Once Upon a Time in Mexico is a 2003 action Film written edited and directed by Robert Rodriguez. Sin City is a 2005 film written produced and directed by Frank Miller and Robert Rodriguez. Sky Captain and the World of Tomorrow is a 2004 American Pulp adventure, Science fiction film written and directed by Kerry Russian Ark (Русский ковчег is a 2002 movie by Russian director Alexander Sokurov. Scary Movie 4 is the fourth film of the Scary Movie franchise and is directed by David Zucker, written by Jim Abrahams Collateral is a 2004 crime/thriller film starring Tom Cruise and Jamie Foxx. Miami Vice is a 2006 American crime drama film about two Miami police dectives Crockett and Tubbs, who Superman Returns is a 2006 Academy Award -nominated Superhero film based on the fictional DC Comics character Find Me Guilty is a 2006 Comedy - Drama based on the longest Mafia trial in American history Plot Rose ( Radha Mitchell) and her husband Christopher da Silva ( Sean Bean) are concerned about their adopted daughter Sharon ( Jodelle Ferland Dogville is a 2003 Film written and directed by Lars von Trier, starring Nicole Kidman, Paul Bettany, Lauren WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout My Name Is Bruce is an American Horror film, directed co-produced by and starring B movie cult actor Bruce Campbell. My Scary Girl ( 달콤 살벌한 연인, Dalkom salbeorhan yeonin) is a 2006 South Korean film, written and directed by Son Jae-gon Bubble is a movie directed by Steven Soderbergh. It was shot on High-definition video and was made for a relatively small budget of $1 The Pink Panther is a Comedy Film released in 2006. It is an adaptation of the similarly titled film series Planet Terror is a 2007 film written and directed by Robert Rodriguez, about a group of people attempting to survive an onslaught of zombie-like creatures The Sanskrit term ( Devanāgarī: धर्म Pali transliteration dhamma) is an Indian spiritual and religious Equilibrium is a 2002 action and Science fiction film written and directed by Kurt Wimmer. Film is a very high resolving medium, with resolution measured by testing its ability to resolve pairs of black and white lines, the unit of measurement is cycles/mm – one "cycle" consists of a pair of lines and is equivalent to two pixels, one black and one white. Film by itself can commonly resolve from 50 c/mm to 400 c/mm (100 pixels/mm to 800 pixels/mm) depending on emulsion stock. An emulsion ( IPA: /ɪˈmʌlʃən/ is a mixture of two Immiscible (unblendable liquids However, since the image on film is formed by exposing it through a lens and this lens also has its own resolution limits, the final resolution on the photographed negative is always less than each component's individual resolution.
Depending on the year and format a movie was filmed in, the exposed image can vary greatly in size. Sizes range from as big as 24 mm × 36 mm for VistaVision/Technirama 8 perforation cameras (same as 35 mm still photo film) going down through 18 mm × 24 mm for Silent Films or Full Frame 4 perforations cameras to as small as 9 mm × 21 mm in Academy Sound Aperture cameras modified for the Techniscope 2 perforation format. Movies are also produced using other film gauges, including 70 mm films (22 mm × 48 mm) or the rarely used 55 mm and CINERAMA. Film gauge is a physical property of Film stock which defines its width 70 mm film (or 65 mm film) is a wide high-resolution film gauge of superior quality to standard 35 mm motion picture film format.
The four major film formats provide pixel resolutions (calculated from pixels per millimeter) roughly as follows:
In the process of making prints for exhibition, this negative is copied onto other film (negative → interpositive → internegative → print) causing the resolution to be reduced with each emulsion copying step and when the image passes through a lens (for example, on a projector). In many cases, the resolution can be reduced down to 1/6th of the original negative's resolution (or worse). Note that resolution values for 70 mm film are higher than those listed above.
Typical high-definition home video uses the following resolutions:
Usually when studios master movies for home video release they use assets in high resolution and then master them to 1920 × 1080 and/or 1280 × 720. For standard definition applications (e. g. , DVD or SDTV), they are also anamorphically compressed and mastered to 720 × 576 (PAL) and 720 × 480 (NTSC). Anamorphic format is a term that can be used either for the Cinematography technique of capturing a Widescreen picture on standard 35 mm film, or other
Video game systems, such as the PlayStation 2, PlayStation 3, Xbox (NTSC only) and Xbox 360 can output an HD signal. The Xbox is a sixth-generation Video game console produced by Microsoft Corporation. The Xbox 360 is the second Video game console produced by Microsoft, and was developed in cooperation with IBM, ATI, and SiS. The PlayStation Network and Xbox Live Marketplace services offers HD movies, and clips for download to their respective consoles. The Xbox Live Marketplace ( XBLM) is a virtual market designed for Microsoft 's Xbox 360 console that allows Xbox Live members to download
The PlayStation 3 and Xbox 360 (seventh generation video consoles) can output display resolutions up to 1080p through both component and HDMI. In the History of video games, the seventh generation, which is also the current generation primarily focuses on the consoles released since by Nintendo, The High-Definition Multimedia Interface ( HDMI) is a compact audio/video connector interface for transmitting uncompressed digital streams While there is only a very limited number of games available which render the picture in 1080p, all games can be automatically scaled to this resolution. Rendering is the process of generating an image from a model, by means of computer programs Both Xbox 360 games and PlayStation 3 games are labeled with their output resolution on games' packages. This is the list of games that have been released or announced for the Microsoft Xbox 360 Video game console, organized alphabetically by name The PlayStation 3 launched in North America on November 17, 2006 with a total of twelve titles with another three being released before the end of the year