|Elevation (min-max):||59 - 210 m (194 - 689 ft)|
|Founded by:||Diego Velásquez de Cuellar|
|Province:||Ciudad de La Habana|
|President of the Provincial Assembly:||Juan Contino Aslán |
|Population statistics (as of 2006)|
|- Density:||3,007 /km² (7,789 /sq mi)|
|Area codes:||(+53) 7|
Havana (Spanish: , IPA: [la aˈβana], officially Ciudad de La Habana, is the capital city, major port, and leading commercial centre of Cuba. El Capitolio, or the National Capitol Building in Havana, Cuba, was the seat of government in Cuba until after the Cuban Revolution in 1959 A geographic coordinate system enables every location on the Earth to be specified in three coordinates using mainly a spherical coordinate system. A geographic coordinate system enables every location on the Earth to be specified in three coordinates using mainly a spherical coordinate system. The Eastern Time Zone ( ET) of the Western Hemisphere falls mostly along the east coast of North America and the west coast of South America The Eastern Time Zone ( ET) of the Western Hemisphere falls mostly along the east coast of North America and the west coast of South America UTC−5 is the Time offset used in the North American Eastern Time Zone during Standard time and in the North American Central Time Zone during UTC−4 is the Time offset used in the Atlantic Standard Time Zone in Canada in winter and the North American Eastern Time Zone during The elevation of a Geographic location is its height above a fixed reference point often the mean sea level. Wikipedia talkFeatured lists for an explanation of this and other inclusion tags below -->This list of countries, arranged alphabetically The Republic of Cuba (ˈkjuːbə or) consists of the island of Cuba (the largest and second-most populous island of the Greater Antilles) Isla de la This is a list of cities in A Jerónimo de Aliaga Diego de Almagro Pedro de Alvarado Pedro Arias de Ávila For the Spanish painter see Diego Velázquez. Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar (1465 Cuéllar, Administratively, Cuba is divided into fourteen provinces and one special Municipality. A borough is an Administrative division of various countries In principle the term borough designates a self-governing Township although in practice Administratively, Cuba is divided into fourteen provinces and one special Municipality. Juan Contino Aslán ( October 12, 1960 in Havana, Cuba) is the current city mayor of Havana, Cuba. The Communist Party of Cuba ( Spanish: Partido Comunista de Cuba, PCC is currently the governing political party in Cuba. A list of places in Cuba: Cities See also List of cities in Cuba Camagüey Cienfuegos Guantánamo In Biology a population is the collection of inter-breeding organisms of a particular Species; in Sociology Population density (in agriculture standing stock and Standing crop) is a measurement of Population per unit area or unit volume A postal code (known in various countries as a post code, postcode, or ZIP code) is a series of letters and/or digits appended to a This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E The Republic of Cuba (ˈkjuːbə or) consists of the island of Cuba (the largest and second-most populous island of the Greater Antilles) Isla de la The city is one of the 14 Cuban provinces. Administratively, Cuba is divided into fourteen provinces and one special Municipality. The city/province has 2. 1 million inhabitants, and the urban area over 2. 6 million, making Havana the largest city in both Cuba and the Caribbean region. The Caribbean (ˌkærəˡbiən kæ'rəbiən Cariben|Caraïben or Caraïben; Caraïbe or more commonly Antilles; Caribe is a Region consisting  The city extends mostly westward and southward from the bay, which is entered through a narrow inlet and which divides into three main harbours: Marimelena, Guasabacoa, and Atarés. The sluggish Almendares River traverses the city from south to north, entering the Straits of Florida a few miles west of the bay. The Almendares River is a 45 km river in the western part of Cuba. The Straits of Florida, Florida Straits, or Florida Strait is a Strait located south-southeast of the North American Mainland, generally accepted
King Philip II of Spain granted Havana the title of City in 1592 and a royal decree in 1634 recognized its importance by officially designated as the "Key to the New World and Rampart of the West Indies". Philip II (Felipe II de España Filipe I ( May 21, 1527 &ndash September 13 1598) was King of Spain from 1556 until 1598 The New World is one of the names used for the non-Eurasian/non-African parts of the Earth specifically the Americas and Australia. The Caribbean (ˌkærəˡbiən kæ'rəbiən Cariben|Caraïben or Caraïben; Caraïbe or more commonly Antilles; Caribe is a Region consisting  Havana's coat of arms carries this inscription. The Spaniards began building fortifications, and in 1553 they transferred the governor's residence to Havana from Santiago de Cuba on the eastern end of the island, thus making Havana the de facto capital. Santiago de Cuba is the capital city of Santiago de Cuba Province in the south-eastern area of the island nation of Cuba The importance of harbour fortifications was early recognized as English, French, and Dutch sea marauders attacked the city in the 16th century.  The sinking of the U.S. battleship Maine in Havana's harbor in 1898 was the immediate cause of the Spanish-American War. "The Maine" redirects here For the pop punk band see The Maine (band.
Nowadays Havana is the center of the Cuban government, and various ministries and headquarters of businesses are based there. Politics of Cuba take place within a framework of a socialist republic.
CU HAV) La Habana, was founded and formerly named as Villa de San Cristóbal de la Habana by Diego Velásquez de Cuellar. UN/LOCODE, the United Nations Code for Trade and Transport Locations, is a geographic coding scheme developed and maintained by United Nations Economic Commission For the Spanish painter see Diego Velázquez. Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar (1465 Cuéllar, The name Habana is probably based upon the name of a local taíno chief Habaguanex. The Taínos were pre-Columbian inhabitants of the Bahamas, Greater Antilles, and the northern Lesser Antilles. This is a list of known Taínos, some of which were Caciques (Male Tribal chiefs or Cacicas (Female tribal chiefs An alternate theory is that Habana is derived from the Middle Dutch word havene, referring to a port, but as Havana was not originally founded as a port, this origin appears improbable. Middle Dutch is a collective name for a number of closely related West Germanic dialects (whose ancestor was Old Dutch) which were spoken and written between 1150 ||-||-|-||-||-||-||-||-||-|} A port is a facility for receiving Ships and transferring cargo
Ciudad de La Habana, meaning "City of Havana," is considered a province, despite its name. In common usage, La Habana is translated when in reference to the city (Havana in Dutch, English, and Portuguese; La Havane in French; L'Avana in Italian; Havanna in German), but not when in reference to either of the provinces.
The current Havana area and its natural bay were first visited by Europeans during Sebastián de Ocampo's circumnavigation of the island, in 1509. Casablanca is a suburb of Havana, Cuba, in the municipality of Regla. Sebastián de Ocampo was a Spanish Navigator and Explorer. He is believed to have been the first navigator to have circumnavigated the island of Cuba  Shortly thereafter, in 1510, the first Spanish colonists arrived from Hispaniola and began the conquest of Cuba. This article is about a type of political territory For other uses see Colony (disambiguation. Hispaniola (from Spanish, La Española) is the second-largest and most populous Island of the Antilles, lying between the islands of
Conquistador Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar founded Havana on August 25, 1515 on the southern coast of the island, near the present town of Surgidero de Batabanó. This article is about the Spanish explorer soldiers of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuriesfor other uses see Conquistador (disambiguation A Conquistador For the Spanish painter see Diego Velázquez. Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar (1465 Cuéllar, Events 1248 - The Dutch city of Ommen receives city rights and fortification rights from Otto III the Batabanó is a municipality and city in the La Habana Province of Cuba. Between 1514 and 1519, the city had at least two different establishments. All attempts to found a city on Cuba's south coast failed. The city's location was adjacent to a superb harbor at the entrance to the Gulf of Mexico, and with easy access to the Gulf Stream, the main ocean current that navigators followed when traveling from the Americas to Europe. The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the Continents of North America and South America This location led to Havana’s early development as the principal port of Spain's New World colonies. An early map of Cuba drawn in 1514 places the town at the mouth of the river Onicaxinal, also on the south coast of Cuba. Another establishment was La Chorrera, today in the neighbourhood of Puentes Grandes, next to the Almendares River. Puentes Grandes (Spanish for "large bridges" is a neighborhood in the municipality of ?? Havana, in Cuba.
The final establishment, commemorated by El Templete, was the sixth town founded by the Spanish on the island, called San Cristobal de la Habana by Pánfilo de Narváez: the name combines San Cristóbal, patron saint of Havana, and Habana, of obscure origin, possibly derived from Habaguanex, an Indian chief who controlled that area, as mentioned by Diego Velasquez in his report to the king of Spain. El Templete is a monument in Havana, Cuba, that pays homage to the place where the foundation of the town of San Cristóbal de la Habana was celebrated in 1519 Pánfilo de Narváez (1470 &ndash 1528 was a Spanish conqueror and soldier in the Americas. The patron saint of a particular group of people is a Saint who would protect and 'love' the group and its members A legend relates that Habana was the name of Habaguanex's beautiful daughter, but no known historical source corroborates this version.
Havana moved to its current location next to what was then called Puerto de Carenas (literally, "Careening Bay"), in 1519. Careening a sailing vessel means to beach it at high Tide in order usually to expose one side or another of the ship's hull for maintenance The quality of this natural bay, which now hosts Havana's harbor, warranted this change of location. Bartolomé de las Casas wrote:
. Bartolomé de las Casas, OP ( August 24 1484 &ndash July 17 1566) was a 16th century Spanish Dominican . . one of the ships, or both, had the need of careening, which is to renew or mend the parts that travel under the water, and to put tar and wax in them, and entered the port we now call Havana, and there they careened so the port was called de Carenas. This bay is very good and can host many ships, which I visited few years after the Discovery. . . few are in Spain, or elsewhere in the world, that are their equal. . . 
Shortly after the founding of Cuba's first cities, the island served as little more than a base for the Conquista of other lands. Hernán Cortés organized his expedition to Mexico from here. Hernán Cortés de Monroy y Pizarro 1st Marqués del Valle de Oaxaca ( 1485&ndash December 2, The United Mexican States ( or commonly Mexico (ˈmɛksɪkoʊ () is a federal constitutional Republic in North America. Cuba, during the first years of the Discovery, provided no immediate wealth to the conquistadores, as it was poor in gold, silver and precious stones, and many of its settlers moved to the more promising lands of Mexico and South America that were being discovered and colonized at the time. This article is about the Spanish explorer soldiers of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuriesfor other uses see Conquistador (disambiguation A Conquistador Gold (ˈɡoʊld is a Chemical element with the symbol Au (from its Latin name aurum) and Atomic number 79 Silver (ˈsɪlvɚ is a Chemical element with the symbol " Ag " (argentum from the Ancient Greek: ἀργήντος - argēntos gen A gemstone or gem, also called a precious or semi-precious stone, is a piece of attractive Mineral, which &mdash when cut and polished &mdash The legends of Eldorado and the Seven Cities of Gold attracted many adventurers from Spain, and also from the adjacent colonies, leaving Havana and the rest of Cuba largely unpopulated. Quivira and Cíbola are two of the fantastic Seven Cities of Gold existing only in a myth that originated around the year 1150 when the Moors conquered Mérida
Havana was originally a trading port, and suffered regular attacks by buccaneers, pirates, and French corsairs. The Castillo de la Real Fuerza (Castle of the Royal Force is a Fortress on the western side of the harbour in Havana, Cuba, set back from the entrance The Fortaleza de San Carlos de la Cabaña, commonly known simply as La Cabaña, is an 18th century Fortress complex located on the elevated eastern side of the Morro Castle Castillo de los Tres Reyes Magos del Morro is a picturesque fortress guarding the entrance to Havana bay in Havana, Cuba. Piracy is Robbery committed at sea or sometimes on shore without a commission from a sovereign Nation (as distinct from Privateering Corsairs were French Privateers from the north-western French port of St-Malo, located on the northern coast of Brittany. The first attack and resultant burning of the city was by the French corsair Jacques de Sores in 1555. Jacques de Sores was a French Pirate who attacked and burnt Havana, Cuba in 1555. The pirate took Havana easily, plundering the city and burning much of it to the ground. De Sores left without obtaining the enormous wealth he was hoping to find in Havana. Such attacks convinced the Spanish Crown to fund the construction of the first fortresses in the main cities — not only to counteract the pirates and corsairs, but also to exert more control over commerce with the West Indies, and to limit the extensive contrabando (black market) that had arisen due to the trade restrictions imposed by the Casa de Contratación of Seville (the crown-controlled trading house that held a monopoly on New World trade). La Casa de Contratación ( The House of Trade) was a government agency under the Spanish Empire from the 16th to the 18th centuries which attempted to control Seville ( Spanish: Sevilla, see also different names) is the artistic cultural and financial capital of southern Spain. In Economics, a monopoly (from Greek monos, alone or single + polein, to sell exists when a specific individual or enterprise has sufficient
To counteract pirate attacks on galleon convoys headed for Spain while loaded with New World treasures, the Spanish crown decided to protect its ships by concentrating them in one large fleet, that would traverse the Atlantic Ocean as a group. A galleon was a large multi-decked Sailing ship used primarily by the nations of Europe from the 16th to 18th centuries A single merchant fleet could more easily be protected by the Spanish Armada. Following a royal decree in 1561, all ships headed for Spain were required to assemble this fleet in the Havana Bay. Ships arrived from May through August, waiting for the best weather conditions, and together, the fleet departed Havana for Spain by September.
This naturally boosted commerce and development of the adjacent city of Havana (a humble villa at the time). Goods traded in Havana included gold, silver, alpaca wool from the Andes, emeralds from Colombia, mahoganies from Cuba and Guatemala, leather from the Guajira, spices, sticks of dye from Campeche, corn, manioc, and cocoa. The Alpaca ( Vicugna pacos) is a domesticated species of South American Camelid. Wool is the fiber derived from the specialized skin cells called follicles of animals in the Caprinae family principally sheep, but the hair of certain species The Andes form the world's longest exposed Mountain range. They lie as a continuous chain of highland along the western coast of South America. Emeralds are a variety of the Mineral Beryl (Be3Al2(SiO36 colored Green by trace amounts Colombia (kəˈlʌmbɪə officially the Republic of Colombia () is a country in northwestern South America. The name mahogany is used when referring to numerous varieties of dark-colored wood originally the wood of the species Swietenia mahagoni, known as West Guatemala (República de Guatemala) is a country in Central America bordered by Mexico to the north and west the Pacific Ocean to the southwest A spice is a dried Seed, Fruit, Root, Bark or vegetative substance used in Nutritionally insignificant quantities as a Food additive A dye can generally be described as a Colored substance that has an affinity to the substrate to which it is being applied Campeche is the name of both a state in Mexico and its capital city Maize (ˈmeɪz ( Zea mays L. ssp mays) known as corn in some countries is a cereal grain domesticated in Mesoamerica The cassava, yuca, manioc, or mandioca ( Manihot esculenta) is a woody Shrub of the Euphorbiaceae (spurge family native Cocoa is the dried and fully fermented fatty seed of the cacao tree from which Chocolate is made Ships from all over the New World carried products first to Havana, in order to be taken by the fleet to Spain. The thousands of ships gathered in the city's bay also fueled Havana's agriculture and manufacture, since they had to be supplied with food, water, and other products needed to traverse the ocean. In 1563, the Capitán General (the Spanish Governor of the island) moved his residence from Santiago de Cuba to Havana, by reason of that city's newly gained wealth and importance, thus unofficially sanctioning its status as capital of the island.
On December 20, 1592, King Philip II of Spain granted Havana the title of City. Events 69 - Vespasian, formerly a general under Nero, enters Rome to claim the title of Emperor. Later on, the city would be officially designated as "Key to the New World and Rampart of the West Indies" by the Spanish crown. In the meantime, efforts to build or improve the defensive infrastructures of the city continued. The San Salvador de la Punta castle guarded the west entrance of the bay, while the Castillo de los Tres Reyes Magos del Morro guarded the eastern entrance. San Salvador de la Punta Fortress is a fortress in the bay of Havana, Cuba. Morro Castle Castillo de los Tres Reyes Magos del Morro is a picturesque fortress guarding the entrance to Havana bay in Havana, Cuba. The Castillo de la Real Fuerza defended the city's centre, and doubled as the Governor's residence until a more comfortable palace was built. The Castillo de la Real Fuerza (Castle of the Royal Force is a Fortress on the western side of the harbour in Havana, Cuba, set back from the entrance Two other defensive towers, La Chorrera and San Lázaro were also built in this period. Lazarus ( Hebrew: אלעזר Elʿāzār Eleazar "God (has helped" is the name of two separate men mentioned in the New Testament.
Havana expanded greatly in the 17th century. As a means of recording the passage of Time, the 17th Century was that Century which lasted from 1601 - 1700 in the Gregorian calendar New buildings were constructed from the most abundant materials of the island, mainly wood, combining various Iberian architectural styles, as well as borrowing profusely from Canarian characteristics. Wood is hard fibrous lignified structural tissue produced as secondary Xylem in the stems of Woody plants notably trees but also shrubs The Canary Islands ( English pronunciation kəˈnæriː ˈaɪləndz Spanish: Islas Canarias, ˈizlas kaˈnarjas are a Spanish During this period the city also built civic monuments and religious constructions. The convent of St Augustin, El Morro Castle, the chapel of the Humilladero, the fountain of Dorotea de la Luna in La Chorrera, the church of the Holy Angel, the hospital of San Lazaro, the monastery of Santa Teresa and the convent of San Felipe Neri were all completed in this era.
In 1649 a fatal epidemic brought from Cartagena in Colombia, affected a third of the population of Havana. Cartagena de Indias (kaɾtaˈhena ð̞e ˈin̪d̪jas in Spanish; the usual English pronunciation is ˌkɑrtəˈheɪnə deɪ ˈɪndiəs is a large city On November 30, 1665, Queen Mariana of Austria, widow of King Philip IV of Spain, ratified the heraldic shield of Cuba, which took as its symbolic motifs the first three castles of Havana: the Real Fuerza, the Tres Santos Reyes Magos del Morro and San Salvador de la Punta. Events 1700 - Battle of Narva — A Swedish army of 8500 men under Charles XII defeats Mariana of Austria (or sometimes Maria-Anna of Austria) ( 24 December 1634, Vienna, Austria – 16 may 1696 Philip IV (es ''Felipe IV'' pt ''Filipe III'' ( 8 April, 1605 &ndash 17 September, 1665) was King of Spain between 1621 and Morro Castle Castillo de los Tres Reyes Magos del Morro is a picturesque fortress guarding the entrance to Havana bay in Havana, Cuba. The shield also displayed a symbolic golden key to represent the title "Key to the Gulf". On 1674, the works for the City Walls were started, as part of the fortification efforts. They would be completed on 1740.
By the middle of the 18th century Havana had more than seventy thousand inhabitants, and was the third largest city in the Americas, ranking behind Lima and Mexico City but ahead of Boston and New York. Lima is the Capital and largest city of Peru. It is located in the valleys of the Chillón, Rímac and Lurín rivers on a coast overlooking Mexico City (in Spanish: Ciudad de México, México DF, México or simply Méjico) is the Capital city of Mexico The City of New York 
The city was captured by the British during the Seven Years' War. See also Kingdom of Great Britain Great Britain (Breatainn Mhòr Prydain Fawr Breten Veur Graet Breetain is the larger of the two main islands The Seven Years' War (1756&ndash1763 involved all of the major European powers of the period causing 900000 to 1400000 deaths The episode began on June 6, 1762, when at dawn, a British fleet, comprising more than 50 ships and a combined force of over 11,000 men of the Royal Navy and Army, sailed into Cuban waters and made an amphibious landing east of Havana. Events 1508 - Maximilian I Holy Roman Emperor, is defeated in Friulia by Venetian forces; he is forced to sign a three-year Year 1762 ( MDCCLXII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore known as the Senior Service)  The invaders seized the heights known as La Cabaña on the east side of the harbor and commenced a bombardment of nearby El Morro Castle, as well as the city itself. After a two month siege, El Morro was attacked and taken on 30 July 1762. The British expedition against Cuba was a military action from March to August 1762 as part of the Seven Years' War. The city formally surrendered on 13 August.  It was subsequently governed by Sir George Keppel on behalf of Great Britain. General George Keppel 3rd Earl of Albemarle KG PC ( 8 April 1724 &ndash 13 October 1772) styled Viscount Bury Although the British only lost 560 men to combat injuries during the siege, more than half their forces ultimately died due to illness, yellow fever in particular. Yellow fever (also called yellow jack, black vomit or sometimes American Plague) is an acute viral disease
The British immediately opened up trade with their North American and Caribbean colonies, causing a rapid transformation of Cuban society. Food, horses and other goods flooded into the city, and thousands of slaves from West Africa were transported to the island to work on the under manned sugar plantations. West Africa or Western Africa is the Westernmost Region of the African Continent.  Though Havana, which had become the third largest city in the new world, was to enter an era of sustained development and closening ties with North America, the British occupation was not to last. Pressure from London by sugar merchants fearing a decline in sugar prices forced a series of negotiations with the Spanish over colonial territories. London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. Less than a year after Havana was seized, the Peace of Paris was signed by the three warring powers thus ending the Seven Years' War. The Treaty of Paris, often called the Peace of Paris, or the Treaty of 1763, was signed on February 10, 1763, by the kingdoms of Great Britain The treaty gave Britain Florida in exchange for Cuba on the recommendation of the French, who advised that declining the offer could result in Spain losing Mexico and much of the South American mainland to the British. Florida ( is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States, bordering Alabama to the northwest and Georgia to the South America is a Continent of the Americas, situated entirely in the Western Hemisphere and mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a 
After regaining the city, the Spanish transformed Havana into the most heavily fortified city in the Americas. Centro Habana is one of the 15 municipalities (municipios in Spanish in the city of Havana, Cuba. The Museum of the Revolution (Museo de la Revolución is a museum located in the Old Havana section of Havana, Cuba. Construction began on what was to become the Fortress of San Carlos de la Cabaña, the biggest Spanish fortification in the New World. The Fortaleza de San Carlos de la Cabaña, commonly known simply as La Cabaña, is an 18th century Fortress complex located on the elevated eastern side of the The work extended for eleven years and was enormously costly, but on completion the fort was considered an unassailable bastion and essential to Havana's defence. It was provided with a large number of cannons forged in Barcelona. Barcelona ( Catalan bəɾsəˈlonə Spanish baɾθeˈlona is the capital and most populous city of the Autonomous Community of Catalonia Other fortifications were constructed, as well: the castle of Atarés defended the Shipyard in the inner bay, while the castle of El Príncipe guarded the city from the west. Shipyards and dockyards are places which repair and build ships These can be Yachts military Several cannon batteries located along the bay's canal (among them the San Nazario and Doce Apóstoles batteries) ensured that no place in the harbor remained undefended. Canals are artificial channels for water There are two types of canals water conveyance canals which are used for the conveyance and delivery of water and Waterways
The Havana cathedral was constructed in 1748 as a Jesuit church, and converted in 1777 into the Parroquial Mayor church, after the Suppression of the Jesuits in Spanish territory in 1767. The Catedral de San Cristóbal de La Havana (Cathedral of Saint Christopher of Havana is the seat of Jaime Lucas Ortega y Alamino, the Cardinal Archbishop of Havana The Society of Jesus ( Latin: Societas Iesu, SJ and SI or SJ, SI) is a Catholic religious order The Suppression of the Jesuits in Portugal, France, the Two Sicilies, Parma and the Spanish Empire by 1767 was a result In 1788, it formally became a Cathedral. Between 1789 and 1790 Cuba was apportioned into an individual diocese by the Roman Catholic Church. On January 15, 1796, the remains of Christopher Columbus were transported to the island from Santo Domingo. Events 588 BC - Nebuchadrezzar II of Babylon lays siege to Jerusalem under Zedekiah 's reign Year 1796 ( MDCCXCVI) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year Christopher Columbus (1451 &ndash May 20 1506 was an Italian Navigator, colonizer Santo Domingo de Guzmán (known as Santo Domingo population 2084852 (Metro (2003 estimated 2253437 (Metro in 2006 is the Capital and largest city in the They rested here until 1898, when they were transferred to Seville's Cathedral, after Spain's loss of Cuba. The Cathedral of Seville, also known as Catedral de Santa María de la Sede (Cathedral of Saint Mary of the See) is the Cathedral of the city of Seville
Havana's shipyard (named El Arsenal) was extremely active, thanks to the lumber resources available in the vicinity of the city. The Santísima Trinidad was the largest warship of her time. Design & construction She was built at Havana, Cuba to a design by Irish Naval architect Matthew Mullan and launched in 1769 as an Launched in 1769, she was about 62 meters long, had three decks and 120 cannons. She was later upgraded to as many as 144 cannons and four decks. She sank following the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805. The Battle of Trafalgar ( 21 October 1805) was a historic sea battle fought between the British Royal Navy and the combined fleets of the This ship cost 40. 000 pesos fuertes of the time, which gives an idea of the importance of the Arsenal, by comparing its cost to the 26 million pesos fuertes and 109 ships produced during the Arsenal's existence. 
As trade between Caribbean and North American states increased in the early 19th century, Havana became a flourishing and fashionable city. The 19th century of the Common Era began on January 1, 1801 and ended on December 31, 1900, according to the Gregorian calendar Havana's theaters featured the most distinguished actors of the age, and prosperity amongst the burgeoning middle-class led to expensive new classical mansions being erected. During this period Havana became known as the Paris of the Antilles. Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city The Antilles (the same in French; Antillas in Spanish; Antillen in Dutch) refers to the islands forming the greater part of the
The 19th century opened with the arrival in Havana of Alexander von Humboldt, who was impressed by the vitality of the port. (September 14 1769 &ndash May 6 1859 was a German naturalist and explorer, and the younger brother of the Prussian minister philosopher and linguist In 1837, the first railroad was constructed, a 51 km stretch between Havana and Bejucal, which was used for transporting sugar from the valley of Guinness to the harbor. Bejucal is a municipality and city in the La Habana Province of Cuba. Sugar is a class of edible Crystalline substances mainly Sucrose, Lactose, and Fructose. With this, Cuba became the fifth country in the world to have a railroad, and the first Spanish-speaking country. Throughout the century, Havana was enriched by the construction of additional cultural facilities, such as the Tacon Teatre, one of the most luxurious in the world, the Artistic and Literary Liceo (Lyceum) and the theater Coliseo. The Great Theatre of Havana (Gran Teatro de La Habana, was officially opened in 1838 in Havana, Cuba, although its first presentation occurred on November
In 1863, the city walls were knocked down so that the metropolis could be enlarged. A metropolis (from the Greek μήτηρ mētēr meaning 'mother' and πόλις pólis meaning 'city/town' is a big City, in most cases with At the end of the century, the well-off classes moved to the quarter of Vedado. Vedado is the downtown and a vibrant neighbourhood in the city of Havana, Cuba. Later, they emigrated towards Miramar, and today, evermore to the west, they have settled in Siboney. Miramar Ciudad de La Habana' is an upscale district in the municipality of Playa in the city of Havana. Siboney is a town in Cuba east of the city of Santiago de Cuba. At the end of the 19th century, Havana witnessed the final moments of Spanish colonialism in America, which ended definitively when the United States warship Maine was sunk in its port, giving that country the pretext to invade the island. The 20th century began with Havana, and therefore Cuba, under occupation by the USA. The twentieth century of the Common Era began on The United States of America —commonly referred to as the In 1906 the Bank of Nova Scotia opened the first branch in Havana. Scotiabank (Banque Scotia () the trademark name for The Bank of Nova Scotia, is one of Canada 's Big Five banks. By 1931 it had three branches in Havana.
Under American influence, the city grew and prospered. Numerous residencies, luxury hotels, casinos and nightclubs were constructed since the 1930s to serve Havana's burgeoning tourist industry. Santo Trafficante, Jr. took the roulette wheel at the Sans-Souci, Meyer Lansky directed the Riviera, Lucky Luciano, the National Casino, and the Havana Hilton was Latin America's tallest, largest hotel. Santo Trafficante Jr ( November 15, 1914 - March 17, 1987) was one of the last of the old-time Mafia bosses in the United Meyer Lansky (born Majer Suchowliński, July 4, 1902 &ndash January 15, 1983) was a gangster who with Charles Charles "Lucky" Luciano (born Salvatore Lucania; November 24 1897 – January 26 1962 was a Sicilian Mobster. At the time Havana became an exotic capital of appeal and numerous activities ranging from marinas, grand prix car racing, musical shows, parks, etc.
Havana achieved being the Latin American city with the biggest middle class per-capita simultaneously accompanied by gambling and corruption where gangsters and stars were known to mix socially. During this era Havana was usually producing more revenue than Las Vegas. Las Vegas ( Spanish: "The Meadows" is the most populous City in the state of Nevada, the seat of Clark County, and an internationally A gallery of black and white portraits from the era still adorns the walls of the bar of the National Hotel, including pictures of Frank Sinatra with Ava Gardner, Marlene Dietrich and Gary Cooper. Francis Albert "Frank" Sinatra (December 12 1915 &ndash May 14 1998 was an American singer and actor Ava Lavinia Gardner ( December 24, 1922 – January 25, 1990) was an Academy Award -nominated American actress Marlene Dietrich maɐˈleːnə ˈdiːtrɪç (December 27 &ndashMay 6) was a German -born American Actress, Singer and Entertainer Frank James “Gary” Cooper (May 7 &ndashMay 13) was an American film actor and iconic star In 1958 about 300,000 American tourists visited the city. One of the most well-known to the world was the American author Ernest Hemingway (1899-1961), who quoted "in terms of beauty, only Venice and Paris surpassed Havana", Hemingway wrote several of his famous novels in Cuba and lived there the last 22 years of his life. Ernest Miller Hemingway (July 21 1899 — July 2 1961 was an American novelist short-story writer, and Journalist. Venice ( Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venesia or Venexia) is a city in Northern Italy, the capital of the 
After the revolution of 1959 promises were made to improve social services, public housing, and official buildings; nevertheless, shortages that affected Cuba following Fidel Castro's abrupt declaration of Cuba as a one party communist state and with it the nationalization of all private property and businesses on the island (foreign and national), followed by the U.S. embargo, hit Havana especially hard. Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (born August 13 1926 is a Cuban revolutionary leader who was prime minister of Cuba from December 1959 to December 1976 and then president until The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The United States Embargo Against Cuba (described in Cuba as el bloqueo, Spanish for "the Blockade " is an economic commercial and By 1966-68, the Cuban government had nationalized all privately owned business entities in Cuba, down to "certain kinds of small retail forms of commerce" (law No. Nationalization, also spelled nationalisation, is the act of taking an industry or assets into the Public ownership of a national government 1076 ). Today much of the city is in a vast dilapidated state and crumbling, with its citizens not having the monetary ability nor the government authorization to preserve the old buildings from the effects of the tropical climate and occasional hurricanes. A tropical cyclone is a storm system characterized by a low pressure center and numerous Thunderstorms that produce strong winds and Flooding
Following a severe economic downturn after the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 and with it the end of the billions of dollars in subsidies the Soviet Union gave the Cuban government, many believed Havana's Soviet maintained government would soon vanish, as it happened in Eastern Europe. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 Eastern Europe is a general term that refers to the Geopolitical region encompassing the easternmost part of the European continent. However, the socialist government increasingly turned to tourism for financial support. Most of this new tourism comes from Canada and western European nations, amounting to approximately 2 billion dollars annually according to National Geographic. Overview The NGS's historical mission is "to increase and diffuse geographic knowledge while promoting the conservation of the world's cultural historical and natural An effort has gone into rebuilding Old Havana for tourist purposes and a number of streets and squares have been rehabilitated. 
The city extends mostly westward and southward from the bay, which is entered through a narrow inlet and which divides into three main harbours: Marimelena, Guanabacoa, and Atarés. The sluggish Almendares River traverses the city from south to north, entering the Straits of Florida a few miles west of the bay. The low hills on which the city lies rise gently from the deep blue waters of the straits. A noteworthy elevation is the 200-foot- (60-metre-) high limestone ridge that slopes up from the east and culminates in the heights of La Cabaña and El Morro, the sites of colonial fortifications overlooking the bay. Another notable rise is the hill to the west that is occupied by the University of Havana and the Prince's Castle. The University of Havana or UH (in Spanish, Universidad de La Habana) is a university located in the Vedado district of Havana
Havana, like much of Cuba, enjoys a pleasant year-round tropical climate that is tempered by the island's position in the belt of the trade winds and by the warm offshore currents. A tropical climate is a kind of Climate typical in the Tropics. Average temperatures range from 72 °F (22 °C) in January and February to 82 °F (28 °C) in August. Fahrenheit is a temperature scale named after Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686–1736 a German Physicist who proposed it in 1724 The Celsius Temperature scale was previously known as the centigrade scale. The temperature seldom drops below 50 °F (10 °C). The lowest temperature was 33 °F(2. 0 °C) in Santiago de las Vegas, Boyeros. The lowest recorded temperatures in Cuba are 32 °F(0,6 °C)in Bainoa, Havana province. Rainfall is heaviest in October and lightest from February through April, averaging 46 inches (1,167 millimetres) annually. Hurricanes occasionally strike the island, but they ordinarily hit the south coast, and damage in Havana is normally less than elsewhere in the country.
On the night of July 8-9, 2005, the eastern suburbs of the city took a direct hit from Hurricane Dennis, with 100 mph (160 km/h) winds the storm whipped fierce 10-foot (3. Hurricane Dennis was an early-forming major Hurricane in the Caribbean and 0 m) waves over Havana's seawall, and its winds tore apart pieces of some of the city's crumbling colonial buildings. Chunks of concrete fell from the city's colonial buildings. At least 5,000 homes were damaged in Havana's surrounding province . Three months later, on October 2005, the coastal regions suffered severe flooding following Hurricane Wilma. Hurricane Wilma was the most intense hurricane ever recorded in the Atlantic basin. The table below lists temperature averages throughout the year:
|Avg high temperature °C||25. 8||26. 1||27. 6||28. 6||29. 8||30. 5||31. 3||31. 6||31. 0||29. 2||27. 7||26. 5|
|Avg low temperature °C||18. 6||18. 6||19. 7||20. 9||22. 4||23. 4||23. 8||24. 1||23. 8||23. 0||21. 3||19. 5|
|Avg days with rain||5. 0||5. 0||3. 0||3. 0||6. 0||10. 0||7. 0||9. 0||10. 0||11. 0||6. 0||5. 0|
|Source: Hong Kong Observatory|
Contemporary Havana can essentially be described as three cities in one: Old Havana, Vedado, and the newer suburban districts. Vedado is the downtown and a vibrant neighbourhood in the city of Havana, Cuba. Old Havana (La Habana Vieja contains the main area of the original city of Havana. Old Havana, with its narrow streets and overhanging balconies, is the traditional centre of part of Havana's commerce, industry, and entertainment, as well as being a residential area.
To the north and west a newer section, centred on the uptown area known as Vedado, has become the rival of Old Havana for commercial activity and nightlife. Centro Habana, sometimes described as part of Vedado, is mainly a shopping district that lies between Vedado and Old Havana. Centro Habana is one of the 15 municipalities (municipios in Spanish in the city of Havana, Cuba. The Capitolio Nacional marks the beginning of Centro Habana, a working class neighborhood, where a lot of buildings are almost in a total state of collapse . El Capitolio, or the National Capitol Building in Havana, Cuba, was the seat of government in Cuba until after the Cuban Revolution in 1959 Chinatown and The Real Fabrica de Tabacos Partagás, one of Cuba's oldest cigar factories is located in the area. The Real Fabrica de Tabacos Partagás is a cigar factory museum in Havana, Cuba.
A third Havana is that of the more affluent residential and industrial districts that spread out mostly to the west. Among these is Marianao, one of the newer parts of the city, dating mainly from the 1920s. Marianao is a Town and municipality in the province of the city of Havana, Cuba, 6 miles southwest of the original city of Havana, with which Some of the suburban exclusivity was lost after the revolution, many of the suburban homes having been nationalized by the Cuban government to serve as schools, hospitals, and government offices. Several private country clubs were converted to public recreational centres. Miramar located west of Vedado along the coast, remains Havana's exclusive area; mansions, foreign embassies, diplomatic residences, upscale shops, and facilities for wealthy foreigners are common in the area. The International School of Havana is located in the Miramar neighborhood. The International School of Havana is an International school in Havana, Cuba located in the exclusive neighborhood of Miramar.
In the 1980s many parts of Old Havana, including the Plaza de Armas, became part of a projected 35-year multimillion-dollar restoration project. The government sought to instill in Cubans an appreciation of their past and also to make Havana more enticing to tourists in accordance with the government's effort to boost tourism and thus increase foreign exchange.
Havana is unique due to its unrivalled rhythmic arcades built largely by Spanish immigrants. Many interior patios remain similar to designs in Seville, Cadiz and Granada. Cádiz ( Spanish:) is a city and port in southwestern Spain. It is the capital of the province of the same name, a province which is one of eight Granada is a city and the capital of the province of Granada, in the autonomous region of Andalusia, Spain. Neo-classicism affected all new buildings in Havana and can be seen all over the city. Neoclassical architecture was an architectural style produced by the neoclassical movement that began in the mid-18th century both as a reaction against the Rococo Many urban features were introduced into the city at the time including Gas public lighting in 1848 and the railroad in 1837. In the second half of the 18th century sugar and coffee production increased rapidly becoming essential in the development of Havana's most prominent architectural style. Many wealthy Habaneros took their inspiration from the French; this can be seen within the interiors of upper class houses such as the Aldama Palace built in 1844. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. This is considered the most important neoclassical residential building in Cuba and typifies the design of many houses of this period with portales of neoclassical columns facing open spaces or courtyards.
In 1925 Jean-Claude Nicolas Forestier, the head of urban planning in Paris moved to Havana for five years to collaborate with architects and landscape designers. Jean-Claude Nicolas Forestier (born 1861- died 1930 was a French Landscape architect, trained with Alphand and became conservateur of the promenades of Paris In the master planning of the city his aim was to create a harmonic balance between the classical built form and the tropical landscape. He embraced and connected the city’s road networks while accentuating prominent landmarks. His influence has left a huge mark on Havana although many of his ideas were cut short by the great depression in 1929. During the first decades of the 20th century Havana expanded more rapidly than at any time during its history. Great wealth prompted architectural styles to be influenced from abroad. The peak of Neoclassicism came with the construction of the Vedado district (begun in1859). This whole neighbourhood is littered with set back well-proportioned buildings.
Great riches were brought from the colonialists into and through Havana as it was a key transshipment point between the new world and old world. The Great Theatre of Havana (Gran Teatro de La Habana, was officially opened in 1838 in Havana, Cuba, although its first presentation occurred on November Transshipment or Transhipment is the Shipment of goods to an intermediate destination and then from there to yet another destination The New World is one of the names used for the non-Eurasian/non-African parts of the Earth specifically the Americas and Australia. The Old World consists of those parts of Earth known to Europeans Asians and Africans in the 15th century As a result Havana was the most heavily fortified city in the Americas. Most examples of early architecture can be seen in military fortifications such as La Fortaleza de San Carlos de la Cabana (1558 - 1577) designed by Juan Antonelli and the Castillo del Morro (1589 - 1630). This sits at the entrance of Havana Bay and provides an insight into the supremacy and wealth at that time. Old Havana was also protected by a defensive wall begun in 1674 but had already overgrown its boundaries when it was completed in 1767, becoming the new neighbourhood of Centro Habana.
The influence from different styles and cultures can be seen in Havana's colonial architecture, with a diverse range of Moorish, Spanish, Italian, Greek and Roman. The description Moors has referred to several historic and modern populations of Muslim (and earlier non-Muslim people of Berber and Arab descent Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Greece (Ελλάδα transliterated: Elláda, historically, Ellás,) officially the Hellenic Republic (Ελληνική Δημοκρατία The Architecture of Ancient Rome adopted the external Greek architecture for their own purposes which were so different from Greek buildings as to create a new The Convento de Santa Clara (1638 - 18th century) is a good example of early Spanish influenced architecture. Its great hall looks resembles an inverted ship and shows the skill of early craftsmen. The Havana cathedral (1748 -1777) dominating the Plaza de la Caterdral (1749) is the best example of Cuban Baroque. Surrounding it are the Condes de Casa-Bayona (1720 -1746) Marqueses de Arcos (1746) and the Marqueses de Aguas Claras (1751 -1775).
At the turn of the 20th century Havana, along with Buenos Aires, was the grandest and most important Latin American city in terms of architecture. Buenos Aires is the Capital and largest city of Argentina. It is geographically located on the southern shore of the Río de la Plata, on the southeastern This boom period known as vacas gordas (fat cows) demonstrates huge examples of buildings from the international influences of art nouveau, art deco and eclectic. Art Nouveau ( nu vo anglicised /ˈɑːt nuːvəu/ ( French for 'new art' also known as Jugendstil ( German for 'youth style' is an international Art Deco was a popular international design movement from 1925 until 1939 affecting the decorative arts such as Architecture, Interior design, and Industrial Eclecticism is a conceptual approach that does not hold rigidly to a single Paradigm or set of assumptions but instead draws upon multiple theories styles or ideas to Its suburbs developed to what we see today as Miramar, Marianao, Vedado and Playa. Playa is one of the 15 municipalities of the City of Havana, Cuba. The lush and wealthy Miramar was set out on the American street grid pattern and became a home to diplomats and foreigners. The railway terminal (1912) and the University of Havana, (1906 -1940) and the Capitolio (1926 - 1929) are a good example of the art nouveau style. El Capitolio, or the National Capitol Building in Havana, Cuba, was the seat of government in Cuba until after the Cuban Revolution in 1959 The Capitolio dome was at 62 meters the highest point in the city and an example of the influence and wealth deriving from the USA at the time. The Lopez Serrano building built in 1932 by Ricardo Mira was the first tall building in Cuba and inspired by the Rockefeller Center in New York. Rockefeller Center is a complex of 19 commercial buildings covering 22 acres between 48th and 51st streets in New York City. New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous Its design influence can be seen in many buildings in Miami and Los Angeles. Los Angeles (lɑˈsændʒələs los ˈaŋxeles in Spanish) is the largest City in the state of California and the American West The Edificio Bacardi (1930) is one of Havana's grandest buildings and it's best example of Art Deco. Art Deco was a popular international design movement from 1925 until 1939 affecting the decorative arts such as Architecture, Interior design, and Industrial Located on a small knoll overlooking the entrance to Havana Bay, is the art-deco style Hotel Nacional de Cuba; originally built in 1929-30 through a joint agreement with the Cuban government and U. The Hotel Nacional de Cuba is a historic luxury Hotel located on the Malecón in Havana, Cuba. S. -based bank.
Havana, like Las Vegas in the 40s and 50s developed from marketing itself as a destination for gambling and holidays in the sun. The Las Vegas Strip (also known as The Strip) is an approximately 4 mile (6 It became a haven for criminals, and gangsters. Many high-rise office buildings, and apartment complexes, along with some hotels approved by Fulgencio Batista government helped dramatically alter the skyline. General Fulgencio Batista y Zaldívar (fulˈxensjo βaˈtista i salˈdiβar January 16, 1901 &ndash August 6, 1973) was a Cuban Modernism, therefore, transformed much of the city and should be noted for its individual buildings of high quality rather than its larger key buildings. Examples of the latter are Habana Libre (1958), which before the revolution was the Havana Hilton Hotel and La Rampa movie theater (1955). UH Hilton Hoteljpg|thumbnail|right|The Hilton University of Houston in Houston Texas, located on the campus of the University of Houston, contains the Hilton College of Famous architects such as Walter Gropius, Richard Neutra and Oscar Niemeyer all passed through the city while strong influences can be seen in Havana at this time from Le Corbusier and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe. Walter Adolph Georg Gropius ( May 18, 1883 &ndash July 5, 1969) was a German Architect and founder of Bauhaus Richard Joseph Neutra ( April 8, 1892 &ndash April 16, 1970) is considered one of Modernism 's most important Architects Oscar Ribeiro de Almeida Niemeyer Soares Filho (born December 15, 1907) is a Brazilian Architect who is considered one of the most important Charles-Édouard Jeanneret-Gris, who chose to be known as Le Corbusier ( October 6, 1887 – August 27, 1965) was a Swiss Ludwig Mies van der Rohe (ˈlʊdvɪç miːs faːn dɛʀ ˈʀoːɐ born Maria Ludwig Michael Mies ( March 27, 1886 &ndash August 17, 1969
The Edificio Focsa (1956) represents Havana's booming economy and foreign influence at the time. This 35-story complex was conceived and based on Corbusian ideas of a self-contained city within a city. It contained 400 apartments, garages, a school, a supermarket, and restaurant on the top floor. This was the tallest concrete structure in the world at the time (using no steel frame) and the ultimate symbol of luxury. The Havana Riviera Hotel (1957) designed by Irving Feldman, a twenty-one-story, 440-room edifice, towering above the Malecon in Havana was another angular and futuristic building build on the Vedado area impressive for its era. When it opened, the Riviera would be the largest purpose-built casino-hotel in Cuba or anywhere in the world, outside Las Vegas (the Havana Hilton (1958) surpassed its size a year later). It was build by Meyer Lansky to equal the comfort and contemporary luxury of any Las Vegas hotel of the era. Meyer Lansky (born Majer Suchowliński, July 4, 1902 &ndash January 15, 1983) was a gangster who with Charles Jose Luis Sert had also designed an artificial island off the Malecón whose construction was planned to take place in the 1960s. Josep Lluís Sert i López (1902—1983 was a Spanish Architect from Catalonia. It was to incorporate huge modern towers, hotels, casinos, and shopping centers which would cater for the city's growing tourism. This like many other post-1959 projects never materialized and western Havana never fully achieved its intended direction. High-rise buildings were to replace some Colonial blocks and buildings mainly around this previously loosely developed western part of the city, mainly the Vedado and Playa area. Vedado is the downtown and a vibrant neighbourhood in the city of Havana, Cuba. Playa is one of the 15 municipalities of the City of Havana, Cuba. It would have drastically altered Havana's profile, marking a new era of significant contemporary growth for the city. It would have created a new more diverse Havana of modernistic appeal on the west accompanying its past glory of abundant colonial and eclectic architecture in Old Havana and Centro Habana on the east. Old Havana (La Habana Vieja contains the main area of the original city of Havana. Centro Habana is one of the 15 municipalities (municipios in Spanish in the city of Havana, Cuba.
Havana, by far the leading cultural centre of the island, offers a wide variety of features that range from museums, palaces, public squares, avenues, churches, fortresses (including the largest fortified complex in the Americas dating from the 16th through 18th centuries), ballet and from art and musical festivals to exhibitions of technology. The restoration of Old Havana offered a number of new attractions, including a museum to house relics of the Cuban revolution. The government placed special emphasis on cultural activities, many of which are free or involve only a minimal charge.
Old Havana, (La Habana Vieja in Spanish), contains the core of the original city of Havana, it is the richest colonial set of Latin America. Old Havana (La Habana Vieja contains the main area of the original city of Havana. Havana Vieja was founded by the Spanish in 1519 in the natural harbor of the Bay of Havana. It became a stopping point for the treasure laden Spanish Galleons on the crossing between the New World and the Old World. A galleon was a large multi-decked Sailing ship used primarily by the nations of Europe from the 16th to 18th centuries The Old World consists of those parts of Earth known to Europeans Asians and Africans in the 15th century In the 17th century it was one of the main shipbuilding centers. The city was built in baroque and neoclassic style. Baroque art redirects here Please disambiguate such links to Baroque painting, Baroque sculpture, etc Neoclassical architecture was an architectural style produced by the neoclassical movement that began in the mid-18th century both as a reaction against the Rococo Many buildings have fallen in ruin during the communist period in the later half of the 20th century, but a number are being restored. The narrow streets of old Havana contain many buildings, accounting for perhaps as many as one-third of the approximately 3,000 buildings found in Old Havana. 
Old Havana is the ancient city formed from the port, the official center and the Plaza de Armas. Alejo Carpentier called Old Havana the place "de las columnas" (of the columns). Alejo Carpentier y Valmont ( December 26, 1904 – April 24, 1980) was a Cuban novelist essay writer and musicologist who greatly The Cuban government is taking many steps to preserve and to restore Old Havana, through the Office of the city historian, directed by Eusebio Leal. Eusebio Leal Spengler, (b Havana, Cuba on September 11 1942) is the Havana City Historian director of the restoration program of Old  Old Havana and its fortifications were added to the UNESCO World Heritage List in 1982. United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization ( UNESCO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established on November 16 A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a site (such as a Forest, Mountain, Lake, Desert, Monument, Building, complex 
Havana's Chinatown (Barrio Chino), once Latin America's largest and most vibrant Chinatown incorporated into the city by the early part of the 20th century when hundreds of thousands of Chinese workers were brought in by Spanish settlers from Hong Kong, Macau, and Taiwan during the following decades to replace and / or work alongside African slaves. Hong Kong ( officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, is a territory located on China 's south coast on the Pearl River Delta, and borders For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Macau topics. Taiwan ( Taiwanese: Tâi-oân/Tāi-oân (historically 大灣/台員/大員/台圓/大圓/台窩灣 is an Island in East Asia. After completing 8-year contracts or otherwise obtaining their freedom, many Chinese immigrants settled permanently in Havana. The Chinatown neighborhood was booming with Chinese restaurants, laundries, banks, pharmacies, theaters and several Chinese-language newspapers, the neighborhood comprised 44 square blocks during its prime. The heart of Havana's chinatown is on el Cuchillo de Zanja (or The Zanja Canal). The strip is a pedestrian-only street adorned with many red lanterns, dancing red paper dragons and other Chinese cultural designs, there is a great number of restaurants that serve a full spectrum of Chinese dishes.
The Chinatown district has two paifang, a large one located on Calle Dragones, the materials were donated in the late 90s by the People's Republic of China , it has a well defined written welcoming sign in Chinese and Spanish. Paifang ( Cantonese Transliteration: paaifong) also called pailou (Cantonese transliteration paailau) is a traditional Chinese Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES The smaller arch is located on Zanja strip. The Cuban's Chinese boom ended when Fidel Castro's 1959 revolution seized private businesses, sending tens of thousands of business-minded Chinese fleeing, mainly to the United States and abroad. Age, emigration and intermarriage have taken a toll on Havana's once flourishing Chinese community. While descendants are making efforts to preserve and revive the culture, the island's last pure Chinese are slowly disappearing into Havana's Chinese cemetery, taking with them part of Cuba's history.
Only one of what were once four Chinese-language newspapers remains in Havana, Kwong Wah Po, written by Abel Fung, member of the Promotional Group of Chinatown . The newspaper is not subject to state censorship. To tie in with the Revolution's economic reliance on tourism, attempts have recently been launched to attract revitalization investment for Chinatown from state-run enterprises of the People's Republic of China and overseas Chinese private investors, particularly Chinese Canadians. Chinese Canadians are Canadians of Chinese descent and constitute the second-largest Visible minority group in Canada standing at 1346510 which In addition, Chinatown is today the only area granted autonomy from many laws that govern the rest of Cuba. Restaurants, for example, are not state run nor are they subject to the laws of private restaurants in that they are allowed to have more than 12 seats as well as serve seafood.
A small palace located on 17th Street and E, is the very well maintained neo-classical mansion of the Countess of Revilla de Camargo, today it is the Museum of Decorative Arts (Museo de Artes Decorativas), known as the small French Palace of Havana built between 1924 and 1927, it was designed in Paris by architects P. The National Museum of Fine Arts of Havana, ( Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes de La Habana) in Havana, Cuba is a museum of Fine Arts that exhibits National Ballet of Cuba (Ballet Nacional de Cuba, is managed by Cuban Prima ballerina assoluta Alicia Alonso and is one of the top ballet The Museum of Decorative Arts ( Museo de Artes Decorativas) in the Vedado district of Havana, Cuba it's a decorative arts museum in the former Virad and M. Destuque, inspired in French Renaissance. French Renaissance is a recent term used to describe a cultural and artistic movement in France from the late 15th century to the early 17th century A lavish display of 18th and 19th century European treasures that recall a time when Havana was known as the Paris of the Antilles, and many luxury goods, including porcelain from Worcester, Meissen and Sevres, were imported 
In the French room, a marble bust of Marie Antoinette smiles demurely, her graceful neck intact. Porcelain is a Ceramic material made by heating raw materials generally including Clay in the form of Kaolin, in a Kiln to temperatures Worcester (ˈwʊstə is a city and County town of Worcestershire, in the West Midlands of England. Meissen (in German orthography: Meißen; Sorbian: Mišno; Misena Misnia Misnensium is a Town of approximately 30000 near Sèvres is a commune in the southwestern suburbs of Paris, France. Maria Antonia Josepha Johanna von Habsburg-Lothringen (November 2 1755 &ndash October 16 1793 known to history as Marie Antoinette ( pronounced /maʀi ɑ̃ntwanɛt/ There is another room full of Chinese screens, another one featuring English furniture and landspcape painting. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland For more than 40 decades the museum has been exhibiting more than 33,000 works dating from the reigns of Louis XV, Louis XVI, and Napoleon III; as well as XVI to XX Century Oriental pieces, among many other treasures. Louis XV (15 February 1710 &ndash 10 May 1774 ruled as King of France and of Navarre from 1 September 1715 until his death in 1774 Louis XVI ( 23 August 1754 – 21 January 1793) Louis-Auguste de France, ruled as King of France and Navarre Napoléon III, also known as Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte (full name Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte) (20 April 1808 9 January 1873 was the first President The twentieth century of the Common Era began on The Orient is a term which simply means the " East " It originated in Western Asia to describe that part of the world The Museum has ten permanent exhibit halls with works that range from the XVI to the XX centuries. Among them are prominent porcelain articles from the factories in Sevres and Chantilly, France; Meissen, Germany; and Wedgwood, England, as well as Chinese from the Kien Lung period and Japanese from the Imari. Chantilly is a commune in the metropolitan area of Paris, France. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Wedgwood, strictly Josiah Wedgwood and Sons, is a British Pottery firm originally founded in 1759 by Josiah Wedgwood, which in 1987 For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. is a city located in Saga Prefecture on the island of Kyūshū, Japan. The furniture comes from Leonard Boudin, Simoneau, Jean Henri Riesener and several others. Leonard B Boudin ( July 20, 1912 - November 24, 1989) was a prominent Civil liberties Attorney and Left-wing Jean-Henri Riesener (Johann Heinrich Riesener ( 4 July 1734 - 6 January 1806) born in Gladbeck near Essen in Germany
The National Museum of Fine Arts is a Fine Arts museum that exhibits Cuban art collections from the colonial times up to contemporary generation. The National Museum of Fine Arts of Havana, ( Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes de La Habana) in Havana, Cuba is a museum of Fine Arts that exhibits Fine art is any Art form developed primarily for Aesthetics rather than Utility. There are two impressive buildings, one dedicated to Cuban Art and the Universal Art, in the former Asturian Center, the former Fine Arts Museum built in 1954 is dedicated exclusively to housing Cuba Art collections. Cuban art is a diverse cultural blend of African, European and North American visual design reflecting the diverse demographic of the island Asturian (Asturian Asturianu or Bable) is a Romance language of the West Iberian group, Astur-Leonese Subgroup, spoken in the Several museums in Old Havana contain furniture, silverware, pottery, glass and other items from the colonial period. Pottery is the Ceramic ware made by potters It also refers to a group of materials that includes Earthenware, Stoneware A great one of these is the Palace of the General Captains, where Spanish governors once lived. The Casa de Africa presents another aspect of Cuba's history, an impressive collection of Afro-Cuban religious artifacts. The term Afro-Cuban refers to Cubans of African ancestry and to historical or cultural elements in Cuba thought to emanate from this community
The Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes containing works by Rubens, Goya and Velazquez now is closed for renovations, it is open to public at a temporary location on Calle Trocadero until renovations are complete. Other museums includes Casa de los Árabes and the Casa de Asia with Middle and Far Eastern collections. The Middle East is a Subcontinent with no clear boundaries often used as a synonym to Near East, in opposition to Far East. The Far East is a term often used by people in the Western world to refer to the countries of East Asia. Many of these small boutiques museums are in elegant old Spanish architecture houses with airy courtyards. A boutique, from the French word for "shop" is a small Shopping outlet especially one that specialises in elite and fashionable items such as Clothing The Museo de Finanzas is more than an empty vault where dictator Fulgencio Batista once stashed his loot. A few old bank-notes are displayed on the walls. Havana's Museo del Automobil has an impressive collection of vehicles dating back to a 1905 Cadillac. Cadillac is a Brand of Luxury vehicles owned by General Motors. In the Automobile museum there is also a Rolls Royce which belonged to Batista, near the 1960 Chevrolet that Che Guevara drove. A Rolls-Royce car may refer to vehicles produced by Rolls-Royce Limited (1906-1973 Rolls-Royce Motors (1973-2003 which was owned Chevrolet (ˌʃɛvroʊˈleɪ - French origin (also known as Chevy) is a Brand of Automobile, produced by General Motors (GM Ernesto "Che" Guevara (June 14 Following the Cuban revolution,Guevara reviewed
There Museum of the Revolution (Museo de la Revolución), designed in Havana by Cuban architect Maruri, and the Belgian Jean Beleu, who came up with an eclectic design, which harmoniously combines Spanish, French and German architectural elements. The Museum of the Revolution (Museo de la Revolución is a museum located in the Old Havana section of Havana, Cuba. The Kingdom of Belgium is a Country in northwest Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts its headquarters as well as those Eclecticism is a kind of mixed style in the Fine arts: "the Borrowing of a variety of styles from different sources and combining them" (Hume 1998 The museum was the Presidential Palace, today, its displays and documents outline Cuba's history from the beginning of the neo-colonial period. Presidential Palace is the Official residence of the President in some countries As most museums of Havana are situated in Old Havana few of them could also be found in Vedado. In total, Havana has around 50 museums, including the Museum of Fine Art, the Revolution and Decorative Arts; the National Museum of Music; the Museum of Dance and Rum; the Cigar Museum; the Napoleonic, Colonial and Oricha Museums; the Museum of Antropology; the Ernest Hemingway Museum; the Jose Marti Monument; Museums of Natural Sciences, the City, Archeology Museum, and Gold-and Silverwork. Also the Aircraft, Parfume, Pharmaceutical, Sports, Numismatic and Weapons Museums.
After the sun sets, Havana's performing arts come to life, facing the Central Park is the faux-baroque Great Theatre of Havana, a prominent theatre built in 1837 home of the National Ballet of Cuba and the International Ballet Festival of Havana, one of the oldest in the New World and remarkably was once the most technologically advanced in the world, thanks to the Italian scientist, Antonio Meucci. Baroque architecture, starting in the early 17th century in Italy, took the humanist Roman vocabulary of Renaissance architecture and used it in a new rhetorical National Ballet of Cuba (Ballet Nacional de Cuba, is managed by Cuban Prima ballerina assoluta Alicia Alonso and is one of the top ballet International Ballet Festival of Havana (Festival de Ballet de La Habana, is a ballet festival held in the Great Theater of Havana, Cuba every two years Antonio Meucci ( Florence, April 13, 1808 &ndash October 18, 1889) was an Italian -born inventor who developed a form of 
It is said the experiments of the eccentric inventor who arrived in Havana in 1835 produced electrical lightning effects and an internal telephone system long before Edison or Bell. Meucci's ingenious spirit lives on in the teatre. Located in the Paseo de Prado in a building known as the Palacio del Centro Gallego. The façade of the building is adorned with a stone and marble statue. A facade or façade (fəˈsɑːd is generally one side of the exterior of a Building, especially the front but also sometimes the sides and rear There are also sculptural pieces by Giuseppe Moretti, representing allegories depicting benevolence, education, music and theatre. Giuseppe Moretti ( 3 February 1857 — February 1935 was an Italian émigré Sculptor who became known in America The principal theatre is the García Lorca Auditorium, with seats for 1,500 and balconies. Federico García Lorca' ( 5 June 1898 &ndash 19 August 1936) was a Spanish Poet and dramatist also remembered as Glories of its rich history; the Italian tenor Enrico Caruso sang, the Russian ballerina Anna Pavlova danced, and the French Sarah Bernhardt acted. The tenor is the highest male voice within the Modal register, just above the Baritone voice Enrico Caruso (born Errico Caruso; February 25 1873 &ndash August 2 1921) was an Italian Opera singer Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending Anna Pavlovna Pavlova (А́нна Па́вловна Па́влова (&ndash 23 January, 1931) was a famous Russian Ballerina of the late Sarah Bernhardt (October 22 1844 &ndash March 26 1923 was a French stage actress and has been referred to as "the most famous actress in the history of the world"
Another grand theatre is the National Theater of Cuba, housed in a huge modern building, decorated with works by Cuban artists, there are two main theatre stages, the Avellaneda hall and the Covarrubias hall, as well as a smaller theatre workshop space on the ninth floor. National Theater of Cuba (Teatro Nacional de Cuba is a theater in Havana, Cuba, establish September 3, 1979, with a function of gala for the The Karl Marx Theater is the venue has an enormous auditorium with seating capacity of 5500 people, and is generally used for big shows by stars from Cuba and abroad. The Karl Marx Theater (Teatro Karl Marx is a theater in Havana, Cuba, formerly known as the Teatro Blanquita, and renamed after the Cuban Revolution The theatre is also a major concert venue for both local and international artists; singer-songwriters such as Carlos Varela, Silvio Rodríguez and Pablo Milanés, are just a few of the famous artists who have graced this particular stage. Carlos Varela (born April 11, 1963) is a Singer-songwriter of Nueva trova from Havana, Cuba. Silvio Rodríguez Domínguez (born November 29, 1946 in San Antonio de los Baños) is a Cuban musician and a leader of the Nueva trova Pablo Milanés Arias (born in Bayamo, Cuba on February 24, 1943) is a Cuban Singer-songwriter and guitar player More recently, this was the scene of a concert by British pop group The Manic Street Preachers. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Manic Street Preachers (often known colloquially as the " Manics " or " MSP " are a Welsh rock band consisting of James
Havana's economy first developed on the basis of its location, which made it one of the early great trade centres in the New World. Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES Sugar and a flourishing slave trade first brought riches to the city, and later, after independence, it became a renowned resort. As a social-economic system slavery is a legal institution under which a Person (called "a slave" is compelled to work for another Despite efforts by Fidel Castro's government to spread Cuba's industrial activity to all parts of the island, Havana remains the centre of much of the nation's industry. The traditional sugar industry, upon which the island's economy has been based for three centuries, is centred elsewhere on the island and controls some three-fourths of the export economy. But light manufacturing facilities, meat-packing plants, and chemical and pharmaceutical operations are concentrated in Havana. Other food-processing industries are also important, along with shipbuilding, vehicle manufacturing, production of alcoholic beverages (particularly rum), textiles, and tobacco products, particularly the world-famous Habanos cigars. Habanos SA is the arm of the Cuban state Tobacco Monopoly, Cubatabaco, that controls the promotion distribution and export of Cuban  Although the harbours of Cienfuegos and Matanzas, in particular, have been developed under the revolutionary government, Havana remains Cuba's primary port facility; 50% of Cuban imports and exports pass through Havana. A harbor or harbour (see spelling differences) or haven, is a place where ships may shelter from the Weather or are stored Matanzas is the capital of the Cuban province of Matanzas. It is famed for its Afro-Cuban folklore. The port also supports a considerable fishing industry.
Following the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 and the United States embargo against Cuba, Havana and the rest of Cuba suddenly plunged into its worst economic crisis since the 1959 Revolution, the crisis was known officially as the Special Period in Time of Peace. The United States Embargo Against Cuba (described in Cuba as el bloqueo, Spanish for "the Blockade " is an economic commercial and The Cuban Revolution refers to the revolution that led to the overthrow of the United States proxy ruler General Fulgencio Batista 's regime on January 1, The Special Period in Peacetime ( Período especial en tiempo de paz) in Cuba was an extended period of Economic Crisis that began in The effects of the Special Period and consequent food shortages have had greatest repercussions in the city of Havana. With approximately 2. 5 million people, Havana has about one fifth of Cuba's total population and is the largest city in the Caribbean. In addition to the decline in food production needed to serve the capital, there is also a shortage of petroleum necessary to transport, refrigerate, and store food available from the rural agricultural sector. Havana has been designated as a priority in the National Food Program; urban gardening has figured critically among the many measures taken to enhance food security. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, Cuba re-emphasized tourism as a major industry, which today is Havana and Cuba's primary economic source .
Under the government of Fidel Castro, Cuba's traditional free-enterprise system was replaced by a heavily socialized economic system. The majority of business in Cuba is in the hands of the state. In Havana Cuban-owned businesses and U. S. -owned businesses were nationalized and today most businesses operate solely under state control. In Old Havana and throughout Vedado there are a several small private businesses, such as shoe-repair shops or dressmaking facilities, but their number is steadily declining. In general, as a result of this extreme centralized economy by the communist regime there is an extreme economic stagnation seen throughout the city and countless buildings have become vacant, abandoned, and beyond repair. Banking as well is totally under state control, and the National Bank of Cuba, headquartered in Havana, is the control center of the Cuban economy. This article discusses banking in Cuba and gives an overview of the recent past Its branches in some cases occupy buildings that were in pre-revolutionary times the offices of Cuban or foreign banks.
Vedado is today Havana's financial district, the main banks, airline companies offices, shops, most businesses headquarters, numerous high-rise apartments and hotels, are located in the area. In the late 1990s Vedado, located along the Caribbean waterfront, started to represent the principal commercial area. It was developed extensively between 1930 and 1960, when Havana developed as a major destination for U. S. tourists; high-rise hotels, casinos, restaurants, and upscale commercial establishments, many reflecting the art deco style. A casino is in the modern sense of the word a facility that houses and accommodates certain types of Gambling activities The University of Havana is located in Vedado.
Nationally, public transport in Cuba is directed by the Ministerio del Transporte (MITRANS). Transportation in Cuba is comprised of a system of railways roads buses airports waterways ports and harbours Railways See also Ferrocarriles Yank tank or máquina are the words used to describe the many Classic cars present in Cuba. In the Province of the City of Havana, Provincial Transport Authority functions are carried out by 11 divisions.
Public transport must be self-financing. Until 1994, general government funds from MITRANS (of around $US4 million per annum) were used to fund the Provincial Transport Directorate in the City of Havana budget. Public transport in Havana has always been able to cover operating expenses, that are paid in Cuban Pesos through the fares. The peso ( ISO 4217 code CUP, sometimes called the "national peso" is one of two official currencies in use in Cuba, the other being the But there has been a constant problem with financing fuel, new vehicles and spare parts and other supplies which require hard currency like US dollars – which led to a reduction in service provision. To address this, enterprises that generate hard currency (like the tourist taxis, tourist rental cars, and tourist cocotaxi elements of Panatrans and the Transmetro services that hire out buses and trucks to dollar-owning companies) cross subsidise the other services, in particular OM and MetroBus.
In addition, a service planning team from the Regional Transit Authority of Paris (RATP) has been working to redefine the public transport network in the capital. The Régie Autonome des Transports Parisiens ( RATP/Autonomous Operator of Parisian Transports) is the major transit operator responsible for Public transportation The main aim of this project has been to rationalise the number of existing routes to match the actual passenger demand. The first of these new principal routes has already been put into place.
Havana is served by José Martí International Airport. Jose Marti Airport is located southwest of Havana, Cuba, and is a hub for Cubana de Aviación, Aerogaviota and Aerocaribbean It lies about 11 km south of the city center, and is the main hub of Cubana de Aviación. For the Russian airline see Kuban Airlines. ||-||-||} Cubana de Aviación S José Martí International Airport is Cuba's main international and domestic getaway, it is also hub of Aerogaviota and Aero Caribbean. Aerogaviota is an Airline based in Havana, Cuba. It operates domestic passenger charters for the national tourist authority Aero Caribbean (Empresa Aerocaribbean SA is an Airline based in Havana, Cuba. The airport serves several million passengers each year, 80% of Cuba's international passengers along with Varadero's Airport, it handles flights from over 25 international airlines serving more than 60 worldwide destinations, mainly in Europe, North, Central and South America and over 3 national airlines serving 16 domestic destinations. Havana is also served by Playa Baracoa Airport which is small airport to the west of city used for some domestic flights, primarily Aerogaviota. Playa Baracoa Airport is a regional Airport west of Havana, Cuba that serves regional flights in Cuba.
Havana has a network of suburban, interurban and long-distance rail lines, the only one in the Caribbean region. The railways are nationalised and run by the UFC (Union de Ferrocarriles de Cuba – Union for Railways of Cuba). Rail service connects Havana from the Central Rail Station, La Coubre' and Casablanca stations to various Cuban provinces. Administratively, Cuba is divided into fourteen provinces and one special Municipality. Currently annual passenger volume is some 12 million, but demand is estimated at two-and-a-half to three times this value, with the busiest route being between Havana and Santiago de Cuba, some 836 km apart by rail. In 2000 the Union de Ferrocarriles de Cuba bought French first class airconditioned coaches.
Fast trains line 1 and 2 between Havana (Central Station) and Santiago de Cuba use comfortable stainless-steel air-conditioned coaches bought from French Railways and now known as "el tren francés" (the French train). It runs daily at peak periods of the year (Summer season, Christmas & Easter), and on every second day at other times of the year. These coaches were originally used on the premier Trans Europ Express service between Paris, Brussels and Amsterdam before being replaced with high speed Thalys trains. The Trans Europ Express is a former international Train network in Europe. Brussels (Bruxelles pronounced; Brussel pronounced) officially the Brussels Capital-Region, is Amsterdam (pronounced) is the capital and largest city of the Netherlands, located in the province of North Holland in the west Thalys is an international high-speed train operator built around the high-speed lines between Paris, Brussels, Cologne and Amsterdam They were shipped to the Cuban Railways System in 2001. It offers two classes of seating, basic leatherette "especial" and quite luxurious "primera especial".
The Havana public buses are carried out by two divisions, Omnibus Metropolitanos (OM) and MetroBus. The Omnibus Metropolitanos division has one of the most used and largest urban bus fleets in the country, its fleet is widely diverse in new and old donated bus models, primerally well used Busscar Urbanuss manufactured by Mercedes-Benz with an additional new 255 purchased in 2004. Busscar Onibus SA is a Brazilian bus manufacturer with industrial grounds cover 1 million square metres with a building of 84 thousand square metres Mercedes-Benz Buses has been making Buses since 1895 in Mannheim in Germany.  The Cuban government will invest $2,000 million dollars for the acquisition of 1,500 new Yutong urban buses and another 1,000 interprovincial buses in a 5 years period. Zhengzhou Yutong Bus (郑州宇通客车) is one of China 's bus manufacturers based in Henan Province There are several inter-province bus services such as Astro, the regular National public transportation, Astro connects the capital city with all over the island, in 2005 Astro completely replaced its fleet with brand new Yutong buses. Zhengzhou Yutong Bus (郑州宇通客车) is one of China 's bus manufacturers based in Henan Province
The Metrobus division are known as "camellos" (camels). The camellos operate the bussiest routes and are trailers transformed into buses known as camels, so called for their two humps. It's a Cuban invention after the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 and the Special Period began. The Metrobus division purchased seven articulated buses which is currently serving the M-5 camello line, covering a route from San Agustín in La Lisa municipality to Vedado. Articulated buses (either motorbuses or Trolleybuses) also known as tandem buses, bendy buses, banana buses, slinky buses or La Lisa is one of the 15 municipalities ( municipios in Spanish in the city of Havana, Cuba. All camello trailers will be replaced by new articulated buses.
Public transportation MetroBus (former camello) routes:
Havana is administered by a city council, with a mayor as chief administrative officer. Vedado is the downtown and a vibrant neighbourhood in the city of Havana, Cuba. Marianao is a Town and municipality in the province of the city of Havana, Cuba, 6 miles southwest of the original city of Havana, with which Cotorro, or San Pedro del Cotorro, is one of the 15 municipalities ( municipios in Spanish in the city of Havana, Cuba. Plaza de la Revolución ("Revolution Square" is a municipality and a square in Havana, Cuba. The José Martí Memorial (Memorial José Martí is a memorial to José Martí, the national hero of Cuba, located on the northern side of the Plaza de The city is dependent upon the national government, however, for much of its budgetary and overall political direction. The national government is headquartered in Havana and plays an extremely visible role in the city's life. Moreover, the all-embracing authority of many national institutions, including the Communist Party of Cuba (Partido Comunista de Cuba; PCC), the Revolutionary Armed Forces (Military of Cuba), the militia, and neighbourhood groups called the Committees for the Defense of the Revolution (CDRs), has led to a declining role for the city government, which, nevertheless, still provides such essential services as garbage collection and fire protection. The Communist Party of Cuba ( Spanish: Partido Comunista de Cuba, PCC is currently the governing political party in Cuba. Military of Cuba Military manpower Committees for the Defense of the Revolution ( Comités de Defensa de la Revolución) or CDR, is a network of Committees across Cuba. The CDRs, which exist in virtually every street and apartment block, have two main functions: first, to actually defend the revolution against both external and internal opposition by keeping routine record of every resident's activities and, second, to handle routine tasks in maintaining neighborhoods.
Havana city borders are contiguous with the Habana Province. Thus Havana functions as both a city and a province. A province is a territorial unit almost always an Administrative division. There are two joint councils upon which city and provincial authorities meet—one embraces municipal and provincial leaders on a national basis, the other, a Havana city and provincial council. Havana is divided into 15 constituent municipalities. Until 1976 there were six subdivisions, but in that year the city's borders were expanded to include the entire metropolitan area.
The city is divided into 15 municipios - municipalities or boroughs. (Numbers refer to map above).
|Diez de Octubre||227,293||12||(9)|
|La Habana del Este||178,041||145||(15)|
|La Habana Vieja||95,383||5||(7)|
|Plaza de la Revolución||161,631||12||(5)|
|San Miguel del Padrón||159,273||26||(11)|
Havana's rich cultural milieu included not only Spaniards from diverse regions of the Iberian Peninsula but other European peoples as well. The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra The European peoples are the various Nations and Ethnic groups of Europe. In the era before Fidel Castro came to power, the city was economically and ethnically divided. On the one hand, there was the minority of the wealthy, educated elite, together with a strong middle class, and on the other was the working-class majority. Elite (also spelled Élite) is taken originally from the Latin, eligere, "to elect" This division was largely based on ethnic background: whites tended to be more well-to-do, while blacks and mulattoes generally were poor. The economic structure did not provide much opportunity for blacks and mulattoes except in the more menial occupations. There was also little opportunity for them to obtain an education. Under the Castro government that came to power in 1959, this system changed. Educational and employment opportunities were made available to Cubans of all ethnic backgrounds; however, top positions and fields of study were usually reserved only to signed communist party members and record showed supporters, though this has lost some strictness in recent years. In housing, the government follows an official policy of no discrimination based on ethnic background, and independent observers tend to believe this policy has been more or less faithfully carried out.
During the 18th, 19th and early part of the 20th century, large waves of Canarian, Catalan, and Galicians emigrated from the Iberian Peninsula to Havana. The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra
The Cuban government controls the movement of people into Havana on the grounds that the Havana metropolitan area (home to nearly 20% of the country's population) is overstretched in terms of land use, water, electricity, transportation, and other elements of the urban infrastructure. The Galicians ( Galician: Galegos) are an Ethnic group or Nationality whose homeland is Galicia, which is a historical region The Canarians are an Ethnic group or Nation living in the Archipelago of the Canary Islands (an autonomous community of The Catalans are the people from Catalonia, an Autonomous community of Spain, including people originating in that region but living elsewhere There is a population of internal migrants to Havana nicknamed "Palestinos" (Palestinians); these mostly hail from the eastern region of Oriente. Oriente ( Spanish for "East" was one of six Provinces of Cuba until 1976  Havana has a significant minority of Chinese, before the revolution the Chinese population counted to over 200,000, today Chinese born or ancestors could count up to 100,000. The term Chinese people may refer to any of the following A person who resides in and holds citizenship of the People's Republic of China (including Hong Havana also shelters a non-Cuban population of an unknown size, including Russians majorly living in Habana del Este that constantly emigrated during the Soviet era. The Russian people (Русские— Russkie) are an East Slavic Ethnic group, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries Habana del Este is one of the municipalities forming the city of Havana. A soviet (сове́т, "council" originally was a workers' local council in late Imperial Russia. There is a population of several thousand North African teen and pre-teen refugees. 
Roman Catholics form the largest religious group in Havana. The Jewish community in Havana has reduced after the Revolution from once having embraced more than 15,000 Jews, many of whom had fled Nazi persecution and subsequently left Cuba to Miami or returned to Israel after Castro took to power in 1959. PLEASE TAKE NOTE************ Nazism, which was a short name for National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus refers primarily to the Ideology and practices of the National Socialist German For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics. The city once had five synagogues, but only three remain (one Orthodox, one Conservative and one Sephardic). A synagogue (from Greek: grc συναγωγή transliterated synagogē, "assembly" he בית כנסת beit knesset, "house of Conservatism is a term used to describe political philosophies that favour Tradition, where tradition refers to various religious cultural or nationally defined Sephardi Jews ( Hebrew: ספרדי, Standard Səfardi Tiberian Səp̄arədî; plural In February 2007 the New York Times estimated that there were about 1,500 known Jews living in Havana. 
The national government assumes all responsibility for education, and there are adequate primary, secondary, and vocational training schools throughout Havana. The University of Havana or UH (in Spanish, Universidad de La Habana) is a university located in the Vedado district of Havana Felipe Poey y Aloy ( May 26, 1799 — January 28, 1891) was a Cuban Zoologist. Education in Cuba is extremely subsidized at all levels In 1961 the government nationalized all private educational institutions and introduced a state-directed education system The vocational Cuban National Ballet School with 4,350 students is the biggest ballet school in the world and the most prestigious ballet school in Cuba , directed by Ramona de Sáa. The Cuban National Ballet School (Escuela Nacional Cubana de Ballet in Havana, with 4350 students is the biggest ballet school in the world and the most prestigious Ballet is a formalized form of Dance with its origins in the French court further developed in France and Russia as a Concert dance In 2002 with the expansion of the school, out of 52,000 students interested to join the school, 4,050 were selected . The government claims that all children receive an education, and the claim appears to be valid. The schools are of varying quality and education is free and compulsory at all levels except higher learning, which is free nonetheless. The University of Havana, located in the Vedado section of Havana, was established in 1728 and was once regarded as a leading institution of higher learning in the Western Hemisphere. Soon after Castro came to power in 1959, the university lost its traditional autonomy and was placed under the control of the government. The city's only other university, the respected Catholic University in Marianao, was closed after the revolution. Since then several other universities have opened, like the Polytechnic Institute "Joe Antonio Echeverria" where the vast majority of today's Cuban engineers are formed.
Under the Cuban government all citizens are covered by the national health care plan. The Cuban government operates a national health system and assumes fiscal and administrative responsibility for the Health care of its citizens Administration of the health care system for the nation is centred largely in Havana. Hospitals in Havana are run by the national government, and citizens are assigned hospitals and clinics to which they may go for attention. During the 1980s Cuba began to attract worldwide attention for its treatment of heart diseases and eye problems, some of this treatment administered in Havana. There has long been a high standard of health care in the city.
Utility services are under the control of several nationalized state enterprises that have developed since the Castro Cuban revolution. The Cuban Revolution refers to the revolution that led to the overthrow of the United States proxy ruler General Fulgencio Batista 's regime on January 1, Water, electricity, and sewage service are administered in this fashion. Electricity is supplied by generators that are fueled with oil. Much of the original power plant installation, which operated before the Castro government assumed control, has become somewhat outdated. Electrical blackouts occurred, prompting the national government in 1986 to allocate the equivalent of $25,000,000 to modernize the electrical system. It is said that any part of Havana is within five minutes of a fire-fighting unit; the equipment is largely new.
Many Cubans are avid sports fans who particularly favour baseball. Havana's two baseball teams in the Cuban National Series are Industriales and Metropolitanos. The Cuban National Series (Serie Nacional de Béisbol is the primary domestic amateur Baseball competition in Cuba. Industriales is a Baseball team in the Cuban National Series. The Metropolitanos of Havana is a Baseball team in the Cuban National Series. The city has several large sports stadiums, the largest one is the Estadio Latinoamericano. Estadio Latinoamericano ( Spanish for Latin American Stadium) is a Stadium in Havana, Cuba. Admission to sporting events is generally free, and impromptu games are played in neighbourhoods throughout the city. Social clubs at the beaches provide facilities for water sports and include restaurants and dance halls.
See also Category:People from Havana (category)
Carlos J. Finlay
Maria Teresa, Grand Duchess of Luxembourg
Havana has twinning agreements with the following sister cities:
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