Heterosexism is the presumption that everyone is heterosexual and/or the belief that heterosexual people are naturally superior to homosexual and bisexual people. LGBT (also GLBT) is an initialism referring collectively to Lesbian, Gay, bisexual, and Transgender / transsexual " Queer studies " is the study of issues relating to Sexual orientation and Gender identity. A lesbian is a Woman who is romantically or sexually attracted only to other women In the English language, gay is an Adjective that in modern usage refers to Homosexuality. Bisexuality refers to sexual behavior with or attraction to people of both sexes or to a bisexual orientation Transgender (trænzˈdʒɛndɚ from ( Latin) derivatives Homosexuality refers to sexual behavior with or attraction to people of the same sex or to a Homosexual orientation. LGBT history refers to the History of Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and Transgender peoples and cultures around the world dating back Timeline of Lesbian, Gay, bisexual and Transgender ( LGBT) history Homosexual rights during the 20th century Gay Liberation is the name used to describe the radical Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender movement of the late 1960s and early to mid 1970s Lesbian Gay Bisexual and Transgender social movements share related goals of social acceptance of Homosexuality, Bisexuality and Transgenderism Lesbian This is a Timeline of AIDS, including some discussion of early AIDS cases (especially those before 1980 Poliamory pride in San Francisco 2004jpg|thumb|Representatives of the Polyamory community at a San Francisco parade Gay community or LGBT community is a term used to describe the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender subculture LGBT pride or gay pride refers to a world wide movement and philosophy asserting that LGBT ( Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Closeted Coming out (that is " coming out of the closet " describes the voluntary public announcement of one's Sexual orientation and/or Gender identity A gay village (also known as a gay neighborhood or by the slang gayborhood) is an urban geographic location with generally recognized boundaries Queer theory is a field of Gender Studies that emerged in the early 1990s out of the fields of gay and Lesbian studies and feminist studies the relationship between homosexuality and religion can vary greatly across time and place within and between different Religions and Sects and regarding different Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender ( LGBT) communities have adopted certain Symbols and symbolates for Queer has traditionally meant odd or unusual but is now also used to refer to anyone who is not heteronormative. Questioning is a term that can refer to a person who is questioning their Gender, Sexual identity or Sexual orientation. The countries of the world have a wide variety of laws relating to sexual relations between people of the same sex - everything from full legal recognition of Same-sex marriage Same-sex marriage (also referred to as gay marriage) is a term for a legally or Socially recognized Marriage between two people of the same A civil union is a legally recognized union similar to Marriage. LGBT adoption refers to the Adoption of children by Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, or Transgendered people A sodomy law is a Law that defines certain Sexual acts as sex crimes. The militaries of the world have a variety of responses to Gays Lesbians and Bisexuals Most Western military forces have now removed policies excluding sexual Hate crimes (also known as bias motivated crimes) occur when a perpetrator targets a victim because of his or her membership in a certain Social group, usually defined The countries of the world have a wide variety of laws relating to sexual relations between people of the same sex - everything from full legal recognition of Same-sex marriage BenPhelpsJPG|thumb|right|Westboro Baptist Church picket signs with Ben Phelps grandson of Fred Phelps Lesbophobia (sometimes Lesbiphobia) comprises various forms of negativity toward Lesbian women as individuals as a couple or as a social group Biphobia is a term used to describe the fear of aversion to or discrimination against Bisexuality or LGBT people who are bisexual or perceived to be bisexual Heterosexuality refers to sexual behavior with or attraction to people of the opposite sex or to a heterosexual orientation Homosexuality refers to sexual behavior with or attraction to people of the same sex or to a Homosexual orientation. Bisexuality refers to sexual behavior with or attraction to people of both sexes or to a bisexual orientation Heterosexism also encompasses discrimination and prejudice in favor of heterosexual people over gay, lesbian, bisexual, asexual, and transgender people. Unlike most discrimination policies discrimination between, which is the discernment of qualities and recognition of the differences focused here discrimination against is The word prejudice refers to prejudgment making a decision before becoming aware of the relevant facts of a case or event In the English language, gay is an Adjective that in modern usage refers to Homosexuality. A lesbian is a Woman who is romantically or sexually attracted only to other women Bisexuality refers to sexual behavior with or attraction to people of both sexes or to a bisexual orientation Asexuality is a Sexual orientation that describes individuals who do not experience Sexual attraction. Transgender (trænzˈdʒɛndɚ from ( Latin) derivatives As a predisposition toward heterosexuals and heterosexuality, heterosexism has been described as being "encoded into and characteristic of the major social, cultural, and economic institutions of our society. "
Heterosexism thus includes the underlying beliefs and attitudes of such preference. Belief is the psychological state in which an individual holds a Proposition or Premise to be true Attitude is a hypothetical construct that represents an individual's like or dislike for an item Heterosexism is not limited to heterosexuals; people of any sexual orientation, including gay men, lesbians or bisexuals, can hold heterosexist beliefs. Sexual orientation is believed to refer to "an enduring pattern of emotional romantic and/or sexual attractions to men women or both sexes
Etymology and usage
The term heterocentrism or heterosexualism may be equivalent to heterosexism . Although the well-established term heterosexism is often explained as a coinage modeled on sexism, the derivation of its meaning points more to (1. A neologism (from Greek neo = "new" + logos = "word" is a word that although devised relatively recently in a specific time period has been Sexism is the belief or attitude that one Gender or Sex is inferior to or less valuable than the other and can also refer to a Hatred or distrust towards ) heterosex
ual + -ism than (2. ) hetero- + sexism. In fact, the portmanteau word heterosexualism has been proposed as a near equivalent. 
Given this lack of semantic transparency, researchers, outreach workers, critical theorists and LGBT activists have proposed and use terms such as institutionalized homophobia, state(-sponsored) homophobia, sexual prejudice, anti-gay bigotry, straight privilege, The Straight Mind (a collection of essays by French writer Monique Wittig), heterosexual bias or the much lesser known terms heterocentrism, homonegativity, and from gender theory and queer theory, heteronormativity. Linguistic transparency is a phrase which is used in multiple overlapping subjects in the fields of Linguistics and the philosophy of language In the Humanities and Social sciences, critical theory is the examination and critique of Society and Literature, drawing from knowledge across LGBT (also GLBT) is an initialism referring collectively to Lesbian, Gay, bisexual, and Transgender / transsexual BenPhelpsJPG|thumb|right|Westboro Baptist Church picket signs with Ben Phelps grandson of Fred Phelps A bigot is a person who is intolerant of opinions lifestyles or identities differing from his or her own and bigotry is the corresponding state of mind A privilege &mdashetymologically "private law" or law relating to a specific individual&mdashis a special Entitlement or immunity granted by a government The Straight Mind and Other Essays is a ( 1992) collection of essays by Monique Wittig. Monique Wittig ( 1935 - January 3, 2003) was a French author and feminist theorist particularly interested in overcoming Gender Bias is a term used to describe a Tendency or Preference towards a particular perspective, Ideology or result especially when the tendency interferes Homonegativity is a term proposed for use by Hudson and Ricketts in 1980, for description of a negative attitude towards Homosexuality or homosexual people instead Gender studies is a field of Interdisciplinary study which analyzes the phenomenon of Gender. Queer theory is a field of Gender Studies that emerged in the early 1990s out of the fields of gay and Lesbian studies and feminist studies Heteronormativity is a term to describe the marginalization of Non-heterosexual lifestyles and the view that Heterosexuality is the normal Sexual orientation
In everyday speech and writing, however, heterosexism is commonly confused with or eclipsed by the word homophobia, whose key meaning is antipathy towards gay men and lesbians. BenPhelpsJPG|thumb|right|Westboro Baptist Church picket signs with Ben Phelps grandson of Fred Phelps Antipathy is dislike for something or somebody the opposite of Sympathy.
Parallels and intersections
The concept of heterosexism is similar to the concept of racism in that both ideas promote privilege for dominant groups within a given society. List of racism-related topics|Racism by country Racism, by its simplest definition is the belief that race is the primary determinant of human traits and capacities and that Just as racism against non-white people advantages white people as a group, heterosexism advantages heterosexual people, as individuals or couples. White People is the second album by Handsome Boy Modeling School. "Straight-acting" gay men, lesbians, and bisexual people, who project themselves as or are perceived as heterosexual, are also privileged by heterosexism. Straight-acting is a term used to describe a person who does not exhibit the appearance or mannerisms of the gay stereotype. By analogy to white privilege, advantages conferred on heterosexuals - real or perceived - has been called "straight privilege". White privilege is a sociological concept that describes advantages purportedly enjoyed by white persons beyond that which is commonly experienced by non-white people in Heterosexuality refers to sexual behavior with or attraction to people of the opposite sex or to a heterosexual orientation
What's more, heterosexism can intersect with racism by further emphasizing differences among arbitrary groups of people. Intersectionality is a theory which seeks to examine the ways in which various socially and culturally constructed categories interact on multiple levels For example, heterosexism can compound the effects of racism by:
- promoting injustices towards a person already facing injustices because of their race and
- establishing social hierarchies that allow one group more privilege than other groups. JUSTICE is a Human rights and law reform organisation based in the United Kingdom. Social hierarchy is a multi-tiered pyramid-like social or functional structure having an apex as the centralization of power
Likewise, racism can allow LGBT people to be subjected to additional discrimination or violence if they belong to or are considered a part of a socially devalued racial category. Unlike most discrimination policies discrimination between, which is the discernment of qualities and recognition of the differences focused here discrimination against is  Some of the privileges afforded to people falling into the categories of white people and (perceived) heterosexuals include, but are not limited to, social acceptance, prestige, freedom from negative stereotypes, and the comfort of being within the norm and thereby not being marginalized or viewed as different. A stereotype (from Greek: stereo + týpos = "solid impression" is a generalized perception of first impressions behaviors presumed by a group Social norms have been defined as "the rules that a group uses for appropriate and inappropriate values beliefs attitudes and behaviors Marginalization is the social process of becoming or being made Marginal (to relegate or confine to a lower social standing or outer limit or edge as of social standing "the 
Heterosexism as a set of beliefs and attitudes
- See also: Religion and homosexuality, Homosexuality and psychology, Sexual orientation and medicine, and Social attitudes toward homosexuality
Individual and group level
Heterosexism as a set of beliefs and attitudes relies on a core tenet according to which homosexuality and bisexuality do not normally exist and, as such, constitute illnesses or deviant behaviors. the relationship between homosexuality and religion can vary greatly across time and place within and between different Religions and Sects and regarding different Psychology was one of the first disciplines to study homosexuality as a discrete phenomenon Societal attitudes towards homosexuality vary greatly in different cultures and different historical periods as do attitudes toward sexual desire activity and relationships in general Illness (sometimes referred to as ill-health or ail) can be defined as a state of poor Health. Deviance describes actions or behaviors that violate cultural norms including formally-enacted rules (e Within a heterosexist ideology or mindset, the concept of sexual orientation is rejected or deemed irrelevant. An ideology is a set of beliefs aims and Ideas especially in politics A mindset, in Decision theory and general systems theory, refers to a Set of assumptions methods or notations held by one or more people or groups Sexual orientation is believed to refer to "an enduring pattern of emotional romantic and/or sexual attractions to men women or both sexes A set of more nuanced heterosexist views, which some may consider faith, dogma, universal truths, appeals to authority, or popular beliefs, but others consider to be conventional wisdom or sociobiological knowledge can include, among others, the following:
- A person can choose his or her sexual “preference” and, as a result, homosexuality is a lifestyle choice or a current fad. Faith is a Belief in the trustworthiness of an Idea. Formal usage of the word "faith" is usually reserved for concepts of Religion, as in Dogma (the plural is either dogmata or dogmas, Greek, plural) is the established Belief or Moral absolutism is the Meta-ethical view that there are absolute standards against which Moral questions can be Judged, and that certain actions An appeal to authority or argument by authority is a type of argument in Logic called a fallacy Conventional wisdom (CW is a term used to describe ideas or explanations that are generally accepted as true by the public or by experts in a field Sociobiology is a neo-Darwinian and Socialism Synthesis of Scientific disciplines that attempts to explain Social behavior The term lifestyle was originally coined by Austrian psychologist Alfred Adler in 1929
- Homosexuality being wrong, ungodly, and against nature, it is therefore a sin, evil or subhuman. Sin is a term used mainly in a religious context to describe an act that violates a moral Rule, or the state of having committed such a violation Evil, in many cultures is used to describe acts or thoughts which are contrary to some particular religion
- Views identical or akin to Anita Bryant's notorious statement during her Save Our Children campaign:
- "As a mother, I know that homosexuals cannot biologically reproduce children; therefore, they must recruit our children. Anita Jane Bryant (born March 25, 1940, in Barnsdall Oklahoma) is an American Singer. Anita Jane Bryant (born March 25, 1940, in Barnsdall Oklahoma) is an American Singer. Homosexual recruitment is a term used disapprovingly for perceived activities of LGBT people to actively target impressionable individuals to persuade them to identify "
- Because of their lifestyle, homosexuals do not have families with children, so they undermine the survival of the human race. (natalism)
As well as comprising attitudes held by an individual or a social group, heterosexism can also exist as the expression of attitudes within an institution. Natalism or pro-birth is a belief that promotes Human reproduction. As a result, schools, hospitals, and correctional facilities can act as a showcase for heterosexist attitudes in various ways. A prison, penitentiary, or correctional facility is a place in which individuals are physically confined or interned and usually deprived of a range of First, schools may implement these attitudes and ideas through unequal and inconsistent disciplinary actions. One such example is meting out harsher punishment to a same-sex couple violating the school ground rules while allowing a heterosexual couple to pass with an easier and more subtle disciplinary action for an equal or identical violation. Also, hospitals may limit patient visiting only to immediate family, i. e. relatives, and “exclude same sex partners”. Homosexuality refers to sexual behavior with or attraction to people of the same sex or to a Homosexual orientation. Lastly, jails and prisons may reflect heterosexist attitudes by denying the existence of MSM and WSW among the incarcerated or prohibiting safer sex education and the distribution of condoms. Men who have sex with men or males who have sex with males ( MSM) refers to men who engage in sexual activity with other men whether Safe sex (also called safer sex or protected sex) is the practice of Sexual activity in a manner that reduces the risk of Infection with 
The marriage model of opposite-sex marriage is heterosexist in that it does not recognize any type of same-sex couple or any sexual orientation other than a heterosexual orientation. NOTICE TO WOULD-BE ROMEOS ************** For example, one man and one woman can marry regardless of either person’s sexual orientation. More specifically, in those jurisdictions in which marriage is limited to opposite-sex couples, a gay man or a lesbian woman is not allowed to marry a member of the same sex yet can marry a member of the opposite sex.
Heterosexism as discrimination
Explicit or open discrimination
This type of heterosexism includes anti-gay laws, harassment based on sexual orientation or perceived sexual orientation; negative stereotyping, discriminatory language and discourse, and other forms of discrimination against gay men, lesbians, and bisexuals such as:
- Hate speech, terms of disparagement, hate mail, death threats, Murder Music
- Scapegoating, mobbing, witch-hunts, moral panic; using gay men and homosexuality as a folk devil for the AIDS pandemic. Harassment refers to a wide spectrum of offensive behaviour The term commonly refers to behaviour intended to disturb or upset and when the term is used in a legal sense it refers A stereotype (from Greek: stereo + týpos = "solid impression" is a generalized perception of first impressions behaviors presumed by a group Discourse (L discursus, "running to and from" means either "written or spoken communication or debate" or "a formal discussion Hate speech is a term for speech intended to degrade intimidate or incite violence or prejudicial action against a person or group of people based on their race, Gender Terms of disparagement are Pejorative Words and Phrases which are either intended to be or are often regarded as insulting impolite or unkind Hate mail (as electronic, posted, or otherwise is a form of Harassment, usually consisting of invective and potentially intimidating or threatening comments A death threat is a threat, often made anonymously, against a person to kill him or her scapegoat was a Goat that was driven off into the wilderness as part of the ceremonies of Yom Kippur, the Day of Atonement in Judaism during the times Mobbing is a term referring to a type of animal behaviour A newer use refers to a group behavioural phenomenon in workplaces "Witch trial" redirects here For the song by Rush, see Fear series. A moral panic can be defined as "the intensity of feeling expressed by a large number of people about a specific group of people who appear to threaten the social order at a given A folk devil is a person or group of people who are portrayed in Folklore or the media as outsiders and Deviant, and who are blamed for Crimes Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome ( AIDS) has led to the deaths of more than 25 million people since it was first recognized in 1981, making it one of
- Negative portrayals or stereotypes of gay men, lesbians, and bisexuals solely as villains, the butt of jokes, objects of curiosity. This can occur on television and in movies as well as in jokes between friends or among co-workers.
- Using the gay panic defense in assault or murder cases. Gay panic defense is a term used to describe a rare but high-profile legal defense against charges of Assault or Murder. Assault is a Crime of Violence against another person. In some Jurisdictions including Australia and New Zealand, Murder is the unlawful killing of another human person with Malice aforethought, as defined in Common Law countries
- Sodomy laws when enforced almost exclusively against consenting, adult, same-sex partners. A sodomy law is a Law that defines certain Sexual acts as sex crimes. Homosexuality refers to sexual behavior with or attraction to people of the same sex or to a Homosexual orientation. See also: Bowers v. Hardwick and Lawrence v. Texas
- In some countries where homosexuality is criminalized, such as Sudan, Mauritania, Saudi Arabia, and the Islamic Republic of Iran, offenders may receive the maximum sentence of capital punishment. Bowers v Hardwick,, was a United States Supreme Court decision that upheld the constitutionality of a Georgia Sodomy law that criminalized Lawrence v Texas, 539 US 558 ( 2003) was a landmark United States Supreme Court case The countries of the world have a wide variety of laws relating to sexual relations between people of the same sex - everything from full legal recognition of Same-sex marriage Sudan (officially the Republic of Sudan) ( السودان al-Sūdān is a country in northeastern Africa. Mauritania (موريتانيا Mūrītāniyā officially the Islamic Republic of Mauritania, is a country The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, KSA ( المملكة العربية السعودية, al-Mamlaka al-ʻArabiyya as-Suʻūdiyya) or Suudi Islamic Republic is the name given to several states in the Muslim world including the Islamic Republics of Iran, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Mauritania For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. Capital punishment, the death penalty or execution, is the Killing of a person by judicial process as Punishment. See also: Paragraph 175
- Discrepancies in age of consent laws in which legal sexual activity between members of the same sex is set at a higher age than that for opposite-sex partners. Paragraph 175 (known formally as §175 StGB; also known as Section 175 in English) was a provision While the phrase age of consent typically does not appear in legal Statutes when used with in relation to sexual activity, the age of consent is the minimum age at See also: Morris v. The United Kingdom
- Adoption bans against either same-sex couples or gay, lesbian, or bisexual individuals. Chris Morris (born 23 May 1979) is an Activist who with Euan Sutherland, successfully challenged the British Government in the European Adoption is the act of legally placing a child with a Parent or parents other than those to whom they were born See also: LGBT adoption
- Proposals or legislation to prohibit equal rights protection against discrimination based on sexual orientation or perceived sexual orientation, particularly with regard to health care, housing, and employment. LGBT adoption refers to the Adoption of children by Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, or Transgendered people Health care is the prevention treatment and management of illness and the preservation of mental health through the services offered by the medical, Nursing Employment is a Contract between two parties, one being the employer and the other being the employee.
- The institution of opposite-sex marriage and reserving the right to marry strictly for opposite-sex couples via explicit definitions or through bans on same-sex marriage such as “marriage protection acts” or “defense of marriage acts”;
- Also, the above restriction even when same-sex couples have access to civil unions that are either analogous to or not on a par with marriage;
- Reserving civil unions strictly for opposite-sex couples;
- Barring gay men, lesbians, and bisexuals from serving in the armed forces or from working in the education field; this can include policies such as the U.S. military’s “Don't ask, don't tell” policy or Lech Kaczyński and other conservative Polish politicians’ stance to exclude gay men and lesbians from entering the teaching profession. NOTICE TO WOULD-BE ROMEOS ************** A ban (derived from Banishment) is generally any Decree that prohibits something Same-sex marriage (also referred to as gay marriage) is a term for a legally or Socially recognized Marriage between two people of the same The Marriage "Protection" Act of 2007 (MPA) is a bill in the U The Defense of Marriage Act, or DOMA, is the short title of a Federal law of the United States passed on September 21 1996 as Public Law No A civil union is a legally recognized union similar to Marriage. For the military meaning see Armed forces. For the Soviet sports society see Armed Forces (sports society Armed Forces Education encompasses both the Teaching and Learning of Knowledge, proper conduct, and technical competency The United States Armed Forces are the overall unified military forces of the United States "Don't ask don't tell" is the common term for the policy about homosexuality in the U ˈlɛx alɛˈksandɛr kaˈtʂɨɲskʲi (born 18 June 1949 is the President of the Republic of Poland a politician of the conservative party Prawo i Sprawiedliwość See also: LGBT rights in Poland
- Organized opposition to equal rights for gay men, lesbians, bisexuals (LGBT rights) and same-sex couples; labeling such equal rights and privileges as "special rights" or the "Gay Agenda";
- Referring to a suspected criminal's homosexuality or bisexuality when in analogous situations there is no mention of a suspect's heterosexuality. Homosexual sex was generally legalised in 1932. Note that the laws prohibiting homosexual sex were imposed by the occupying powers (See Partitions of Poland) and there was never Lesbian Gay Bisexual and Transgender social movements share related goals of social acceptance of Homosexuality, Bisexuality and Transgenderism Lesbian Originating in Sociology and Criminology, labeling theory (also known as social reaction theory) focuses on the linguistic tendency of majorities to negatively Special rights is a political term originally used by libertarians to refer to laws granting rights to one or more groups which are not extended " Homosexual agenda " (or " gay agenda " is a term used by social conservatives primarily in the United States, referring to
Implicit or hidden discrimination
This form of heterosexism operates through invisibility, underrepresentation, and erasure. It includes:
- Lack of portraying LGBT people in advertising to the general public;
- Censorship of LGBT characters, themes, and issues in works of art, literature, entertainment; see also "Sugar Time" episode of Postcards from Buster
- Exclusion of historical and political figures’ and celebrities’ homosexuality or bisexuality, on equal terms with homosexuality; their portrayal as heterosexuals;
- Complete avoidance of mentioning these people and their positive contributions particularly in news media;
- In the context of sex education or professional advice, referring only to opposite-sex partners when discussing female or male sexual attraction and activity;
- Total silence on LGBT issues at school or work or absence of their discussion in a positive light;
- Implementation and use of content-control software (censorware) to filter out information and websites that focus on LGBT topics and issues;
- Postal censorship and border control or customs seizure of publications deemed obscene solely on the basis of them containing LGBT-related material even when they contain no erotic or pornographic material; see also Little Sister's Book and Art Emporium
- Work environments that tacitly require gay men, lesbians, and bisexuals not to reveal their sexual orientation via discussion of their relationship status while heterosexuals can discuss their relationships and marital status freely;
- At public libraries or bookstores: rejection, removal or destruction of LGBT-themed books (e. Censorship is the suppression of speech or deletion of communicative material which may be considered objectionable harmful or sensitive as determined by a censor Postcards from Buster, also called Buster's Postcards, is a Children's television series, containing both Animation and Live-action The news media refers to the section of the Mass media that focuses on presenting current News to the public NOTICE TO WOULD-BE-ROMEOS*************** Content-control software, also known as censorware or web filtering software, is a term for software designed and optimized for controlling what content Postal censorship is the Inspection or examination of Mail, most often by Governments that can include opening reading or marking of covers, Obscenity (in Latin obscenus, meaning "foul repulsive detestable" is a term that is most often used in a legal context to Pornography or porn is the explicit depiction of Sexual subject matter with the sole intention of sexually exciting the viewer Little Sister's Book and Art Emporium, also known as Little Sister's Bookstore, but usually called "Little Sister's" is an independent Bookstore in A person's marital status describes their relationship with a significant other Homosexuality in children's literature covers children's books that include mention of homosexuality g. Jenny lives with Eric and Martin), films, and posters;
- Refusal to include LGBT parented families at school events or to represent such family diversity in school curricula; see also anti-bias curriculum;
- Coercive or forced sex reassignment surgery on gay men and lesbians. Jenny lives with Eric and Martin (ISBN 0-907040-22-5 originally Mette bor hos Morten og Erik, is a black-and-white Picture book by the Danish Many lesbian gay bisexual and transgendered people are parents ---- The anti-bias curriculum is an activist approach which its proponents claim challenges forms of prejudice such as Racism, Sexism, Ableism / Sex reassignment surgery (SRS gender reassignment surgery, or sex-change operation is a term for the Surgical procedures by which a person's physical For example, many Iranian gay men and lesbians must turn to sex-reassignment surgery as a strategy to avoid persecution and a death sentence; transsexuality and being transgender are not outright forbidden in the Qu'ran. The Iranian people are a collection of Ethnic groups defined along linguistic lines as speaking Iranian languages. Persecution is the systematic mistreatment of an individual/group by another group Transsexualism is a condition in which a person identifies with a physical Sex different from the one with which they were born Transgender (trænzˈdʒɛndɚ from ( Latin) derivatives The Qur’an ( القرآن, literally "the recitation" also sometimes transliterated as Qur’ān, Koran, Alcoran See also: LGBT rights in Iran
- Forced disappearance, damnatio memoriae, ostracism, shunning, and other forms of social rejection geared towards making LGBT people personae non gratae. Since the Iranian Revolution of 1979 international Human rights groups have cited government persecution of LGBT rights in Iran, including public floggings and executions A forced disappearance occurs when an organization forces a person to vanish from Public view either by Murder or by simple Sequestration. Damnatio memoriae is the Latin phrase literally meaning "damnation of memory" in the sense of removed from the remembrance. Ostracism ( ostrakismos) was a procedure under the Athenian democracy in which a prominent Citizen could be expelled from the City-state Shunning is the act of deliberately avoiding association with and habitually keeping away from an individual or group Persona non grata ( Latin, Plural: personae non gratae, also abbreviated PNG literally meaning "an unwelcome person" is a term used
Effects of heterosexism
The main effect of heterosexism is the marginalization of gay men, lesbians, and bisexuals within society. Marginalization is the social process of becoming or being made Marginal (to relegate or confine to a lower social standing or outer limit or edge as of social standing "the Heterosexism has led to stigmatization and persecution of not only these people but also those of other sexual diversity such as transgender, and transsexual people. Social stigma is severe social disapproval of personal characteristics or Beliefs that are against cultural norms. Persecution is the systematic mistreatment of an individual/group by another group Along with violence against LGBT people, homophobia, lesbophobia, and internalized homophobia, heterosexism continues to be a significant social reality that compels people to conceal their homosexual or bisexual orientation, or metaphorically, to remain in the closet in an effort to pass for heterosexual. Violence against LGBT people queer identifying and the same-sex attracted are actions which may occur either at the hands of BenPhelpsJPG|thumb|right|Westboro Baptist Church picket signs with Ben Phelps grandson of Fred Phelps Lesbophobia (sometimes Lesbiphobia) comprises various forms of negativity toward Lesbian women as individuals as a couple or as a social group BenPhelpsJPG|thumb|right|Westboro Baptist Church picket signs with Ben Phelps grandson of Fred Phelps Coming outThe expressions " closeted " or "in the closet " generally refer to undisclosed sexual behavior, Sexual orientation or Gender Passing is the ability of a person to be regarded as a member of a combination of sociological groups other than his or her own such as a different race
Where marriage rights are heterosexist, i. e. exclusive to opposite-sex couples, all same-sex couples, be they gay, lesbian, straight or mixed, are prevented from enjoying marriage’s corresponding legal privileges, especially those regarding property rights, health benefits, and child custody. Moreover, such limitation prevents same-sex couples from receiving the inherent social respect of marriage and its cultural symbolism. In turn, for lack of institutional or religious legitimization, gay and lesbian sex can be viewed as inferior or undesirable just as non-procreative and pre-marital sex are targets of sex-negativity. Human reproduction is the Reproduction of Humans. It is a form of Sexual reproduction, by Sexual intercourse between human Males and Fornication, or simple fornication is a term which refers to voluntary Sexual intercourse between persons not married to each other Sex-negativity is a term ascribed to the philosophy that attaches a negative or conservative meaning to the human sexual act
On singing duo Romanovsky and Phillips' album Be Political, Not Polite, the song "When Heterosexism Strikes" discusses possible actions in response to example cases of heterosexism. Romanovsky & Phillips is a Gay singing duo named after its members Ron Romanovsky and Paul Phillips. (lyrics)
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External links Social norms have been defined as "the rules that a group uses for appropriate and inappropriate values beliefs attitudes and behaviors Heteronormativity is a term to describe the marginalization of Non-heterosexual lifestyles and the view that Heterosexuality is the normal Sexual orientation " Compulsory Heterosexuality and Lesbian Existence " is a 1980 essay by Adrienne Rich, published in her 1986 book Blood Bread and Poetry. Diversity training is Training for the purpose of increasing participants' cultural awareness knowledge and skills which is based on the assumption that the training will The term multiculturalism generally refers to a state of racial, cultural and ethnic diversity within the Demographics of a specified Identity politics is Political action to advance the interests of members of a group whose members are oppressed by virtue of a shared and marginalized Identity (such The culture war (or culture wars) in American usage is a metaphor used to claim that political conflict is based on sets of conflicting values Harassment refers to a wide spectrum of offensive behaviour The term commonly refers to behaviour intended to disturb or upset and when the term is used in a legal sense it refers Bullying is the act of intentionally causing harm to others through verbal Harassment, physical Assault, or other more subtle methods of Coercion BenPhelpsJPG|thumb|right|Westboro Baptist Church picket signs with Ben Phelps grandson of Fred Phelps Lesbophobia (sometimes Lesbiphobia) comprises various forms of negativity toward Lesbian women as individuals as a couple or as a social group Biphobia is a term used to describe the fear of aversion to or discrimination against Bisexuality or LGBT people who are bisexual or perceived to be bisexual Generally speaking human sexuality is how people experience and express themselves as sexual beings Sociobiology is a neo-Darwinian and Socialism Synthesis of Scientific disciplines that attempts to explain Social behavior Lesbian Gay Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT stereotypes are conventional formulaic Generalizations opinions or images about persons based on their Sexual orientation Tokenism refers to a policy or practice of limited inclusion of members of a Minority group usually creating a false appearance of inclusive practices intentional or not The Other or constitutive other (also referred to as othering) is a key concept in Continental philosophy, opposed to the Same The term minority rights embodies two separate concepts first normal individual Rights as applied to members of racial Ethnic, class religious linguistic or Second-class citizen is an informal term used to describe a person who is systematically discriminated against within a State or other political jurisdiction The Jim Crow laws were state and local laws enacted primarily but not exclusively in the Southern and border states of the United States between 1876 and 1965 LGBT rights opposition refers to various movements or attitudes which oppose the extension of certain rights to Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Supremacism is the belief that a particular race, Religion, Gender, belief system or Culture is superior to others and entitles A comprehensive world view (or worldview) is a term Calqued from the German word Weltanschauung ( Welt is the German
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- The assumption made when relating to others that everyone is heterosexual.
- Discrimination against homosexuals and bisexuals.
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