Head of state or Chief of State is the generic terms for the individual or collective office that serves as the chief public representative of a monarchic or republican nation-state, federation, commonwealth or any other political state. For the online game see Jennifer Government NationStates. The nation-state is a certain form of State that derives its legitimacy A federation ( Latin: foedus, covenant is a union comprising a number of partially self-governing states or regions united by a central ("federal" The English noun commonwealth dates from the fifteenth century. A state is a political association with effective Sovereignty over a geographic Area and representing a Population. His or her role generally includes personifying the continuity and legitimacy of the state and exercising the political powers, functions and duties granted the head of state in the country's laws and constitution. A constitution is a system for government often Codified as a written document that establishes the rules and principles of an autonomous political entity
Charles de Gaulle described the role he envisaged for the French president when he wrote the modern French constitution. Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle ( ( 22 November 1890 – 9 November 1970) was a French General and statesman who led the Free French A constitution is a system for government often Codified as a written document that establishes the rules and principles of an autonomous political entity He said the head of state should embody "the spirit of the nation" for the nation itself and the world: une certaine idée de la France (a certain idea about France). Today many countries expect their head of state to embody national values in a similar fashion.
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Different countries have different executive systems but in essence four major, generalizing categories can be distinguished:
One form that the head of state role takes can be loosely called the non-executive head of state model. Its holders are excluded completely from the executive: they do not possess even theoretical executive powers or any role, even formal, within the government. Hence their states' governments are not referred to by the traditional parliamentary model head of state styles of "His/Her Majesty's Government" or "His/Her Excellency's Government. A style of office, or honorific, is a term which by Tradition or Law precedes a reference to a person who holds a post or Title, or to the " Within this general category, variants in terms of powers and functions may exist. The King of Sweden, since the passage of the modern Swedish constitution (the Instrument of Government) in the mid 1970s, no longer has any of the parliamentary system head of state functions that had previously belonged to Swedish kings, but still receives formal cabinet briefings monthly in the royal palace. In contrast, the only contact the Irish president has with the Irish government is through a formal briefing session given by the Taoiseach (prime minister) to the President. The Taoiseach (ˈtiːʃəx in English t̪ˠiːʃʲəx (plural Taoisigh ( or) in Irish) also referred to as An Taoiseach ( t̪ˠiːʃʲəx is the the However, he or she has no access to documentation and all access to ministers goes through the Department of An Taoiseach (prime minister's office). The Department of the Taoiseach (Roinn an Taoisigh is the government department of the Prime minister of the Republic of Ireland, An Taoiseach
Examples of this category, invariably dating from the twentieth century, include: the President of Ireland, the King of Sweden (since 1975), the President of Germany, the President of Greece, the President of Israel, and the Emperor of Japan (since 1947). The President of Ireland (Uachtarán na hÉireann n̪ˠə ˈheːɾʲən̪ˠ is the Head of state of Ireland. This is a list of Swedish Monarchs, that is the Kings and ruling Queens of Sweden, with Regents and Viceroys of the Kalmar Union The President of Germany (deutscher Bundespräsident is Germany 's Head of state. The President of the Republic (Πρόεδρος της Δημοκρατίας colloquially referred to in English as the President of Greece, is the elected Head of state The President of the State of Israel (נשיא המדינה Nesi HaMedina, lit The of Japan is the country's Monarch. He is the head of the Japanese Imperial Family.
In parliamentary systems the head of state may be merely the nominal chief executive officer of the state, possessing executive power (hence the description of the United Kingdom monarch's government as His/Her Majesty's Government; a term indicating that all power belongs to the sovereign and the government acts on Her Majesty's behalf, not parliament's). A parliamentary system, also known as parliamentarianism (and parliamentarism in American English) is a System of government in which The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Her Majesty's Government, or when the monarch is male His Majesty's Government, is the title used by the Government of the United Kingdom, based at In reality however, due to a process of constitutional evolution, powers are usually only exercised by direction of a cabinet, presided over by a prime minister, or President of the Government, who is answerable to the legislature. A cabinet is a body of high-ranking members of Government, typically representing the executive branch. This article is about the government position For other uses see Prime Minister (disambiguation. This accountability requires that someone be chosen from parliament who has parliament's support (or, at least, not parliament's opposition - a subtle but important difference). It also gives parliament the right to vote down the government, forcing it either to resign or seek a parliamentary dissolution. Governments are thus said to be responsible (or answerable) to parliament, with the government in turn accepting constitutional responsibility for offering constitutional advice to the head of state. Advice, in Constitutional law, is formal usually binding instruction given by one constitutional officer of state to another
In parliamentary constitutional monarchies, the legitimacy of the unelected head of state typically derives from the tacit approval of the people via the elected representatives. A constitutional monarchy, or a limited monarchy, is a form of Constitutional Government, wherein either an elected or hereditary Monarch is Accordingly, at the time of the Glorious Revolution, the English Parliament acted of its own authority to name a new king and queen (joint monarchs Mary II and William III); likewise, Edward VIII's abdication required the passage of a law in the parliament of each of the Commonwealth realms, due to the independence of each country's monarchy in personal union. The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England (VII of Scotland in 1688 by a union Mary II (30 April 1662 &ndash 28 December 1694 reigned as Queen of England, Ireland and Scotland from 1689 until her death William III or William of Orange (14 November 1650 &ndash 8 March 1702 He is informally known in Northern Ireland and Scotland as "King Billy" A Commonwealth realm is any one of 16 sovereign states within the Commonwealth of Nations that each have Elizabeth II as their respective Monarch A personal union is the combination by which two different States are governed by the same Monarch, while their boundaries their laws and their interests remain distinct In monarchies with a written constitution, the position of monarch is a creature of the constitution, and could quite properly be abolished through a democratic procedure of constitutional amendment, although there are often significant procedural hurdles imposed on such a procedure (as in the Constitution of Spain). The Constitution of Spain is regarded as the culmination of the Spanish transition to democracy.
In reality, numerous variants exist to the position of a head of state within a parliamentary system. The older the constitution, the more constitutional leeway tends to exist for a head of state to exercise greater powers over government, as many older parliamentary system constitutions in fact give heads of state powers and functions akin to presidential or semi-presidential systems, in some cases without containing reference to modern democratic principles of accountability to parliament or even to modern governmental offices. For example, the 1848 constitution of the Kingdom of Italy was sufficiently ambiguous and outdated by the 1920s to give King Victor Emmanuel III leeway to appoint Benito Mussolini to power in controversial circumstances. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Victor Emmanuel III (Vittorio Emanuele III 11 November, 1869 – 28 December, 1947) was a member of the House of Savoy and Some Commonwealth parliamentary systems combine a body of written constitutional law, unwritten constitutional precedent, Orders-in-Council, letters patent, etc. An Order-in-Council is a type of legislation in Commonwealth Realms. Letters patent are a type of Legal instrument in the form of an Open letter issued by a Monarch or Government, granting an office right that may give a head of state or their representative additional powers in unexpected circumstances (such as the dismissal of Australian prime minister Gough Whitlam by Governor-General Sir John Kerr. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. Edward Gough Whitlam, AC, QC (born 11 July 1916 known as Gough Whitlam (ˈɡɒf goff is an Australian former politician and 21st The term governor general or governor-general refers to a vice-regal representative of a Monarch in an independent realm or a major colonial circonscription John Kerr may refer to one of the following Government and politics John Kerr (Governor-General (1914&ndash1991 Australian Governor-General )
Other examples of heads of state in parliamentary systems using greater powers than usual, due either to ambiguous constitutions or unprecedented national emergencies, include the decision by King Léopold III of the Belgians to surrender on behalf of his state to the invading German army in 1940, against the will of his government. Leopold III (born as Léopold Philippe Charles Albert Meinrad Hubertus Marie Miguel (French or Leopold Filips Karel Albert Meinrad Hubertus Maria Miguel Judging that his responsibility to the nation by virtue of his coronation oath required him to act, he believed that his government's decision to fight rather than surrender was mistaken and would damage Belgium. (Leopold's decision proved highly controversial. After World War II, Belgium voted on whether to allow him back on the throne. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including It did so, but because of the ongoing controversy he ultimately abdicated. )
Note: "presidential" in this context does not automatically imply a president but any head of state – elected, hereditary, or dictatorial – who presides. President is a Title leaders of Organizations companies, Trade unions universities, and countries. It is sometimes called the "imperial model," without regard for the monarchic title emperor, rather referring to the luster.
Some constitutions or fundamental laws provide for a head of state who is not just in theory but in practice chief executive, operating separately from, and independent from, the legislature. This system is sometimes known as a "presidential system" because the government is answerable solely and exclusively to a presiding, acting head of state, and is selected by and on occasion dismissed by the head of state without reference to the legislature. It is notable that some presidential systems, while not providing for collective executive answerability to the legislature, may require legislative approval for individuals prior to their assumption of cabinet office and empower the legislature to remove a president from office (for example, in the United States of America). The United States of America —commonly referred to as the In this case the debate centres on the suitability of the individual for office, not a judgement on them when appointed, and does not involve the power to reject or approve proposed cabinet members en bloc, so it is not answerability in the sense understood in a parliamentary system.
Some presidential systems may also include a prime minister, but, as with the other ministers, they are responsible to the president, not the legislature. In many such instances the office is of minimal political importance, sometimes even held by some administrative technocrat rather than a politician. A prime minister in a presidential system lacks the constitutional and political dominance of a prime minister in a parliamentary system and is often seen as simply a politically junior figure who may run the mechanics of government while allowing the president to set the broad national agenda.
Presidential systems are a notable feature of constitutions in the Americas, including those of the United States, Brazil, and Mexico. A presidential system is a System of government where an executive branch exists and presides (hence the term separately from the Legislature The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the Continents of North America and South America |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld The United Mexican States ( or commonly Mexico (ˈmɛksɪkoʊ () is a federal constitutional Republic in North America. Most presidents in such countries are selected by democratic means (popular direct or indirect election); however, like all other systems, the presidential model also encompasses people who become head of state by other means, notably through military dictatorship or coup d'état, as seen in South American, Middle Eastern, and other presidential regimes. Some of the characteristics of a presidential system (i. e. , a strong dominant political figure with an executive answerable to them, not the legislature) can also be found among absolute monarchies, parliamentary monarchies, and Communist regimes, but in most cases of dictatorship apply their stated constitutional models in name only and not in political theory or practise. Absolute monarchy is a monarchical Form of government where the king and queen have absolute power over everything A constitutional monarchy, or a limited monarchy, is a form of Constitutional Government, wherein either an elected or hereditary Monarch is Communism is a Socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless Society based
In the 1870s in the United States, in the aftermath of the impeachment of President Andrew Johnson and his near-removal from office, it was speculated that the United States, too, would move from a presidential system to a semi-presidential or even parliamentary one, with the Speaker of the House of Representatives becoming the real center of government as a quasi-prime minister. Impeachment is the first of two stages in a specific process for a legislative body to forcibly remove a Government official Andrew Johnson (December 29 1808 – July 31 1875 was the seventeenth President of the United States (1865-69 succeeding to the Presidency upon the assassination The term speaker is a title often given to the presiding officer of a legislative body The United States House of Representatives is one of the two chambers of the United States Congress; the other is the Senate. This did not happen and the presidency, having been damaged by three late nineteenth century assassinations (Lincoln, Garfield, and McKinley) and one impeachment (Johnson), reasserted its political dominance by the early twentieth century through such figures as Theodore Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson. Abraham Lincoln (February 12 1809 &ndash April 15 1865 the sixteenth President of the United States, successfully led his country through its greatest internal James Abram Garfield (November 19 1831 September 19 1881 was the twentieth President of the United States. William McKinley Jr ( January 29, 1843 September 14, 1901) was the twenty-fifth President of the United States, and the last Theodore Roosevelt (ˈroʊzəvɛlt October 27 1858 January 6 1919 also known as T Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28 1856—February 3 1924 was the twenty-eighth President of the United States.
Semi-presidential systems combine features of presidential and parliamentary systems, notably a requirement that the government be answerable to both the president and the legislature. The constitution of the Fifth French Republic provides for a prime minister who is chosen by the president, but who nevertheless must be able to gain support in the National Assembly. See also Government of France The Fifth Republic is the fifth and current republican constitution of France, which was introduced on The French National Assembly. The other is the Senate ( “Sénat”) Should a president be of one side of the political spectrum and the opposition be in control of the legislature, the president is usually obliged to select someone from the opposition to become prime minister, a process known as Cohabitation. Cohabitation in government occurs in Semi-presidential systems such as France 's system when the President is from a different Political party President François Mitterrand, a Socialist, for example, was forced to cohabit with the neo-Gaullist (right wing) Jacques Chirac, who became his prime minister from 1986 to 1988. François Maurice Adrien Marie Mitterrand ( 26 October 1916 8 January 1996 served as President of France from 1981 to 1995 elected as representative of the Socialist In the French system, in the event of cohabitation, the president is often allowed to set the policy agenda in foreign affairs and the prime minister runs the domestic agenda.
Other countries evolve into something akin to a semi-presidential system or indeed a full presidential system. Weimar Germany, for example, in its constitution provided for a popularly elected president with theoretically dominant executive powers that were intended to be exercised only in emergencies, and a cabinet appointed by him from the Reichstag, which was expected, in normal circumstances, to be answerable to the Reichstag. The term Weimar Republic ( ˈvaɪmarɐ repuˈbliːk is used by historians to signify the democratic and Republican period of Germany from 1919 to 1933 The Reichstag ( German for "Imperial Diet " was the Parliament of the Holy Roman Empire, the North German Confederation, Initially, the President was merely a symbolic figure with the Reichstag dominant; however, persistent political instability, in which governments often lasted only a few months, led to a change in the power structure of the republic, with the president's emergency powers called increasingly into use to prop up governments challenged by critical or even hostile Reichstag votes. By 1932, power had shifted to such an extent that the German President, Paul von Hindenburg, was able to dismiss a chancellor and select his own person for the job, even though the outgoing chancellor possessed the confidence of the Reichstag while the new chancellor did not. Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg ( known universally as Paul von Hindenburg ( ( October 2, 1847 &ndash August 2 Chancellor or chancellour (archaic ( Latin: cancellarius) is an official Title used in countries whose civilization has arisen Subsequently President von Hindenburg used his power to appoint Adolf Hitler as Chancellor without consulting the Reichstag. Hi and welcome to Wikipedia! Please understand that this article is frequently vandalized and vandalism is reverted immediately
Since real political power belongs to the head of the sole legal party (often a communist party), in certain states under constitutions inspired by the former Soviet republics there was no formal office of head of state, but rather the head of the legislative "soviet" branch of power was considered the head of state. A Political party described as a communist party includes those that advocate the application of the social principles of Communism through a communist form of The Republics of the Soviet Union were according to the Article 76 of the 1977 Soviet Constitution, Sovereign Soviet Socialist states that had united with other In the Soviet Union this office had names such as "Chairman of the Central Executive Committee of the USSR," "Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Council," as well as "Chairman of the Central Executive Committee of the All-Russian Congress of Soviets" in the case of Soviet Russia (until 1922).
This may even lead to an institutional variability, as in North Korea, where, after the presidency of party leader Kim Il Sung, the office was vacant for years, the late president being granted the posthumous title (akin to some ancient far eastern traditions to give posthumous names and titles to royalty) of president "in eternity" (while all real power, as party leader, itself not formally created for 4 years, was inherited by his son Kim Jong Il, initially without any formal office) until it was formally replaced on September 5, 1998, for ceremonial purposes, by the office of the Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme People's Assembly, while the party leader's post as Chairman of the National Defense Commission was simultaneously declared "the highest post of the state," not unlike Deng Xiaoping earlier in the People's Republic of China. North Korea is the commonly used short form name for the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (or DPRK) a State located in East Asia, Kim Il-sung ( 15 April 1912 – 8 July 1994) was the leader of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea from its founding in early Kim Jong-il (also written as Kim Jong Il) (born 16 February 1941 Vyatskoye, Soviet Union; official biographies state 16 February 1942 Baekdu Events 1590 - Alexander Farnese 's army forces Henry IV of France to raise the siege of Paris. Year 1998 ( MCMXCVIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar) Deng Xiaoping ( 22 August 1904 19 February 1997) was a prominent Chinese Revolutionary, Politician, Pragmatist and Reformer
While clear categories do exist, it is sometimes difficult to choose which category some individual heads of state belong to. Constitutional change in Liechtenstein in 2003 gave its head of state, the Prince, constitutional powers that included a veto over legislation and power to dismiss the cabinet. The Principality of Liechtenstein (Fürstentum Liechtenstein) is a tiny doubly landlocked Alpine country in Western Europe, bordered by Switzerland The Liechtenstein dynasty, or Princely Family of Liechtenstein, after which the sovereign principality between Switzerland and Austria was named in It could be argued that the strengthening of the Prince's powers, vis-a-vis the legislature, has moved Liechtenstein into the semi-presidential category. Similarly the original powers given to the Greek President under the 1974 Hellenic Republic constitution moved Greece closer to the French semi-presidential model. This is a list of the heads of state of Greece, from the foundation of the modern nation state until the present And the power of the monarch of the Commonwealth realms to dismiss any of his or her governments at will would suggest that any of the realms should nominally belong to the semi-presidential category also. A Commonwealth realm is any one of 16 sovereign states within the Commonwealth of Nations that each have Elizabeth II as their respective Monarch In reality, the category to which each head of state belongs is assessed not by theory but by practice. In practice no Commonwealth realms monarch has forced a government from office since the early nineteenth century, while, in reality, the Greek republic, even before the powers of the President of the Republic were curtailed in 1986, operated as a standard parliamentary system. Unless and until a Prince of Liechtenstein exercises the theoretical powers that office now possesses, the principality would still remain categorised as a parliamentary system.
Another complication exists with South Africa, in which the President is in fact elected by the legislature (similar, in principle, to a prime minister) but also holds the title of President, serves for a fixed term, and is expected to be the nation's head of state. The Republic of South Africa (also known by other official names) is a country located at the southern tip of the continent of Africa The President of South Africa, in full the President of the Republic of South Africa is the Head of state and Head of government under South Nauru and Botswana are similar. Nauru, officially the Republic of Nauru, is an Island nation in the Micronesian South Pacific. The Republic of Botswana (Lefatshe la Botswana is a Landlocked nation in Southern Africa.
Panama, during the military dictatorships of Omar Torrijos and Manuel Noriega, was nominally a presidential republic. Panama, officially the Republic of Panama (República de Panamá) is the southernmost country of Central America. Omar Efraín Torrijos Herrera ( February 13, 1929 – August 1, 1981) was the Commander of the Panamanian National Guard Manuel Antonio Noriega (born February 11, 1934) He was never officially the President of Panama, but held the post of "chief executive officer" However, the elected civilian presidents were effectively figureheads with real political power being exercised by the chief of the military.
Often depending on which constitutional category (above) a head of state belongs to, they may have some or all of the roles listed below, and various other ones.
One of the most important roles of the modern head of state is being a living national symbol of the state; in monarchies this extends to the sovereign being a symbol of the unbroken continuity of the state. A national symbol is a Symbol of any entity considering itself and manifesting itself to the world as a national community – namely sovereign states, but also For instance, the Canadian monarch is described by the government as being the personification of the Canadian state, and is described by the Department of Canadian Heritage as the "personal symbol of allegiance, unity and authority for all Canadians. TalkCommonewalth realm.-->The monarchy of A state is a political association with effective Sovereignty over a geographic Area and representing a Population. The Department of Canadian Heritage, or simply Canadian Heritage, is the department of the Government of Canada with responsibility for policies and programs "
In many countries, official portraits of the head of state can be found in government offices, courts of law, even airports, libraries, and other public buildings. A portrait is a painting, photograph, Sculpture, or other artistic representation of a person in which the face and its expression is predominant The idea, sometimes regulated by law, is to use these portraits to make the public aware of the symbolic connection to the government, a practice that dates back to mediaeval times. Sometimes this practice is taken to excess, and the head of state begins to believe that he is the only symbol of the nation, resulting in the emergence of a personality cult where the image of the head of state is the only visual representation of the country, surpassing other symbols such as the flag, constitution, founding father(s) etc. A cult of personality or personality cult arises when a country's leader uses Mass media to create a heroic public image through unquestioning flattery and praise A flag is a piece of Cloth, often flown from a pole or mast, generally used Symbolically for signaling or identification A constitution is a system for government often Codified as a written document that establishes the rules and principles of an autonomous political entity Founding Fathers are persons instrumental in the establishment of an Institution, usually a political institution especially those connected to the origination of its Ideals A modern champion in this field was Adolf Hitler, the Nazi Führer. Hi and welcome to Wikipedia! Please understand that this article is frequently vandalized and vandalism is reverted immediately Other common iconic presences, especially of monarchs, are on coins, stamps, and banknotes; more discreet variations see them represented by a mention and/or signature. Furthermore, various institutions, monuments, and the like, are named for current or previous heads of state, such as streets and squares, schools, charitable and other organisations; in monarchies (e. g. Belgium) there can even be a practice to attribute the adjective 'royal' on demand based on existence for a given number of years. However, such political techniques can also be used by leaders without the formal rank of head of state, even party - and other revolutionary leaders without formal state mandate.
In general, the active duties amount to a ceremonial role. Thus in diplomatic affairs, heads of state are often the first person to greet an important foreign visitor. They may also assume a sort of informal host role during the VIP's visit, inviting the visitor to a state dinner at his or her mansion or palace, or some other equally hospitable affair. State dinners in different countries follow different rules and are governed by different protocols.
At home, they are expected to render luster to various occasions by their presence, such as by attending artistic or sports performances or competitions, expositions, celebrations, military parades and remembrances, prominent funerals, visiting parts of the country, enterprises, care facilities (often in a theatrical honour box, on a platform, on the front row, at the honours table etc. ), sometimes performing a symbolic act such as cutting a ribbon or pushing a button at an opening, christening something with champagne, laying the first stone, and so on. Some parts of national life receive their regular attention, often on an annual basis, or even in the form of official patronage.
As the potential for such invitations is enormous, such duties are often in part delegated: to such persons as a spouse, other members of the dynasty, a vice-president —for whom this is often the core of their public role— or in other cases (possibly as a message, for instance, to distance themselves without giving protocollary offence) just a military or other aide.
For non-executive heads of state there is often a degree of censorship by the politically responsible government (such as the prime minister), discreetly approving agenda and speeches, especially where the constitution (or customary law) assumes all political responsibility by granting the crown inviolability (in fact also imposing political emasculation) as in the Kingdom of Belgium from its very beginning; in a monarchy this may even be extended to some degree to other members of the dynasty, especially the heir to the throne.
The head of state accredits his or her country's ambassadors, High Commissioners or rarer equivalent diplomatic mission chiefs (such as papal nuncio), through sending formal Letter of Credence to other heads of state and, conversely, receives the letters of their foreign counterparts. An ambassador is the highest ranking Diplomat who represents their country High Commissioner is the title of various high-ranking special executive positions held by a commission of appointment Nuncio is an ecclesiastical Diplomatic title, derived from the ancient Latin word Nuntius, meaning "envoy A letter of credence is a formal letter sent by one Head of state to another head of state that formally grants Diplomatic accreditation to a named Without that accreditation, they cannot take up a role and receive the highest diplomatic status. However, there are provisions in international law to perform the same diplomatic functions, or at least part of them, such as accrediting, with a lower title with the head of government, or functioning within another mission.
The head of state also signs international treaties on behalf of the state, or has them signed in his/her name by ministers (government members or diplomats); subsequent ratification, when necessary, usually rests with the legislature. Ratification is the act of giving official sanction or approval to a formal document such as a treaty or constitution A legislature is a type of representative Deliberative assembly with the power to create amend and change Laws The law created by a legislature is called Legislation
In Canada, Australia and New Zealand, these roles of the head of state have been taken over by the vice-regal representative. A viceroy is a royal official who governs a country or province in the name of and as representative of the Monarch.
In the majority of states, whether republics or monarchies, executive authority is vested, at least notionally, in the head of state. In Political science and Constitutional law, the executive is the branch of government responsible for the day-to-day management of the State. In presidential systems the head of state is the actual, de facto chief executive officer. Under parliamentary systems the executive authority is exercised by the head of state, but in practice is done so on the advice of the cabinet of ministers. This produces such terms as "Her Majesty's Government" and "His Excellency's Government. " Examples of parliamentary systems in which the head of state is notional chief executive include Australia, Austria, Canada, Denmark, Italy and the United Kingdom. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. Austria (Österreich ( officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page The Kingdom of Denmark ( ˈd̥ænmɑɡ̊ (archaic ˈd̥anmɑːɡ̊ commonly known as Denmark, is a country in the Scandinavian region of northern Europe Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The few exceptions include the Czech Republic, Ireland and Sweden, where executive authority is explicitly vested in the cabinet. The Czech Republic ( ˈt͡ʃɛskaː ˈrɛpuˌblɪka short form in Česko ˈt͡ʃɛskɔ also called Czechia, Ireland ( Irish: Éire, ˈeːrʲə is a country in north-western Europe. "Sverige" redirects here For other uses see Sweden (disambiguation and Sverige (disambiguation.
The head of state appoints most or all the key officials in the government and civil service, including members of the cabinet, the prime minister or equivalent, key judicial figures, and all major office holders. See also Bureaucrat The term civil service has two distinct meanings Branch of governmental service in which individuals are hired on the basis This article is about the government position For other uses see Prime Minister (disambiguation. In many parliamentary systems, the head of government (e. This article focuses on the cases where the Head of Government is a separate office from the Head of State g. prime minister) is appointed with the consent (in practice often decisive) of the legislature, and other figures are appointed on the head of government's advice. Some countries have alternative provisions: under Article 4 of the Instrument of Government, 1974, the constitution of Sweden grants to the parliamentary speaker the role of formally appointing the prime minister. The Swedish Constitution consists of four fundamental laws ( Swedish: grundlagar, singular grundlag) The Speaker of the Parliament of Sweden (Riksdag is the speaker (talman of the national parliament in Sweden. The Prime Minister (statsminister literally "Minister of the State" is the Head of government in Sweden.
In practice, these decisions are often a formality. The last time a British monarch unilaterally selected the UK's prime minister was in 1963, when Queen Elizabeth II chose Sir Alec Douglas-Home to succeed Harold Macmillan as her chief advisor in that country. TalkCommonewalth realm.--> The monarchy The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the political leader of the United Kingdom For the ship see RMS Queen Elizabeth 2 Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Context States headed by Elizabeth II Alexander Frederick Douglas-Home Baron Home of the Hirsel, KT, PC (2 July 1903 - 9 October 1995 14th Earl of Home from 1951 to 1963 was a British (Maurice Harold Macmillan 1st Earl of Stockton, OM, PC (10 February 1894 &ndash 29 December 1986 was a British Conservative Politician In Canada, a similar situation took place wherein Governor General Lord Byng of Vimy appointed Arthur Meighen after William Lyon Mackenzie King refused to resign the premiership. The Governor General of Canada ( French: Gouverneure générale du Canada, or: Gouverneur général du Canada) is the vice-regal representative Field Marshal Julian Hedworth George Byng 1st Viscount Byng of Vimy GCB GCMG MVO ( 11 September 1862 &ndash Arthur Meighen (ˈmiən PC, QC ( June 16, 1874 – August 5, 1960) was the ninth Prime Minister of Canada William Lyon Mackenzie King PC OM CMG ( December 17, 1874 – July 22, 1950) was a Canadian Governor-General of Australia Sir John Kerr appointed Malcolm Fraser as caretaker prime minister after dismissing Gough Whitlam. The Governor-General of the Commonwealth of Australia is the representative in Australia of the monarch of Australia (currently Elizabeth II Queen of Australia) John Kerr may refer to one of the following Government and politics John Kerr (Governor-General (1914&ndash1991 Australian Governor-General John Malcolm Fraser, AC, CH (born 21 May 1930 is an Australian Liberal politician who was the 22nd Prime Minister of Australia. In Politics, a caretaker government rules temporarily A caretaker government is often set up following a War until stable Democratic rule can be restored Edward Gough Whitlam, AC, QC (born 11 July 1916 known as Gough Whitlam (ˈɡɒf goff is an Australian former politician and 21st
In presidential systems, such as that of the United States, appointments are nominated by the President's sole discretion, but this nomination is often subject to parliamentary confirmation (in the case of the US, the Senate has to approve cabinet nominees and judicial appointments by simple majority). The United States Senate is the Upper house of the bicameral United States Congress, the Lower house being the House of Representatives
The head of state may also dismiss office-holders. There are many variants on how this can be done. For example, members of the Irish Cabinet are dismissed by the President on the advice of the Taoiseach (prime minister); in other instances, the head of state may be able to dismiss an office holder unilaterally; other heads of state, or their representatives, have the theoretical power to dismiss any office-holder, while it is exceptionally rarely used. The President of Ireland (Uachtarán na hÉireann n̪ˠə ˈheːɾʲən̪ˠ is the Head of state of Ireland. In France, while the president cannot force the prime minister to tender the resignation of his government, he can, in practice, request it if the prime minister is from his own majority. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. In presidential systems, the president often has the power to fire ministers at his sole discretion. In the United States, convention calls for cabinet secretaries to resign on their own initiative when called to do so.
Most countries require that all bills passed by the house or houses of the legislature be signed into law by the head of state. For other uses see Bill. A bill is a proposed new law introduced within a Legislature that has not been ratified, adopted In some states, such as the United Kingdom, Belgium and Ireland, the head of state is, in fact, formally considered a tier of parliament. However, in most parliamentary systems, the head of state cannot refuse to sign a bill, and, in granting a bill their assent, indicate that it was passed in accordance with the correct procedures. The signing of a bill into law is formally known as promulgation. Promulgation or enactment is the act of formally proclaiming or declaring new statutory or Administrative law when it receives final approval Some monarchical states call this procedure Royal Assent. The granting of Royal Assent is the formal method by which a constitutional monarch completes the legislative process of Lawmaking by formally assenting to an
In some parliamentary systems, the head of state retains certain powers in relation to bills to be exercised at his or her discretion. They may have authority to veto a bill until the houses of the legislature have reconsidered it, and approved it a second time; reserve a bill to be signed later, or suspend it indefinitely (generally in states with the Royal Prerogative; this power is rarely used); refer a bill to the courts to test its constitutionality; refer a bill to the people in a referendum. A referendum (plural referendums or referenda) ballot question, or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita
If he or she is also chief executive, he or she can thus politically control the necessary executive measures without which a proclaimed law can remain dead letter, sometimes for years or even forever.
A head of state is generally the literal, or notional, commander-in-chief of a state's armed forces, holding the highest office in all military chains of command. A commander-in-chief is the Commander of a nation's Military forces or significant element of those forces For the military meaning see Armed forces. For the Soviet sports society see Armed Forces (sports society Armed Forces In a Military context the chain of command is the line of authority and responsibility along which orders are passed within a Military unit and between different
In a constitutional monarchy or non-executive presidency the head of state may hold the ultimate authority over the armed forces but will only normally, as per either written or conventional laws, exercise their authority on the advice of their ministers, meaning de facto decision making on military manoeuvers lies with the cabinet. The monarch or president will, however, perform ceremonial duties related to the country's armed forces, and will sometimes appear in military uniform for these purposes; in the case of a female sovereign her consort and other members of the royal family may also appear in military garb. This is generally the only time a head of state of a stable, democratic country will appear dressed in such a manner, as statesmen and public are eager to assert the primate of (civilian, elected) politics over the armed forces.
In military dictatorships, or governments which have arisen from coups-d'etat, the position of commander-in-chief is obvious, as all authority in such a government derives from the application of military force; occasionally a power vacuum created by war is filled by a head of state stepping beyond his or her normal constitutional role, as King Albert I of Belgium did during World War I. A military dictatorship is a Form of government wherein the political power resides with the Military; it is similar but not identical to a Stratocracy, Albert I (8 April 1875 &ndash 17 February 1934 was the third King of the Belgians from 1909 until 1934 World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All In these, and revolutionary, regimes, the head of state, and often executive ministers whose office in legally civilian, will frequently appear in military uniform. A minister or a secretary is a Politician who holds significant public office in a national or regional Government.
A head of state is often empowered to summon and dissolve the country's legislature. In most parliamentary systems, this is done on the advice of the head of government (e. g. Prime Minister) or cabinet. In some parliamentary systems, and in some presidential systems, however, the head of state may do so on their own initiative. Some states have fixed term parliaments, with no option of bringing forward elections (e. g. Article II, Section 3, of the U.S. Constitution). The Constitution of the United States of America is the supreme Law of the United States. In other systems there are usually fixed terms, but the head of state retains authority to dissolve the legislature in certain circumstances. Where a head of government has lost the confidence of parliament, some heads of state may refuse a parliamentary dissolution, where one is requested, forcing the head of government's resignation.
Various heads of state use a multitude of different styles and titles, often with many variations in content under diverse constitutions, even in a given state. The Constitution of Ireland (Bunreacht na hÉireann came into force on 29 December 1937 after having been passed by a national plebiscite the previous July ga '''Dáil Éireann''' ( English House of Representatives of Ireland) is the principal chamber of the Oireachtas (Irish parliament In a parliamentary or semi-presidential system of Government, a reserve power is a power that may be exercised by the Head of state without the A pardon is the forgiveness of a crime and the penalty associated with it Nobility is a government-privileged title which may be either hereditary (see Hereditary titles) or for a lifetime Knight is the English term for a social position originating in the Middle Ages. In numerous cases, two or more of the following peculiar types apply, not counting the primary duo monarchy-republic. There are also several methods of head of state succession in the event of the removal or death of a sitting head of state. Head of state succession is the process by which Nations transfer leadership of their highest office from one person to another
In a monarchy, the Monarch is the Head of State. This is a relatively recent phenomenon; until the last few decades a sovereign was seen as the personal embodiment of the state ("L'etat c'est moi", so to speak), and therefore could not be head of himself or herself (hence many constitutions from the 19th century and earlier make no mention of a "head of state"). Early years Birth and ancestry Louis XIV was born in the Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye on September 5 1638 and bore the Heir apparent Though some still maintain that calling a Monarch Head of State is incorrect, it has now become a widespread political convention to attach the label to Monarchs, regardless of their political position. The Emperor (Tennō) of Japan is defined as a symbol, not head, of state by the post-war constitution (contrasting with the former divine status) but is treated as a head of state under diplomatic protocol.
For the numerous styles in past and present monarchies, in most cases commonly -though often not quite accurately- rendered as King or Emperor, but also many other (e. An emperor (from the Latin " Imperator " is a (male Monarch, usually the sovereign ruler of an Empire or another type of g. Grand duke, Sultan), see Prince, princely state and monarchy. The Title grand duke (in Latin, magnus dux; in Spanish, gran duque; in Russian, Великий Герцог Sultan (سلطان is an Islamic title with several historical meanings Prince, from the Latin root Princeps, is a general term for a Monarch, for a member of a monarch's or former monarch's family and is a For other uses see Principality, Other princely states A Princely State (also called Native State or Indian State) was a A monarchy is a Form of government in which supreme power is actually or nominally lodged in an individual who is the Head of state, often for life or
In a republic, the head of state is nowadays usually styled President, and usually their permanent constitutions provide for election, but many have or had other titles and even specific constitutional positions (see below), and some have used simply 'head of state' as their only formal title. A republic is a State or Country that is not led by a hereditary Monarch, but in which the people (or at least a part of its people have impact on its President is a Title leaders of Organizations companies, Trade unions universities, and countries.
Whenever a head of state is not available for any reason, constitutional provisions may allow the role to fall temporarily to an assigned person or collective body.
In a monarchy, this is usually a regent or collegial regency (council). A regent, from the Latin regens "who reigns" is a person selected to act as Head of state (ruling or not because the ruler is a minor In a republic, this is - depending on provisions outlined by the constitution or improvised - a vice-president, the chief of government, the legislature or its presiding officer. __FORCETOC__ For the Vice President of the United States, their roles and other information see Vice President of the United States.
In cases where one person is head of state of multiple sovereign countries there may be need to appoint a permanent representative in each (except in the head of state's country of primary residence). Examples are all but one of the Commonwealth realms, where their king or queen resides in another of the Crown's kingdoms, the United Kingdom, and so is represented in the others by a crown-appointed governor-general (unhyphenated in Canada as "Governor General"), as well as Andorra, which is headed by two non-resident co-princes, one of which is also the President of France. A Commonwealth realm is any one of 16 sovereign states within the Commonwealth of Nations that each have Elizabeth II as their respective Monarch The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The term governor general or governor-general refers to a vice-regal representative of a Monarch in an independent realm or a major colonial circonscription Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page Andorra, officially the Principality of Andorra ( Catalan: Principat d'Andorra) is a small Landlocked country in western The President of the French Republic (Président de la République française colloquially referred to in English as the President of France, is France 's elected
In Commonwealth realms the Governor-General may fulfill many of the roles of a head of state, but is typically not, either legally or conventionally, regarded as the head of state, but rather as an appointed representative of the head of state mandated to act in his or her place, even when the monarch is present in the country. Some governors-general are considered de facto heads of state because, though not the de jure (juridical or legal) head of state, in practice they function like a head of state in most or all jurisdictions. A De facto head of state is a term used to an office-holder who fulfils some many or all of the functions of a Head of state. In Law, jurisdiction (from the Latin ius iuris meaning "law" and dicere meaning "to speak" is the practical Authority
In diplomatic situations, governors-general, if treated as de facto heads of state, are sometimes accorded a status akin to a head of state, but that is by tradition and on a case by case and person by person basis, not automatic. A De facto head of state is a term used to an office-holder who fulfils some many or all of the functions of a Head of state. At state banquets, for example, toasts are made to the head of state (e. g. "Her Majesty the Queen of Australia"), never to a governor-general, except insofar as a personal toast may be proposed subsequently to "Governor-General and Mrs. Smith" as hosts of, or guests at, the banquet. Similarly, letters of credence may contain the name of the head of state, not the governor-general, even if it is the latter who signs and receives them. A letter of credence is a formal letter sent by one Head of state to another head of state that formally grants Diplomatic accreditation to a named
In 2005, Canada, Australia and New Zealand changed their policies and now all Letter of Credence address solely the Governor-General of the relevant state, not to Queen Elizabeth II, making these countries the only sovereign nations to not expressly issue or receive letters in the name of their respective head of state. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. New Zealand is an Island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses (the North Island and the South Island A letter of credence is a formal letter sent by one Head of state to another head of state that formally grants Diplomatic accreditation to a named The term governor general or governor-general refers to a vice-regal representative of a Monarch in an independent realm or a major colonial circonscription For the ship see RMS Queen Elizabeth 2 Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Context States headed by Elizabeth II Despite the fact that the Governor General in each country remains the representative of the monarch, are appointed by her to that role, and thus are still constitutionally issuing Letters of Credence indirectly on behalf of the Queen, even if no longer explicitly by name, the Office of the Prime Minister of Canada stated in its press release announcing the changes to the Letters of Credence and Recall, issued December 29, 2004, that "in international diplomatic practice, Letters of Credence are formal diplomatic instruments that are presented by High Commissioners and Ambassadors to the Head of State of the host country. The Prime Minister of Canada ( French: Premier ministre du Canada) is the primary Minister of the Crown, chairman of the Cabinet, and thus Events 1170 - Thomas Becket: Thomas Becket Archbishop of Canterbury is assassinated inside Canterbury Cathedral by followers of King Henry II "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again " . . Letters of Credence and Recall presented by foreign High Commissioners and Ambassadors to Canada will now be addressed to the Governor General directly. " This wording implies that the government of Canada, as least during the premiership of Paul Martin, regarded the Governor General as the Canadian Head of State. Paul Edgar Philippe Martin. PC, MP (also known as Paul Martin Jr 
Similarly, a 2004 report issued by the Canadian Standing Committee on Government Operations and Estimates recognised that the nation is a constitutional monarchy, however described the 1947 Letters Patent as having devolved all powers of the sovereign to the Governor General, making the latter head of state, and then continued to refer to the Governor General as head of state throughout the report. Letters patent are a type of Legal instrument in the form of an Open letter issued by a Monarch or Government, granting an office right  That same year, the then Governor General, Adrienne Clarkson, attended a ceremony in France to recognize Canada's involvement at Juno Beach in the D-Day landings of 1944. Adrienne Louise Clarkson PC CC CMM COM CD (born February 10 1939 is an accomplished Canadian journalist and stateswoman This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. D-Day may also refer to Decimal Day in the United Kingdom. D-Day is a term often used in Military parlance to denote Her office stated that she was present as Canada's head of state, and thus the Governor General was treated as the senior official in attendance, over even the Queen who was also present at the ceremony. While laying wreaths, the ceremony commentator stated that the Governor General was laying a wreath on behalf of Canada, whereas the Queen was laying a wreath on behalf of the Commonwealth. Rideau Hall later retracted the assertion that the Governor General attended as head of state, saying that it was an error of a junior official, but this did not explain the unusual shift in protocol observed at the ceremony itself. Rideau Hall is since 1867, the Official residence of the Governor General of Canada, and of the monarch of Canada when in Ottawa.
In opposition to this thinking, in the opening of his first speech in the Canadian House of Commons as Prime Minister, Stephen Harper stated: "I'd like to acknowledge and thank a number of people. The Prime Minister of Canada ( French: Premier ministre du Canada) is the primary Minister of the Crown, chairman of the Cabinet, and thus WikipediaManual of Style (biographies#Honorific prefixes --> Stephen Joseph Harper PC First of all I'd would like to pay tribute to our head of state, Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II. " As well, the Governor General of Canada's website now refers to the Queen of Canada as Canada's head of state. TalkCommonewalth realm.-->The monarchy of  However, the Canadian Letters of Credence and Recall continue to be issued in the name of, and addressed to the Governor General alone.
The question of whether the sovereign or the Governor General is head of state has also arisen in Australia, where some, especially amongst those on the monarchist side of the republic debate, and most notably Professor David Flint, National Convenor of Australians for Constitutional Monarchy in his book The Cane Toad Republic, and Sir David Smith in his book Head of State: the Governor-General, the Monarchy, the Republic and the Dismissal, have stated that the Governor General is the Australian head of state, and the Queen as Australia's sovereign. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. Professor David Flint, AM, is an Australian legal academic known for his leadership of Australians for Constitutional Monarchy, and for his controversial Australians for Constitutional Monarchy ( ACM) is a group that aims to preserve Australia's current Constitutional monarchy, with Elizabeth II as Sir David Iser Smith KCVO AO (born 9 August 1933 is a retired Australian public servant. TalkCommonewalth realm.-->The monarchy 
Flint says that under inter national law and diplomatic practice, the Governor-General is the Australian Head of State, and that soon after the Commonwealth of Australia came into existence, the High Court of Australia unanimously ruled that the Governor-General is the “constitutional head of the Commonwealth” and the State Governors are the “constitutional heads of state. ” In the case of Andorra, two Co-Princes act as the principality's heads of state; one is also simultaneously the President of France, residing in France, and the other is the Bishop of Urgell, residing in Spain. This is a list of Co-Princes of Andorra. The Principality of Andorra, in the Pyrenees Mountains on the French – Spanish border The President of the French Republic (Président de la République française colloquially referred to in English as the President of France, is France 's elected The Diocese of Urgell is a Roman Catholic ecclesiastical unit in Catalonia, Spain, with origins in the fifth century AD or possibly Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Each Co-Prince is represented in Andorra by a delegate, though these persons hold no formal title.
As a colony or other dependent state or territory lacks the authority to vest in a true head of state of its own, it either has no comparable office, simply receiving those roles exercised by the paramount powers (in person or, most of the time, through an appointed representative, often styled (Lieutenant-)governor, but also various other titles, on the Cook Islands even simply King/Queen's Representative) or has one, such as a formerly sovereign dynasty, but under a form of metropolitan guardianship, such as protection, vassal or tributary status. A governor is a governing official usually the executive (at least nominally to different degrees also politically and administratively of a non-sovereign level of government The Cook Islands ( Cook Islands Māori: Kūki 'Āirani) are a self-governing parliamentary democracy in free association with New Zealand.
In exceptional situations, such as war, occupation, revolution or a coup d'état, constitutional institutions, including the symbolically crucial head of state, may be reduced to a lesser role (legitimating the power taken over behind the throne) or be suspended in favor of an emergency office (such as the original Roman Dictator) or eliminated by of new 'provisionary' regime (sincere or clinging to power), often a collective of the junta type, with endlessly varying names and composition, or simply find itself under military authority as imposed by an occupying force, such as a military governor (an early example being the Spartan Harmost). A dictator is an Authoritarian ruler (eg Absolutist or autocratic) who assumes sole and absolute power without hereditary ascension such as an Absolute A military dictatorship is a Form of government wherein the political power resides with the Military; it is similar but not identical to a Stratocracy, A governor is a governing official usually the executive (at least nominally to different degrees also politically and administratively of a non-sovereign level of government The city of Sparta ( Doric Σπάρτα Attic Σπάρτη Harmost is an Ancient Greek word that means military governor
Since Antiquity, various dynasties -or individual rulers- claimed to have received to right to rule by divine authority, such as a mandate of heaven. The Mandate of Heaven (天命 Pīnyīn: Tiānmìng is a traditional Chinese philosophical concept concerning the legitimacy of rulers
Some monarchs even claimed divine ancestry, e. g. both the Egyptian Pharaoh and the Great Inca allegedly were descended from their respective sun gods, and often maintained this legitimating bloodline by incestuous marriages (notably with their own sisters). Pharaoh is the title given in modern parlance to the ancient Egyptian kings of all periods The God Emperor of the Inca Empire ( Quechua: Inka Qhapaq) of the Andes (the area including modern Peru, Ecuador, and In pagan Rome, during the Principate, the title divus ('divine') was conferred, notably posthumously, on the Princeps (commonly rendered as Emperor after the separate, not reserved title Imperator, but constitutionally a republican office, rather a head of government, formally the two eponymous Consuls remained the joint heads of state), a symbolically crucial legitimating element in establishing a de facto dynasty. The Principate is the first period of the Roman Empire, extending from the beginning of the reign of Caesar Augustus to the Crisis of the Third Century,
In Christianity (Roman Catholicism, and in some cases continued when turned Protestant):
In Hinduism, certain dynasties adopted a title expressing their positions as 'servant' of a patron deity of the state, but in the sense of a (prime) minister under a figure head of state, ruling 'in the name of' the god(ess), e. g. :
The paradoxical term crowned republic (see there) refers to various state arrangements that combine 'republican' and 'monarchic' characteristics
Such arrangements are not to be confused with supranational entities which are not states and are not defined by a common monarchy but may (or not) have a symbolical, essentially protocollary, titled highest office, e. g. Head of the Commonwealth (held by the British crown, but not legally reserved for it) or 'Head of the Arab Union' (14 February - 14 July 1958, held by the Hashemite King of Iraq, during its shortlived Federation with Jordan, its Hashemite sister-realm). Queen Elizabeth II is the second person to be recognised as Head of the Commonwealth (which currently has 53 members Events 842 - Charles the Bald and Louis the German swear the Oaths of Strasbourg in the French and German Events 1223 - Louis VIII becomes King of France upon the death of his father Philip II of France. Year 1958 ( MCMLVIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. After World War I and the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire, the province of Iraq came under the control of the United
Though "president" and various monarchic titles are most commonly used for heads of state, some nationalistic regimes (usually republics), the leader adopts, formally or de facto, a unique style simply meaning "leader" in the national language, such as Nazi Germany's single party chief and head of state and government, Adolf Hitler Führer (see that article for equivalents).
In 1959, when former British crown colony Singapore gained self-government, it adopted the Malay style Yang di-Pertuan Negara (literally means "head of state" in Malay) for its governor (the actual head of state remained the British monarch, Queen Elizabeth II). The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Singapore Yang di-Pertuan Negara, literally meaning "Someone who is the Eminent Master of The State" in Malay, was used as an official title at various times in The Malay language ( ISO 639-1 code MS is an Austronesian language spoken by the Malay people and people of other ethnic groups who reside in the For the ship see RMS Queen Elizabeth 2 Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Context States headed by Elizabeth II The second and last incumbent of the office, Yusof bin Ishak, kept the style at the 31 August 1963 unilateral declaration of independence and after the 16 September 1963 accession to Malaysia as a state (so now as a constitutive part of the federation, a non-sovereign level). Yusof bin Ishak (ˈjʊsɒf bɪn ˈɪshɑːk ''YOO-sof bɪn ΙS-haak'') ( 12 August 1910 &ndash 23 November Events 1056 - Byzantine Empress Theodora becomes ill dying suddenly a few days later without children to succeed the Throne Year 1963 ( MCMLXIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Events 1400 - Owain Glyndŵr is declared Prince of Wales by his followers Year 1963 ( MCMLXIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. For the biogeographical region see Malesia Malaysia (məˈleɪʒə or /məˈleɪziə/ is a country that consists of thirteen states and After withdrawing from Malaysia at 9 August 1965, it became a sovereign Commonwealth republic and installed Yusof bin Ishak as its first President. Events 48 BC - Caesar's civil war: Battle of Pharsalus - Julius Caesar decisively defeats Pompey at Pharsalus Year 1965 ( MCMLXV) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. A Commonwealth republic is any one of the 31 sovereign states of the Commonwealth of Nations with a Republican form of government
There are also a few nations in which the exact title and definition of the office of head of state have been vague. During the Cultural Revolution, following the downfall of Liu Shaoqi, who was Chairman of the People's Republic of China, no successor was named, so the duties of the head of state were transferred collectively to the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress. The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution in the People’s Republic of China was a struggle for power within the Communist Party of China that manifested into Liu Shaoqi ( (24 November 1898 12 November 1969 was a Chinese revolutionary statesman and theorist The President of the People's Republic of China ( literally Chairman of the Chinese People's Republic or abbreviated Guójiā Zhǔxí 国家主席 literally State Chairman The Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPCSC) is a committee of about 150 members of the National People's Congress (NPC of the People's This situation was later changed: the Head of State of the PRC is now the President of the People's Republic of China. The President of the People's Republic of China ( literally Chairman of the Chinese People's Republic or abbreviated Guójiā Zhǔxí 国家主席 literally State Chairman
In North Korea, Kim Il-sung was named "eternal president" following his death and the presidency was abolished. North Korea is the commonly used short form name for the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (or DPRK) a State located in East Asia, Kim Il-sung ( 15 April 1912 – 8 July 1994) was the leader of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea from its founding in early As a result, the duties of the head of state are constitutionally delegated to the Supreme People's Assembly whose chairman is "Head of State for foreign affairs" and performs some of the roles of a Head of State, such as accrediting foreign ambassadors. The Supreme People's Assembly (SPA is the Unicameral Parliament of North Korea (DPRK However, the symbolic role of a Head of State is generally performed by Kim Jong-il, who as the leader of the party and military, is the most powerful person in North Korea. Kim Jong-il (also written as Kim Jong Il) (born 16 February 1941 Vyatskoye, Soviet Union; official biographies state 16 February 1942 Baekdu
There is debate as to whether Samoa is/was an elective monarchy or an aristocratic republic, given the comparative ambiguity of the title O le Ao o le Malo and the nature of the head of state's office. Samoa, officially the Independent State of Samoa, is a country governing the western part of the Samoan Islands Archipelago in the South Pacific Ocean
In some states the office of head of state is not expressed in a specific title reflecting that role, but constitutionally awarded to a post of another formal nature. Thus in March 1977 colonel Muammar al-Gaddafi, who kept absolute power (still known as "Guide of the Revolution"), after ten years as combined Head of State and Head of government of the Libyan Jamahiriya ("state of the masses"), styled Chairman of the Revolutionary Command Council, formally transferred both qualities, to the General secretaries of the General People's Congress (comparable to a Speaker) respectively to a Prime Minister, in political reality both his creatures. Muammar Abu Minyar al-Gaddafi 1 (معمر القذافي) (born 7 June 1942) also known as Colonel Gaddafi
Sometimes a head of state assumes office as a state becomes legal and political reality, before a formal title for the highest office is determined; thus in the since 1 January 1960 independent republic Cameroon (Cameroun, a former French colony), the first President, Ahmadou Babatoura Ahidjo (b. New Year See also New Year The Ancient Romans began their consular year on January 1st since 153 BC Year 1960 ( MCMLX) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Republic of Cameroon is a unitary republic of central and western Africa. 1924 - d. 1989), was at first not styled président but 'merely' known as Chef d'état (literal French for 'Head of State') until 5 May 1960; in Uganda, military coup leader since 25 January 1971 Idi Amin was formally styled military head of State till 21 February 1971, only from then on regular (but unconstitutional, not elected) President. Events 553 - The Second Council of Constantinople begins 1215 - Rebel Barons renounce their allegiance to King John Year 1960 ( MCMLX) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Republic of Uganda is a Landlocked country in East Africa. Events 41 - After a night of negotiation Claudius is accepted as Roman Emperor by the Senate Year 1971 ( MCMLXXI) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. Idi Amin Dada (mid 1920s &ndash 16 August 2003 commonly known as Idi Amin, was a Ugandan military dictator and the President of Uganda Events 362 - Athanasius returns to Alexandria. 1245 - Thomas, the first known Bishop of Finland Year 1971 ( MCMLXXI) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the 1971 Gregorian calendar.
Sometimes a state chooses to use a descriptive term instead of a specific style, possibly even by abolishing an existing one. Thus when the 18 September 1921 proclaimed Independence of the Rif, under an Emir (ambivalent word, either general or ruler; full Arabic style Amir ar-Rif 18 September 1921 - 1 February 1923) Sayyidi Muhammad bin `Abd al-Karim al-Khattabi; known as Abd el-Krim (b. Events 96 - Nerva is proclaimed Roman Emperor after Domitian is assassinated Year 1921 ( MCMXXI) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1921 calendar of the Gregorian calendar Emir ( Arabic: ar أمير;, female أميرة; emira;) ( Farsi and Urdu: امیر) Events 96 - Nerva is proclaimed Roman Emperor after Domitian is assassinated Year 1921 ( MCMXXI) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1921 calendar of the Gregorian calendar Events 1327 - Teenaged Edward III is crowned King of England, but the country is ruled by his mother Queen Year 1923 ( MCMXXIII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. 1882 - d. 1963) transformed itself on 1 February 1923 into the Rif Republic (Dawlat al-Jumhuriyya ar-Rifiyya, in Arabic means circa 'people's state of the Rif'), the same incumbent Head of State was now re-styled Ra'is ad-Dawla (a literal Arabic translation of "head of state") till it was dissolved, in 1926 by Franco-Spanish forces. Events 1327 - Teenaged Edward III is crowned King of England, but the country is ruled by his mother Queen Year 1923 ( MCMXXIII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. When Iraq, which the British had cut out of the Ottoman empire by force, became a separate state, yet not truly independent but a League of Nations mandate, it first had a Chairman of the Council of State (11 November 1920 - 23 August 1921 Saiyid Abdul Rahman al-Haydari) until the establishment of the Hashemite kingdom, only later it was made fully independent; when it was declared a republic, it had a Chairman of Sovereignty Council (14 July 1958 - 8 February 1963 Muhammad Najib al-Rubai) before its first president. A League of Nations mandate refers to a legal status for certain territories transferred from the control of one country to another following World War I. Events 308 - The Congress of Carnuntum: Attempting to keep peace within the Roman Empire, the leaders of the Tetrarchy declare Year 1920 ( MCMXX) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display 1920 of the Gregorian calendar Events 79 - Mount Vesuvius begins stirring on the feast day of Vulcan the Roman god of fire Year 1921 ( MCMXXI) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1921 calendar of the Gregorian calendar Events 1223 - Louis VIII becomes King of France upon the death of his father Philip II of France. Year 1958 ( MCMLVIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Events 421 - Constantius III becomes co- Emperor of the Western Roman Empire. Year 1963 ( MCMLXIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
In certain cases a special style is needed to accommodate the imperfect statehood, e. g. Sardar-i-Riyasat in Kashmir after its accession to India; the long de facto embodiment of Palestinian aspiration to independent statehood, PLO-leader Yasser Arafat was styled 5 July 1994 the first "President of the Palestinian National Authority" after an agreement with the military occupying power Israel allowed a Palestinian National Authority as a transitional status including Palestinian interim self-governing and a phased transfer of powers and territories (towns and areas of the West Bank), still awaiting the outcome of bumpy negotiations -he was repeatedly put under a form of Israeli arrest while in office - on its permanent status, which could end in a Palestinian State. Sardar ( Persian: سردار) (Sɐrdar is a title of Persian origin used for military or political leaders Mohammed Abdel Rahman Abdel Raouf Arafat al-Qudwa al-Husseini ( Arabic: محمد عبد الرؤوف عرفات القدوة الحسيني (August 24 1929 – November 11 Events 1295 - Scotland and France form an alliance the beginnings of the Auld Alliance, against England. Year 1994 ( MCMXCIV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar)
A monarch may retain his style and certain prerogatives after abdication, as King Leopold III of Belgium who left the throne to his son after winning (but not in both linguistic communities of the country) a referendum; he retained a full royal household but no constitutional or representative role at all. Leopold III (born as Léopold Philippe Charles Albert Meinrad Hubertus Marie Miguel (French or Leopold Filips Karel Albert Meinrad Hubertus Maria Miguel In the case of Napoleon I Bonaparte, the Italian principality of Elba, chosen for his luxurious imprisonment after the remains of his Grande Armée (following the disastrous Russian campaign) had finally been defeated in 1814, was transformed into a miniature version of his First Empire, with most trappings of a sovereign monarchy, until his Cent Jours ('100 days' escape and reseizure of power in France) convinced the allies, reconvening the Vienna Congress in 1815, to revoke those gratuitous privileges and send him to die in exile on barren St.Helena. Napoleon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821 was a French military and political leader who had a significant impact on the History of Europe. Elba (Ilva is an island in Tuscany, Italy, from the coastal town of Piombino. Saint Helena (pronounced saint he-LEE-na) named after St Helena of Constantinople, is an island of volcanic origin and a British overseas territory
By tradition a deposed monarch who has not freely abdicated, though no longer head of state, is allowed to use their monarchical title as a courtesy title for their lifetime. Abdication (from the Latin abdicatio, disowning renouncing from ab, away from and dicare, to declare to proclaim as not belonging to one A courtesy title is a form of address in systems of Nobility used by children former wives and other close relatives of a peer. Hence, though he ceased to be Greek king in 1973 (in a disputed referendum during the Regime of the Colonels), or in 1974 (in a referendum after the reestablishment of democracy), it is still standard to refer to the deposed king as Constantine II of Greece. Greece (Ελλάδα transliterated: Elláda, historically, Ellás,) officially the Hellenic Republic (Ελληνική Δημοκρατία Regime of the Colonels redirects here For the Polish regime of colonels see Colonels' group. Early life Constantine was born at Psychiko, near Athens, the nephew of King George II and the second child and only son of the King's brother and However none of his descendants will be entitled to be called King of the Hellenes (not King of Greece) after his death. Some states dispute the international acceptance of the right of their deposed monarchs to be referred to by their former title. It remains however the generally accepted formula, with most states declining to get involved in disputes between governments and deposed monarchs and simply stating that they are doing no more than recognising tradition, not supporting claims to a defunct throne. Other states have no problem with deposed monarchs being so referred to by former title, and even allow them to travel internationally on the state's diplomatic passport. A passport is a document issued by a national government which certifies for the purpose of international travel the identity and nationality of its holder
The Realencyclopädie der Classischen Altertumswissenschaft, commonly called the "Pauly-Wissowa", is a German Encyclopedia of