|Motto in English:||"Truth"|
|Established:||September 8, 1636 (OS), September 18, 1636 (NS)|
|Endowment:||US$35. A motto (from the Italian word motto, meaning witticism sentence is a phrase meant to formally describe the general motivation or intention of a social group English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States The date of establishment or date of founding of an Institution is the date on which that institution chooses to claim as its starting point Events 70 - Roman forces under Titus sack Jerusalem. 1264 - The Statute of Kalisz Events 96 - Nerva is proclaimed Roman Emperor after Domitian is assassinated Unlike Public universities, private universities generally do not receive direct operational funding from national or subnational governments and thus rely on private A financial endowment is a Transfer of Money or Property donated to an Institution, usually with the stipulation that it be invested The United States dollar ( sign: $; code: USD) is the unit of Currency of the United States; it has also been 6 billion|
|President:||Drew Gilpin Faust|
|Staff:||2,497 non-medical, 10,674 medical|
|Location:||Cambridge, MA, USA|
|Campus:||Urban, 380 acres (1. University president is the title of the highest ranking officer within a University, within university systems that prefer that appellation over other variations such as Drew Gilpin Faust (born September 18 1947)is an American Historian, college administrator and the first female president of Employment is a Contract between two parties, one being the employer and the other being the employee. In some Educational systems undergraduate education is Post-secondary education up to the level of a Bachelor's degree. See also Postgraduate Training in Education Postgraduate education (synonymous in North America with graduate education, and sometimes described Cambridge Massachusetts is a City in the Greater Boston area of Massachusetts, United States. The Commonwealth of Massachusetts ( is a state located in the New England region of the northeastern United States. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The acre is a unit of Area in a number of different systems including the imperial and U 5 km²)|
|Mascot:||John Harvard (unofficial)|
|Athletics:||NCAA Division I Ivy League|
41 varsity teams
Harvard University (incorporated as The President and Fellows of Harvard College) is a private university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, U.S., and a member of the Ivy League. Square Kilometre ( US spelling square kilometer) symbol km2, is a decimal multiple of the SI unit of School colors are the Colors chosen by a School to represent it on uniforms and other items of identification Crimson is a strong bright deep Red color combined with some Blue, resulting in a tiny degree of Purple. The athletic nickname, or equivalently athletic moniker, of a University or College within the United States is the name officially adopted by The term mascot – defined as a term for any person animal or object thought to bring Luck – colloquially includes anything used to represent a group with a common John Harvard ( November 26, 1607 &ndash September 14, 1638) was an English Clergyman after whom Harvard University The National Collegiate Athletic Association ( NCAA, often pronounced "N-C-Double-A" is a voluntary association of about 1200 institutions conferences organizations Division I (or D-I) is the highest level of intercollegiate athletics sanctioned by the National Collegiate Athletic Association in the United States The Ivy League is an Athletic conference comprising eight private institutions of higher education in the Northeastern United States. A website (alternatively web site or Web site, a back-construction from the Proper noun World Wide Web) is a collection of Web pages Cambridge Massachusetts is a City in the Greater Boston area of Massachusetts, United States. The Commonwealth of Massachusetts ( is a state located in the New England region of the northeastern United States. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The Ivy League is an Athletic conference comprising eight private institutions of higher education in the Northeastern United States. Founded in 1636 by the colonial Massachusetts legislature, Harvard is the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States. The Colonial Colleges are nine institutions of Higher education chartered in the American Colonies before the American Revolution (1775&ndash1783 It is also the first and oldest corporation in North America. A corporation is a separate legal entity usually used to conduct business 
Initially called "New College" or "the college at New Towne", the institution was named Harvard College on March 13, 1639, after a young clergyman named John Harvard, a graduate of England's Emmanuel College, Cambridge (a college of the University of Cambridge) and St Olave's Grammar School, Orpington in the UK, bequeathed the College his library of four hundred books and half his personal wealth, $1,500 (or £750). Harvard College is the undergraduate section and oldest school of Harvard University, a Private university in the United States founded in 1636 by the Massachusetts Events 1138 - Cardinal Gregorio Conti is elected Antipope as Victor IV, succeeding Anacletus II. Clergy is the generic term used to describe the formal religious leadership within a given Religion. John Harvard ( November 26, 1607 &ndash September 14, 1638) was an English Clergyman after whom Harvard University Emmanuel College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge, founded in 1584 by Sir Walter Mildmay on the site of a Dominican friary The University of Cambridge (often Cambridge University) located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the St Olave's and St Saviour's Grammar School for Boys (also known as St Olave's, St Olave's Grammar School, or simply Olaves) is a selective The earliest known official reference to Harvard as a "university" occurs in the new Massachusetts Constitution of 1780. The Constitution of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts is the fundamental governing document of the United States Commonwealth of Massachusetts.
During his 40-year tenure as Harvard president (1869-1909), Charles William Eliot radically transformed Harvard into the pattern of the modern research university. Charles William Eliot ( March 20 1834 &ndash August 22 1926) was an American Academic who was selected as Harvard's Eliot's reforms included elective courses, small classes, and entrance examinations. The Harvard model influenced American education nationally, at both college and secondary levels. Eliot also was responsible for publication of the now-famous "Harvard Classics", a collection of "great books" from multiple disciplines published by P. The Harvard Classics originally known as Dr Eliot's Five Foot Shelf is a 51-volume Anthology of classic works from world literature compiled and edited by F. Collier and Sons beginning in 1909 that offered a college education "in fifteen minutes a day of reading"; the collection soon became known as "Dr. Eliot's Five-Foot Shelf". During his unprecedentedly influential presidency, Eliot, a prolific book and magazine writer and widely traveled speaker in the pre-radio age, became so widely recognized a public figure that by his death in 1926 his name (and, not coincidentally, Harvard's) had become synonymous with the universal aspirations of American higher education.
In 1999, Radcliffe College, founded in 1879 as the "Harvard Annex for Women", merged formally with Harvard University, becoming the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study. Radcliffe College was a women's liberal arts college in Cambridge Massachusetts, and was the Coordinate college for Harvard University The Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study at Harvard is an educational institution in Cambridge Massachusetts, one of the semiautonomous components of Harvard University
Harvard's library collection contains more than 15 million volumes, making it the largest academic library in the world, and the fourth among the five "mega-libraries" of the world (after the British Library, the Library of Congress, and the French Bibliothèque nationale, but ahead of the New York Public Library). The British Library ( BL) is the National library of the United Kingdom. The Library of Congress is the De facto National library of the United States and the research arm of the United States Congress The New York Public Library ( NYPL) is one of the leading public libraries of the world and is one of America's most significant Research libraries.  Harvard has the largest financial endowment of any non-profit organization except for the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, standing at $34. The following are three lists of US institutions of higher education by endowment: Largest endowments Largest endowments per student Certain universities A financial endowment is a Transfer of Money or Property donated to an Institution, usually with the stipulation that it be invested The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (B&MGF is the largest transparently operated Private foundation in the world founded by Bill and Melinda 9 billion as of 2007.
Harvard University is the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States (see: first university in the United States), founded 16 years after the arrival of the Pilgrims at Plymouth . First university in the United States is a status asserted by more than one U Pilgrims, or Pilgrim Fathers (or Pilgrim Mothers) is a name commonly applied to the early settlers of the Plymouth Colony in present-day Plymouth Harvard College was established in 1636 by vote of the Great and General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony and was named for its first benefactor, John Harvard of Charlestown, a young minister who, upon his death in 1638, left his library and half his estate to the new institution. The Massachusetts Bay Colony (sometimes called the Massachusetts Bay Company, for the institution that founded it was an English settlement on the east coast of North America Charlestown is a part of the city of Boston, Massachusetts located on a peninsula north of Boston proper The charter creating the corporation of Harvard College was signed by Massachusetts Gov. Thomas Dudley in 1650. Thomas Dudley ( October 12, 1576 July 31, 1653) was a colonial magistrate who served several terms as governor of the Massachusetts 
During its early years, the College offered a classic academic course based on the English university model but consistent with the prevailing Puritan philosophy of the first colonists. A Puritan of 16th and 17th century England was an associate of any number of religious groups advocating for more "purity" of Worship and Doctrine, The College was affiliated with Congregationalist denomination. An early brochure, published in 1643, justified the College's existence: "To advance Learning and perpetuate it to Posterity; dreading to leave an illiterate Ministry to the Churches. " Harvard's early motto was "For Christ and the Church. " In its directive to its students it laid out the purpose of all education; "Let every student be plainly instructed and consider well that the main end of his life and studies is to know God and Jesus, which is eternal life. And therefore to lay Christ at the bottom as the only foundation of all sound learning and knowledge. "
The 1708 election of John Leverett, the first president who was not also a clergyman, marked a turning of the College toward intellectual independence from Puritanism. John Leverett ( August 25, 1662 &ndash May 3, 1724) was an early American Lawyer, politician and educator
In the 17th century, Harvard University established the Indian College to educate Native Americans, but it was not a success and disappeared by 1693. In the 17th century Harvard University established the Indian College in order toeducate Native Americans, but it was not a success and disappeared by 1698 Native Americans in the United States are the indigenous peoples from the regions of North America now encompassed by the continental United States
Between 1830 and 1870 Harvard became "privatized".  While the Federalists controlled state government, Harvard had prospered, but the 1824 defeat of the federalist party in Massachusetts allowed the renascent Democratic-Republicans to block state funding of private universities. The Federalist Party (or Federal Party) was an American political party in the period 1792 to 1816 with remnants lasting into the 1820s By 1870, the politicians and ministers that heretofore had made up the university's board of overseers had been replaced by Harvard alumni drawn from Boston's upper-class business and professional community and funded by private endowment.
During this period, Harvard experienced unparalleled growth that securely placed it financially in a league of its own among American colleges. Ronald Story notes that in 1850, Harvard's total assets were "five times that of Amherst and Williams combined, and three times that of Yale. . . . By 1850, it was a genuine university, 'unequalled in facilities,' as a budding scholar put it, by any other institution in America — the 'greatest university,' said another, 'in all creation'".  Story also notes that "all the evidence. . . points to the four decades from 1815 to 1855 as the era when parents, in Henry Adams's words, began 'sending their children to Harvard College for the sake of its social advantages'".  Harvard was also an early leader in admitting ethnic and religious minorities. Stephen Steinberg, author of The Ethnic Myth, noted that "a climate of intolerance prevailed in many Eastern colleges long before discriminatory quotas were contemplated" and noted that "Jews tended to avoid such campuses as Yale and Princeton, which had reputations for bigotry. A bigot is a person who is intolerant of opinions lifestyles or identities differing from his or her own and bigotry is the corresponding state of mind . . . [while] under President Eliot's administration, Harvard earned a reputation as the most liberal and democratic of the Big Three, and therefore Jews did not feel that the avenue to a prestigious college was altogether closed".  In 1870, one year into Eliot's term, Richard Theodore Greener became the first African-American to graduate from Harvard College. Richard Theodore Greener (30 January 1844 &ndash 2 May 1922 was the first African-American graduate of Harvard College and Seven years later, Louis Brandeis, the first Jewish justice on the Supreme Court, graduated from Harvard Law School. Louis Dembitz Brandeis ( November 13, 1856 – October 5, 1941) was an American litigator, Supreme Court Justice, advocate The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the federal judiciary.
Nevertheless, Harvard became the bastion of a distinctly Protestant elite — the so-called Boston Brahmin class — and continued to be so well into the 20th century. Boston Brahmins, also called the First Families of Boston and cold roast Boston, are the class of New Englanders who claim hereditary and cultural descent The social milieu of 1880s Harvard is depicted in Owen Wister's Philosophy 4, which contrasts the character and demeanor of two undergraduates who "had colonial names (Rogers, I think, and Schuyler)" with that of their tutor, one Oscar Maironi, whose "parents had come over in the steerage. Owen Wister (July 14 1860 – July 21 1938 was an American writer of Western fiction. "
Though Harvard ended required chapel in the mid-1880s, the school remained culturally Protestant, and fears of dilution grew as enrollment of immigrants, Catholics and Jews surged at the turn of the twentieth century. By 1908, Catholics made up nine percent of the freshman class, and between 1906 and 1922, Jewish enrollment at Harvard increased from six to twenty percent. In June 1922, under President Lowell, Harvard announced a Jewish quota. Other universities had done this surreptitiously. Lowell did it in a forthright way, and positioned it as means of combating anti-Semitism, writing that "anti-Semitic feeling among the students is increasing, and it grows in proportion to the increase in the number of Jews. . . . when. . . the number of Jews was small, the race antagonism was small also. " The social milieu of 1940s Harvard is presented in Myron Kaufman's 1957 novel, Remember Me to God, which follows the life of a Jewish undergraduate as he attempts to navigate the shoals of casual anti-Semitism, be recognized as a "gentleman," and be accepted into "The Pudding. Myron Kaufmann is an American Jewish novelist best remembered for his popular 1957 novel Remember Me to God. " Indeed, Harvard's discriminatory policies, both tacit and explicit, were partly responsible for the founding of Boston College in 1863 and Brandeis University in nearby Waltham in 1948. For similarly-named academic institutions see Education in Boston MA. Brandeis University is a private research University with a Liberal arts focus located in Waltham Massachusetts, United States. 
Policies of exclusion were not limited to religious minorities. In 1920, "Harvard University maliciously persecuted and harassed" those it believed to be gay via a "Secret Court" led by Harvard President A. The Secret Court of 1920 was a secret tribunal convened in 1920 at Harvard University to rid the university of Homosexuals Headed by then president Lawrence Lowell. Summoned at the behest of a wealthy alumnus, the inquisitions and expulsions carried out by this tribunal, in conjunction with the "vindictive tenacity of the university in ensuring that the stigmatization of the expelled students would persist throughout their productive lives" led to two suicides. Harvard President Lawrence Summers characterized the 1920 episode as "part of a past that we have rightly left behind", and "abhorrent and an affront to the values of our university". Lawrence Henry "Larry" Summers (born November 30, 1954) is an American Economist and academic  Yet as late as the 1950s, Wilbur Bender, then the dean of admissions for Harvard College, was seeking better ways to "detect homosexual tendencies and serious psychiatric problems” in prospective students. 
During the twentieth century, Harvard's international reputation grew as a burgeoning endowment and prominent professors expanded the university's scope. Explosive growth in the student population continued with the addition of new graduate schools and the expansion of the undergraduate program. Radcliffe College, established in 1879 as sister school of Harvard College, became one of the most prominent schools for women in the United States. Radcliffe College was a women's liberal arts college in Cambridge Massachusetts, and was the Coordinate college for Harvard University
In the decades immediately after the Second World War, Harvard reformed its admissions policies as it sought students from a more diverse applicant pool. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including United States See also College admissions in the United States A college application is part of the Whereas Harvard undergraduates had almost exclusively been white, upper-class alumni of select New England "feeder schools" such as Exeter and Andover, increasing numbers of international, minority, and working-class students had, by the late 1960s, altered the ethnic and socio-economic makeup of the college. Phillips Exeter Academy (also called Exeter, Phillips Exeter or PEA) is a Co-educational independent Boarding school for grades 9–12 Phillips Academy (also known as Phillips Andover or PA or simply Andover) is a co-educational University preparatory school for boarding  Nonetheless, Harvard's undergraduate population remained predominantly male, with about four men attending Harvard College for every woman studying at Radcliffe.  Following the merger of Harvard and Radcliffe admissions in 1977, the proportion of female undergraduates steadily increased, mirroring a trend throughout higher education in the United States. Harvard's graduate schools, which had accepted females and other groups in greater numbers even before the college, also became more diverse in the post-war period.
Today, Harvard is considered one of a handful of the world's premier centers of higher learning. Despite occasionally weathering periods of reactionary sentiment over its long history, Harvard and its affiliates, in line with most American universities, are politically generally liberal (center-left); Richard Nixon, for example, famously attacked it around 1970 as the "Kremlin on the Charles". Liberalism in the United States is a broad political and philosophical mindset favoring individual Liberty, and opposing restrictions on liberty whether they come from The Moscow Kremlin ( Russian: Московский Кремль Moskovskiy Kreml) usually referred to as simply The Kremlin, is a historic fortified The Charles River is a small relatively short River in Massachusetts, USA, that separates Boston from Cambridge and In 2004, the Harvard Crimson found that Harvard undergraduates favored Kerry over Bush by 73% to 19%, consistent with Kerry's margin in major eastern cities such as Boston and New York City. The United States presidential election of 2004 was held on Tuesday November 2, 2004, to elect the President of the United States. The Harvard Crimson, the daily Student newspaper of Harvard University, was founded in 1873 } John Forbes Kerry (born December 11 1943 is an American Politician who is currently serving his fourth term as the junior United States Senator George Walker Bush ( born July 6 1946 is the forty-third and current President of the United States.  While Harvard has sometimes been criticized as elitist and "hostile to progressive intellectuals" (Trumpbour), there have been both prominent conservatives and liberals who have attended the school. Republican President George W. Bush graduated from Harvard Business School and Democratic President John F. Kennedy and Vice-President Al Gore graduated from Harvard College. George Walker Bush ( born July 6 1946 is the forty-third and current President of the United States. Harvard Business School ( HBS) is a renowned Business school in the United States John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy (May 29 1917&ndashNovember 22 1963 often referred to by his initials JFK, was the thirty-fifth President of Albert Arnold Gore Jr (born March 31 1948 is an American environmental Activist, author Businessperson, former Politician, and former Harvard College is the undergraduate section and oldest school of Harvard University, a Private university in the United States founded in 1636 by the Massachusetts Today, there are both prominent conservative and prominent liberal voices among the faculty of the various schools, such as Martin Feldstein, Harvey Mansfield, Greg Mankiw, and Alan Dershowitz. Martin Stuart "Marty" Feldstein (born November 25, 1939 in New York City) is an American economist. Harvey C Mansfield Jr (born 1932 is the William R Kenan Jr Professor of Government at Harvard University, where he has taught since 1962 Nicholas Gregory "Greg" Mankiw (mæŋˈkjuː (born February 3, 1958) is an American macroeconomist. Alan Morton Dershowitz (born September 1, 1938) is an American Lawyer, Jurist, and political commentator. Marxists like Michael Walzer and Stephen Thernstrom and libertarians such as Robert Nozick have in the past graced its faculty, but from within its gates the university prides itself on its fierce and unbending loyalty to the tradition of academic freedom and open and free speech that it has guarded on behalf of American education for nearly four centuries.
In March 2008, Harvard announced that no transfer applicants would be admitted for the next two academic years, in an effort to reduce overcrowding in the undergraduate residential House system. Memorial Hall is an imposing brick building in High Victorian Gothic style, located on the Harvard University campus in Cambridge Massachusetts. This controversial decision was announced after the academic year 2008-2009 transfer applications had already been submitted. Co-Master Mandana Sassanfar said that the House Masters have been discussing the issue of overcrowding since late 2007 and "decided it was more important to have enough housing for our own students first. " This decision has been called "rash," “outrageous,” and “heartbreaking” by transfer applicants and others at Harvard. 
In February 2007, the Harvard Corporation and Overseers formally approved the Harvard Division of Engineering and Applied Sciences to become the 14th School of Harvard (Harvard School of Engineering and Applied Sciences). The President and Fellows of Harvard College (also known as the Harvard Corporation) is the more fundamental of Harvard University 's two governing boards The Harvard School of Engineering and Applied Science ( SEAS) a school within Harvard University's Faculty of Arts and Sciences (FAS, serves as the connector The Harvard School of Engineering and Applied Science ( SEAS) a school within Harvard University's Faculty of Arts and Sciences (FAS, serves as the connector In his April letter Dean of Faculty of Arts and Sciences Jeremy Knowles said, "most of the net growth in the next few years will be in the sciences and engineering. Jeremy Randall Knowles, CBE, FRS ( April 28, 1935 &ndash April 3, 2008) was a professor of chemistry at Harvard University "
In the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, Harvard, along with numerous other institutions of higher education across the United States and Canada, offered to take in students who were unable to attend universities and colleges that were closed for the fall semester. Hurricane Katrina of the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season was the costliest hurricane, as well as one of the five deadliest in the history of the United States The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page Twenty-five students were admitted to the College, and the Law School made similar arrangements. Harvard Law School (also known as Harvard Law or HLS) is one of the professional Graduate schools of Harvard University. Tuition was not charged and housing was provided. 
On February 21, 2006, president Lawrence Summers announced his intention to resign the presidency, effective June 30, 2006. Lawrence Henry "Larry" Summers (born November 30, 1954) is an American Economist and academic His resignation came just one week before a second planned vote of no confidence by the Harvard Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Former president Derek Bok served as interim president. Derek Curtis Bok (born March 22, 1930) is an American lawyer and educator and the former president of Harvard University. Members of Harvard's Faculty of Arts and Sciences, which instructs graduate students in GSAS and undergraduates in Harvard College, had passed an earlier motion of "lack of confidence" in Summers' leadership on March 15, 2005 by a 218-185 vote, with 18 abstentions. The 2005 motion was precipitated by comments about the causes of gender demographics in academia made at a closed academic conference and leaked to the press.  In response, Summers convened two committees to study this issue: the Task Force on Women Faculty and the Task Force on Women in Science and Engineering. Summers had also pledged $50 million to support their recommendations and other proposed reforms.
Drew Gilpin Faust is the 28th president of Harvard. Drew Gilpin Faust (born September 18 1947)is an American Historian, college administrator and the first female president of An American historian, dean of the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study and Lincoln Professor of History at Harvard University, Faust is the first female president in the university's history. The Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study at Harvard is an educational institution in Cambridge Massachusetts, one of the semiautonomous components of Harvard University 
In 2005 Harvard received a large donation from Saudi Prince Alwaleed bin Talal for the development of research programs in Islamic studies. The House of Saud ( Arabic: آل سعود romanized Āl Suʿūd is the Royal family of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Khaled bin al-Walid Reem bint al-Walid This is a sub-article to Religious education, Academic discipline, and Islam.  The acceptance by Harvard and other universities of this and comparable donations has drawn criticism from some commentators and accusations that the donations are used to spread pro-Saudi propaganda. Propaganda is a concerted set of messages aimed at influencing the opinions or behaviors of large numbers of people 
A faculty of about 2,400 professors serve as of school year 2006-2007, with 6,715 undergraduate and 12,424 graduate students. In some Educational systems undergraduate education is Post-secondary education up to the level of a Bachelor's degree. The school color is crimson, which is also the name of the Harvard sports teams and the daily newspaper, The Harvard Crimson. Crimson is a strong bright deep Red color combined with some Blue, resulting in a tiny degree of Purple. A newspaper is a written Publication containing News, information and Advertising, usually printed on low-cost paper called Newsprint. The Harvard Crimson, the daily Student newspaper of Harvard University, was founded in 1873 The color was unofficially adopted (in preference to magenta) by an 1875 vote of the student body, although the association with some form of red can be traced back to 1858, when Charles William Eliot, a young graduate student who would later become Harvard's 21st and longest-serving president (1869-1909), bought red bandanas for his crew so they could more easily be distinguished by spectators at a regatta. Magenta is a purplish red Color evoked by lights with less power in yellowish-green Wavelengths than in blue and red wavelengths ( complements of magenta have Charles William Eliot ( March 20 1834 &ndash August 22 1926) was an American Academic who was selected as Harvard's
The history of Harvard's color has been contested by Fordham University. Fordham University is a private University in the United States, with three campuses located in and around New York City. Both schools were identifying with magenta and since neither were willing to use a new color, they agreed that the winner of a baseball game would be allowed official use of magenta. Fordham emerged the winner, but Harvard had reneged on its promise and continued using magenta. Fordham had adopted maroon because of this and claims that Harvard followed suit with its adoption of crimson. 
Although the officially stated color is crimson, the color actually used on sport uniforms and other Harvard insignia is, in fact, very different from crimson. Rather than a bright crimson, it is of a duller, darker hue, resembling that of ox blood. Oxen (singular ox) are Cattle trained as draft animals. Often they are adult castrated males
Prominent student organizations at Harvard include the aforementioned Crimson and its rival the Harvard Lampoon, a noted humor magazine; the Harvard Advocate, one of the nation's oldest literary magazines and the oldest current publication at Harvard; and the Hasty Pudding Theatricals, which produces an annual burlesque and celebrates notable actors at its Man of the Year and Woman of the Year ceremonies, and the Harvard Radcliffe Gilbert and Sullivan Players, one of the premier Gilbert and Sullivan societies in New England which performs two operettas per school year. The Harvard Lampoon is an Undergraduate humor publication and social organization founded in 1876 at Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts The Harvard Advocate, the premier Literary magazine of Harvard College, is the oldest continuously published college literary magazine in the United States The Hasty Pudding Theatricals, known informally simply as The Pudding, is a theatrical student society at Harvard University, known for its Burlesque Burlesque is theatrical entertainment of broad and parodic humor which usually consists of comic skits (and sometimes a strip tease) The Hasty Pudding Man of the Year award is bestowed annually by the Hasty Pudding Theatricals society at Harvard University. The Hasty Pudding Woman of the Year award is bestowed annually by the Hasty Pudding Theatricals society at Harvard University. The Harvard Glee Club is the oldest college chorus in America, and the University Choir, the official choir of the Harvard Memorial Church, is the oldest choir in America affiliated with a university. The Harvard Glee Club is a 60-voice all-male choral ensemble at Harvard University. The Harvard University Choir, more commonly referred to as the University Choir or simply UChoir, is Harvard's oldest choir providing Choral music to the The Memorial Church of Harvard University, more commonly known as the Harvard Memorial Church (or simply Mem Church) was built in 1932 in honor of the men The Harvard-Radcliffe Orchestra, composed mainly of undergraduates, was founded in 1808 as the Pierian Sodality (thus making it technically older than the New York Philharmonic, which is the oldest professional orchestra in America), and has been performing as a symphony orchestra since the 1950s. The Harvard-Radcliffe Orchestra (HRO is a collegiate symphony orchestra comprised of Harvard students and based in Cambridge, Massachusetts The New York Philharmonic is the oldest active Symphony Orchestra in the United States, organized during 1842 The school also has a number of a cappella singing groups, the oldest of which is the Harvard Krokodiloes. Founded in 1946 The Harvard Krokodiloes are Harvard University 's oldest A cappella singing group
Harvard has a friendly rivalry with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology which dates back to 1900, when a merger of the two schools was frequently discussed and at one point officially agreed upon (ultimately canceled by Massachusetts courts). Today, the two schools cooperate as much as they compete, with many joint conferences and programs, including the Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology, the Broad Institute, the Harvard-MIT Data Center and the Dibner Institute for the History of Science and Technology. Founded in 1970 the Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology, or HST, is one of the oldest and largest Biomedical engineering and physician-scientist In addition, students at the two schools can cross-register in undergraduate or graduate classes without any additional fees, for credits toward their own school's degrees. Cross-registration in United States Higher education is a system allowing students at one University, college, or faculty within a university The relationship and proximity between the two institutions is a remarkable phenomenon, considering their stature; according to The Times Higher Education Supplement of London, "The US has the world’s top two universities by our reckoning — Harvard and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, neighbors on the Charles River. Times Higher Education ( THE) formerly The Times Higher Education Supplement ( THES) is a magazine based London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. "
Harvard has produced many famous alumni, along with a few infamous ones. Among the best-known are political leaders John Hancock, John Adams, Theodore Roosevelt, Franklin Roosevelt, John F. Kennedy, and Pierre Elliott Trudeau; philosopher Henry David Thoreau and author Ralph Waldo Emerson; poets Wallace Stevens, T. S. Eliot and E. E. Cummings; composer Leonard Bernstein; cellist Yo Yo Ma; actors Jack Lemmon, Natalie Portman, Tommy Lee Jones, and Matt Damon; architect Philip Johnson, ex-Rage Against the Machine and Audioslave guitarist Tom Morello, Weezer singer Rivers Cuomo, Unabomber Ted Kaczynski, and civil rights leader W. E. B. Du Bois. John Hancock ( October 8 1793 was a Massachusetts merchant and prominent patriot of the American Revolution. John Adams (October 30 1735 July 4 1826 was one of the most influential Founding Fathers of the United States. Theodore Roosevelt (ˈroʊzəvɛlt October 27 1858 January 6 1919 also known as T John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy (May 29 1917&ndashNovember 22 1963 often referred to by his initials JFK, was the thirty-fifth President of Ralph Waldo Emerson (May 25 1803 &ndash April 27 1882 was an American essayist philosopher poet and leader of the Transcendentalist movement in the early 19th century Wallace Stevens ( October 2, 1879 – August 2, 1955) was a major American Modernist Poet. Thomas Stearns Eliot, OM (September 26 1888 – January 4 1965 was a poet Dramatist, and Literary critic. Edward Estlin Cummings (October 14 1894 &ndash September 3 1962 popularly known as E WikipediaWikiProject Composers#Lead section --> WikipediaWikiProject Classical music#Biographical_infoboxes This is an Anglicized version of the Chinese name "Ma Yo-yo" the family name is " Ma " John Uhler "Jack" Lemmon III (February 8 1925 &ndash June 27 2001 was an American Actor known principally for his comedic roles Natalie Portman (נטלי פורטמן born Natalie Hershlag June 9 1981 is an Israeli American Actress. Tommy Lee Jones (born September 15, 1946) is an Academy Award - Golden Globe - Screen Actors Guild - and Emmy Award -winning Matthew Paige Damon (born October 8 1970 is an American Actor and Philanthropist. Philip Cortelyou Johnson (July 8 1906&ndash January 25 2005 was an influential American Architect. Rage Against the Machine (sometimes shortened to RATM or Rage) is Audioslave was an American Hard rock supergroup that formed in Los Angeles California in 2001 Thomas Baptist Morello (born May 30 1964 is a Grammy Award -winning American Guitarist best known for his tenure with the bands Rage Against the Machine William Edward Burghardt Du Bois (duːˈbɔɪz ( February 23, 1868 August 27, 1963) was an American Civil rights activist Among its most famous current faculty members are biologists James D. Watson and E. O. Wilson, cognitive scientist Steven Pinker, physicists Lisa Randall and Roy Glauber, Shakespeare scholar Stephen Greenblatt, writer Louis Menand, critic Helen Vendler, historian Niall Ferguson, economists N. Gregory Mankiw, Robert Barro, and Martin Feldstein, political philosophers Harvey Mansfield and Michael Sandel, political scientists Robert Putnam, Joseph Nye, Samuel P. Huntington, Stanley Hoffman, and Torben Iversen, and scholar/composers Robert Levin and Bernard Rands. Edward Osborne Wilson (born June 10, 1929) is an American biologist researcher ( Sociobiology, Biodiversity) theorist ( Steven Arthur Pinker (born September 18 1954 is a prominent Canadian - American experimental psychologist, cognitive scientist, and author Lisa Randall (born June 18 1962 is an American Theoretical physicist and a leading expert on Particle physics and Cosmology. Roy Jay Glauber (born 1 September 1925) is an American theoretical Physicist. Stephen Jay Greenblatt (born November 7, 1943) is a Literary critic, theorist and scholar Louis Menand (born January 21, 1952) is a prominent American writer and academic best known for his Helen Hennessy Vendler (born 1933) is a leading American critic of poetry Niall Ferguson (b April 18, 1964 in Glasgow, Scotland) is a British Historian. Nicholas Gregory "Greg" Mankiw (mæŋˈkjuː (born February 3, 1958) is an American macroeconomist. Robert Joseph Barro (born September 28, 1944) is an American classical liberal Macroeconomist and the Paul M Martin Stuart "Marty" Feldstein (born November 25, 1939 in New York City) is an American economist. Harvey C Mansfield Jr (born 1932 is the William R Kenan Jr Professor of Government at Harvard University, where he has taught since 1962 Michael Sandel ( 1953 - is a political philosopher and a professor at Harvard University. Robert David Putnam (born 1941 in Port Clinton Ohio) is a political scientist and professor at Harvard University. Joseph S Nye Jr (born 1937 is the co-founder along with Robert Keohane, of the International relations theory neoliberalism developed in their 1977 Samuel Phillips Huntington (born April 18, 1927) is an American political scientist who gained prominence through his " Clash of Civilizations Stanley Hoffmann (born 1928 is the Paul and Catherine Buttenweiser University Professor at Harvard University. This article is about the Robert D Levin the American pianist and composer Bernard Rands (born Sheffield, England, 2 March 1934) is a composer of Contemporary classical music.
Harvard is governed by two boards, one of which is the President and Fellows of Harvard College, also known as the Harvard Corporation and founded in 1650, and the other is the Harvard Board of Overseers. The President and Fellows of Harvard College (also known as the Harvard Corporation) is the more fundamental of Harvard University 's two governing boards The Harvard Board of Overseers (more formally The Honorable and Reverend The Board of Overseers) is the second of Harvard University 's two governing boards The President of Harvard University is the day-to-day administrator of Harvard and is appointed by and responsible to the Harvard Corporation. The President is the chief administrator of Harvard University.
Harvard today has nine faculties, listed below in order of foundation:
In 1999, the former Radcliffe College was reorganized as the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study. Harvard Divinity School is one of the constituent schools of Harvard University, located in Cambridge Massachusetts, in the United States. Harvard Law School (also known as Harvard Law or HLS) is one of the professional Graduate schools of Harvard University. Harvard Business School ( HBS) is a renowned Business school in the United States The Harvard Graduate School of Design (GSD is a graduate school at Harvard University offering degrees in Architecture, Landscape Architecture, and The Harvard Graduate School of Education (HGSE is a graduate school at Harvard University, and is one of the top schools of education in the United States The Harvard School of Public Health is ( Colloquially HSPH) is one of the professional Graduate schools of Harvard University. The John F Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University (also known as Harvard Kennedy School and HKS) is a Public policy and Radcliffe College was a women's liberal arts college in Cambridge Massachusetts, and was the Coordinate college for Harvard University The Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study at Harvard is an educational institution in Cambridge Massachusetts, one of the semiautonomous components of Harvard University
Harvard has several athletic facilities, such as the Lavietes Pavilion, a multi-purpose arena and home to the Harvard basketball teams. The Ray Lavietes Basketball Pavilion at the Briggs Athletic Center is a 2195-seat multi-purpose Arena in the Allston neighborhood of Boston Massachusetts. The Malkin Athletic Center, known as the "MAC," serves both as the university's primary recreation facility and as a satellite location for several varsity sports. The five story building includes two cardio rooms, an Olympic-size swimming pool, a smaller pool for aquaerobics and other activities, a mezzanine, where all types of classes are held at all hours of the day, and an indoor cycling studio, three weight rooms, and a three-court gym floor to play basketball. The MAC also offers personal trainers and specialty classes. The MAC is also home to Harvard volleyball, fencing, and wrestling. The offices of several of the school's varsity coaches are also in the MAC.
Weld Boathouse and Newell Boathouse house the women's and men's rowing teams, respectively. Weld Boathouse is a Harvard -owned building on the bank of the Charles River in Cambridge Massachusetts. The men's crew also uses the Red Top complex in Ledyard, CT, as their training camp for the annual Harvard-Yale Regatta. The Harvard-Yale Boat Race or Harvard-Yale Regatta is an annual rowing race between Yale and Harvard universities The Bright Hockey Center hosts the Harvard hockey teams, and the Murr Center serves both as a home for Harvard's squash and tennis teams as well as a strength and conditioning center for all athletic sports.
As of 2006, there were 41 Division I intercollegiate varsity sports teams for women and men at Harvard, more than at any other NCAA Division I college in the country. In the United States and Canada, varsity sports teams are the principal athletic teams representing a College, University, High Sport is an Activity that is governed by a set of rules or Customs and often engaged in competitively As with other Ivy League universities, Harvard does not offer athletic scholarships.
Harvard's athletic rivalry with Yale is intense in every sport in which they meet, coming to a climax each fall in their annual football meeting, which dates back to 1875 and is usually called simply The Game. American football, known in the United States and Canada simply as football, is a competitive Team sport known for mixing strategy with The Game (always capitalized is a title given to several US College football rivalry games but most particularly the annual contest between Harvard While Harvard's football team is no longer one of the country's best as it often was a century ago during football's early days (it won the Rose Bowl in 1920), both it and Yale have influenced the way the game is played. The Rose Bowl Game is an annual American College football Bowl game, usually played on January 1 ( New Year's Day) at the Rose In 1903, Harvard Stadium introduced a new era into football with the first-ever permanent reinforced concrete stadium of its kind in the country. Harvard Stadium is a Horseshoe -shaped football Stadium in the Allston neighborhood of Boston Massachusetts, in the United States The sport eventually adopted the forward pass (invented by famous Yale coach Walter Camp) because of the stadium's structure. Walter Chauncey Camp ( April 7, 1859 &ndash March 14, 1925) was a sports writer and American football coach known as the "Father
Older than The Game by 23 years, the Harvard-Yale Regatta was the original source of the athletic rivalry between the two schools. The Harvard-Yale Boat Race or Harvard-Yale Regatta is an annual rowing race between Yale and Harvard universities It is held annually in June on the Thames river in eastern Connecticut. The Harvard crew is typically considered to be one of the top teams in the country in rowing. GB coxless pair of Toby Garbett & Rick Dunn at Henley Royal Regatta 2004
Today, Harvard fields top teams in several other sports, such as ice hockey (with a strong rivalry against Cornell), squash, and even recently won NCAA titles in Men's and Women's Fencing. Ice hockey, often referred to simply as hockey, is a team Sport played on Ice. Squash is a racquet sport that was formerly called squash racquets, a reference to the "squashable" soft ball used in the game (compared with the Fencing is the art of armed Combat involving Cutting, Stabbing, or slapping bludgeoning Weapons directly manipulated by hand Harvard also won the Intercollegiate Sailing Association National Championships in 2003. The Intercollegiate Sailing Association (ICSA holds National Championships in six different events Harvard has several fight songs, the most played of which, especially at football games, are "Ten Thousand Men of Harvard" and "Harvardiana" ("Fair Harvard", which while musically better known outside the university than "Ten Thousand Men" is, is actually the alma mater). "Ten Thousand Men of Harvard" is the most-frequently performed of Harvard University 's numerous Fight songs[http //hcs Harvardiana was a periodical published in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States by James Munroe and Co "Fair Harvard" is the commencement hymn of Harvard University. Alma mater is Latin for "nourishing mother" It was used in Ancient Rome as a title for the mother Goddess, and in Medieval The Harvard University Band performs these fight songs and other cheers at football and hockey games. The Harvard University Band (HUB is the official student Marching band of Harvard University.
Harvard's mens' ice hockey team won the school's first NCAA Championship in any team sport in 1989. Harvard was also the first Ivy League institution to win a NCAA championship title in a women's sport when its women's lacrosse team won the NCAA Championship in 1990.
Harvard-Radcliffe Television has footage from historical games and athletic events including the 2005 pep-rally before the Harvard-Yale Game. Harvard's official athletics website has more comprehensive information about Harvard's athletic facilities.
The Harvard University Library System, centered in Widener Library in Harvard Yard and comprising over 80 individual libraries and over 15 million volumes, is considered the fourth largest library collection in the world, after the Library of Congress, the British Library, and the French Bibliothèque Nationale. The Harvard University Library system comprises about 90 libraries with more than 15 million volumes The Harry Elkins Widener Memorial Library, commonly known as Widener Library, is the primary building of the Library system of Harvard University. Harvard Yard is a grassy area of about twenty-five acres (01 km² adjacent to Harvard Square in Cambridge Massachusetts, which constitutes the oldest part The Library of Congress is the De facto National library of the United States and the research arm of the United States Congress The British Library ( BL) is the National library of the United Kingdom. Harvard describes its library as the "largest academic library in the world" and prides itself for being the only one of the world's five "mega-libraries" to have open stacks.  Cabot Science Library, Lamont Library, and Widener Library are three of the most popular libraries for undergraduates to use, with easy access and central locations. There are rare books, manuscripts and other special collections throughout Harvard's libraries; Houghton Library, the Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America, and the Harvard University Archives consist principally of rare and unique materials. America's oldest collection of maps, gazetteers, and atlases both old and new is stored in Pusey Library and open to the public. The largest collection of East-Asian language material outside of East Asia is held in the Harvard-Yenching Library.
Harvard operates several arts, cultural, and scientific museums:
Harvard College accepted 7. 1% of applicants for the class of 2012, a record low for the school's entire history. The number of acceptances was lower in 2008 partially because the university anticipated increased rates of enrollment after announcing a large increase in financial aid for 2008. For the class of 2011, Harvard accepted fewer than 9% of applicants, with a yield of 80%. US News and World Report's "America's Best Colleges 2008" ranked Harvard as the most selective undergraduate college in the United States, and second in rank of the best national universities (Princeton ranked number one). USNews & World Report is an influential weekly American Newsmagazine published in Washington D 
US News and World Report listed 2006 admissions percentages of 14. USNews & World Report is an influential weekly American Newsmagazine published in Washington D 3% for the school of business, 4. 5% for public health, 12. 5% for engineering, 11. 3% for law, 14. 6% for education, and 4. 9% for medicine. . In September 2006, Harvard College announced that it would eliminate its early admissions program as of 2007, which university officials argued would lower the disadvantage that low-income and under-represented minority applicants are faced with in the competition to get into selective universities. 
Harvard also participates in the National Association of Independent Colleges and Universities (NAICU)'s University and College Accountability Network (U-CAN). Founded in 1976 the National Association of Independent Colleges and Universities (NAICU is an organization of private US colleges and universities
The main campus is centered on Harvard Yard in central Cambridge and extends into the surrounding Harvard Square neighborhood. Harvard Yard is a grassy area of about twenty-five acres (01 km² adjacent to Harvard Square in Cambridge Massachusetts, which constitutes the oldest part Harvard Square is a large triangular area in the center of Cambridge, Massachusetts, at the intersection of Massachusetts Avenue, Brattle Street and John The Harvard Business School and many of the university's athletics facilities, including Harvard Stadium, are located in Allston, on the other side of the Charles River from Harvard Square. Harvard Stadium is a Horseshoe -shaped football Stadium in the Allston neighborhood of Boston Massachusetts, in the United States Allston is a neighborhood of Boston Massachusetts, USA, located in the western part of the city The Charles River is a small relatively short River in Massachusetts, USA, that separates Boston from Cambridge and Harvard Medical School, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, and the Harvard School of Public Health are located in the Longwood Medical and Academic Area in Boston. Harvard Medical School ( HMS) is one of the graduate schools of Harvard University and currently the #1 medical school in America as ranked by U Harvard School of Dental Medicine (HSDM is one of the graduate schools of Harvard University. The Harvard School of Public Health is ( Colloquially HSPH) is one of the professional Graduate schools of Harvard University. Longwood Medical and Academic Area (also known as Longwood Medical Area, LMA, or just Longwood) is a world-famous medical campus located in Boston
Harvard Yard itself contains the central administrative offices and main libraries of the university, academic buildings including Sever Hall and University Hall, Memorial Church, and the majority of the freshman dormitories. Harvard Yard is a grassy area of about twenty-five acres (01 km² adjacent to Harvard Square in Cambridge Massachusetts, which constitutes the oldest part A library is a collection of information sources resources and services and the structure in which it is housed it is organized for use and maintained by a public body an institution Sever Hall is a notable building designed by famed American architect H University Hall is a white granite building designed by noted early American architect Charles Bulfinch on the campus of Harvard University in Cambridge This is a list of dormitories at Harvard College. Only First-Years live in the dormitories Sophomore, junior, and senior undergraduates live in twelve residential Houses, nine of which are south of Harvard Yard along or near the Charles River. Harvard College is the undergraduate section and oldest school of Harvard University, a Private university in the United States founded in 1636 by the Massachusetts The Charles River is a small relatively short River in Massachusetts, USA, that separates Boston from Cambridge and The other three are located in a residential neighborhood half a mile northwest of the Yard at the Quadrangle (commonly referred to as the Quad), which formerly housed Radcliffe College students until Radcliffe merged its residential system with Harvard. The Quadrangle at Harvard University, formerly called the Radcliffe Quadrangle or the Harvard Annex dorms, is part of Harvard's undergraduate campus in Radcliffe College was a women's liberal arts college in Cambridge Massachusetts, and was the Coordinate college for Harvard University Each residential house contains rooms for undergraduates, House masters, and resident tutors, as well as a dining hall, library, and various other student facilities.
Radcliffe Yard, formerly the center of the campus of Radcliffe College (and now home of the Radcliffe Institute), is adjacent to the Graduate School of Education.
Apart from its major Cambridge/Allston and Longwood campuses, Harvard owns and operates Arnold Arboretum, in the Jamaica Plain area of Boston; the Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, in Washington, D.C.; the Harvard Forest in Petersham Mass; and the Villa I Tatti research center in Florence, Italy. The Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University is an Arboretum located in the Jamaica Plain and Roslindale sections of Boston Massachusetts Jamaica Plain, commonly known as JP, is a historic neighborhood of 4 Dumbarton Oaks is a 19th century Federal-style Mansion with famous gardens in the Georgetown neighborhood of Washington D Washington DC ( formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D Florence ( Italian: Firenze Florentia and Fiorenza) is the Capital City of the Italian region of Tuscany
Throughout the past several years, Harvard has purchased large tracts of land in Allston, a walk across the Charles River from Cambridge, with the intent of major expansion southward.  The university now owns approximately fifty percent more land in Allston than in Cambridge. Various proposals to connect the traditional Cambridge campus with the new Allston campus include new and enlarged bridges, a shuttle service and/or a tram. A tram, tramcar, trolley, trolley car, or streetcar is a railborne vehicle, of lighter weight and construction than a Train Ambitious plans also call for sinking part of Storrow Drive (at Harvard's expense) for replacement with park land and pedestrian access to the Charles River, as well as the construction of bike paths, and an intently planned fabric of buildings throughout the Allston campus. Storrow Drive is a major cross town expressway in Boston Massachusetts, running south and west from Leverett Circle along the Charles River. The Charles River is a small relatively short River in Massachusetts, USA, that separates Boston from Cambridge and The institution asserts that such expansion will benefit not only the school, but surrounding community, pointing to such features as the enhanced transit infrastructure, possible shuttles open to the public, and park space which will also be publicly accessible.
One of the foremost driving forces for Harvard's pending expansion is its goal of substantially increasing the scope and strength of its science and technology programs. The university plans to construct two 500,000 square foot (50,000 m²) research complexes in Allston, which would be home to several interdisciplinary programs, including the Harvard Stem Cell Institute and an enlarged Engineering department. Engineering is the Discipline and Profession of applying technical and scientific Knowledge and
In addition, Harvard intends to relocate the Harvard Graduate School of Education and the Harvard School of Public Health to Allston. The Harvard Graduate School of Education (HGSE is a graduate school at Harvard University, and is one of the top schools of education in the United States The Harvard School of Public Health is ( Colloquially HSPH) is one of the professional Graduate schools of Harvard University. The university also plans to construct several new undergraduate and graduate student housing centers in Allston, and it is considering large-scale museums and performing arts complexes as well.
In 2000, Harvard hired a full-time campus sustainability professional and launched the Harvard Green Campus Initiative (HGCI). Sustainability, in a general sense is the capacity to maintain a certain process or state indefinitely  With a full-time staff of 25, dozens of student interns, and a $12 million Loan Fund for energy and water conservation projects, HGCI is one of the most advanced campus sustainability programs in the country.  Harvard was one of only six universities to receive a grade of “A-” from the Sustainable Endowments Institute on its College Sustainability Report Card 2008, the highest grade awarded. 
A longer list of Harvard student groups can be found under Harvard College. Harvard College is the undergraduate section and oldest school of Harvard University, a Private university in the United States founded in 1636 by the Massachusetts
Seventy-five Nobel Prize winners are affiliated with the university. The Nobel Prize (Nobelpriset (Nobelprisen is a Swedish prize established in the 1895 will of Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel; it was first awarded in Peace, Literature Since 1974, nineteen Nobel Prize winners and fifteen winners of the American literary award, the Pulitzer Prize, have served on the Harvard faculty. The Nobel Prize (Nobelpriset (Nobelprisen is a Swedish prize established in the 1895 will of Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel; it was first awarded in Peace, Literature The Pulitzer Prize, ˈpʊlɨtsɚ PULL-it-sər is an American award regarded as the highest national honor in Newspaper journalism,
Harvard's central place in American elite circles has made it the setting for many novels, plays, films and other cultural works. The following list provides information on nobel laureates and their affiliation to academic institutions. The President is the chief administrator of Harvard University. This is a list of notable people who attended Harvard University, but did not graduate or have yet to graduate The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Elite (also spelled Élite) is taken originally from the Latin, eligere, "to elect"
Love Story, by Harvard alumnus (and Yale classics professor) Erich Segal, the much-loved and -ridiculed tear jerker of 1970, concerns a romance between a wealthy Harvard pre-law hockey player (Ryan O'Neal) and a brilliant Radcliffe student of musicology on scholarship (Ali MacGraw). Love Story is a 1970 Romantic drama film written by Erich Segal coordinated with his 1970 best-selling novel. Erich Wolf Segal (born June 16, 1937 in Brooklyn New York) is an American Author, Screenwriter, and Educator Ryan O'Neal (born Charles Patrick Ryan O'Neal; April 20 1941 is an Academy Award - and Golden Globe -nominated American Actor Alice "Ali" MacGraw (born April 1 1939 MacGraw has described her father as "violent" Both novel and movie are deeply imbued with Cambridge color.  One enduring Harvard tradition in recent years has been the annual screening of Love Story to incoming freshmen, during which members of the Crimson Key Society, the tour-giving organization on campus, make catcalls and other offerings of mock abuse. Other works of Erich Segal, The Class (1985) and Doctors (1988) also featured the leading characters as Harvard students. Erich Wolf Segal (born June 16, 1937 in Brooklyn New York) is an American Author, Screenwriter, and Educator The Class is Erich Segal 's 6th novel published in 1985. The class of the title is the Harvard Class of 1958 and particularly refers to five One of the books by Erich Segal, Doctors ( 1988) deals with the Harvard medical class of 1962 with emphasis on the two main characters Barney Livingston
Harvard has been featured in many U. S. films, including Stealing Harvard, Legally Blonde, Gilmore Girls, The Firm, The Paper Chase, Good Will Hunting, With Honors, How High, Soul Man, and Harvard Man. Stealing Harvard is a 2002 crime - comedy, directed by Bruce McCulloch, about a man who resorts to crime to pay for his niece's Legally Blonde is a 2001 Comedy film starring Reese Witherspoon, produced by Marc E Gilmore Girls was an Emmy Award -winning Golden Globe -nominated American Comedy-drama series created by Amy Sherman-Palladino This article is about the 1993 film For the 1988 film of the same name see The Firm (1988 film The Firm is a Legal thriller film The Paper Chase is a 1970 Novel, as well as a 1973 film based on the novel and a Television series based on the movie Good Will Hunting is a 1997 film directed by Gus Van Sant and written by Matt Damon and Ben Affleck, both of whom star in the See also How High Soundtrack How High is a 2001 Comedy film starring Method Man and Redman Soul Man is a Comedy film made in 1986 about a man who undergoes Racial transformation with pills to qualify for an African-American only Harvard Man is a 2001 Feature film written and directed by James Toback. Since the filming of Love Story in the 1960s the university, until the summer of 2007 filming of The Great Debaters did not allow any movies to be filmed in campus buildings; most films are shot in look-alike cities, such as Toronto, and colleges such as UCLA, Wheaton and Bridgewater State, although outdoor and aerial shots of Harvard's Cambridge campus are often used. Love Story is a 1970 Romantic drama film written by Erich Segal coordinated with his 1970 best-selling novel. The Great Debaters is a 2007 Film directed by and starring two-time Academy Award winner Denzel Washington and produced by Oprah Toronto (təˈrɒntoʊ colloquially pronounced or) is the largest city in Canada and is the provincial capital of Ontario The University of California Los Angeles (generally known as UCLA) is a public research university located in Westwood Los Angeles, California, United This article is about the college in Norton Massachusetts. For the evangelical-affiliated school see Wheaton College (Illinois. Bridgewater State College is a public Liberal arts college located in Bridgewater Massachusetts. . Legally Blonde filmed the area in front of Harvard's Widener Library but declined to use actual Harvard Students for extras because they were deemed to not be "Harvard enough" due to their non-preppy attire. Legally Blonde is a 2001 Comedy film starring Reese Witherspoon, produced by Marc E The shot used extras dressed to look like "Harvard students" instead.  The graduation scene from With Honors was filmed in front of Foellinger Auditorium at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. This article is about the flagship campus For other uses and locations of University of Illinois, see University of Illinois (disambiguation The University of
Numerous novels are set at Harvard or feature characters with Harvard connections. Robert Langdon, the main character in Dan Brown's novels The Da Vinci Code and Angels and Demons, is described as a Harvard "professor of symbology", (although "symbology" is not the name of an actual academic discipline). Dan Brown (born June 22 1964 is an American Author of Thriller fiction, best known for the 2003 bestselling novel The Da Vinci Code The Da Vinci Code is a controversial mystery / detective Novel by US author Dan Brown, published in 2003 by Doubleday Angels & Demons is a Bestselling mystery Novel by Dan Brown. Published in 2000 it introduces the character Robert Langdon  The protagonist of Pamela Thomas-Graham's series of mystery novels (Blue Blood, Orange Crushed, and A Darker Shade Of Crimson) is an African-American Harvard professor. Pamela Thomas-Graham (born Pamela A Thomas on June 24 1963 in Detroit Michigan is an African American businesswoman and corporate leader who is well-regarded in the fields Prominent novels with Harvard students as protagonists include William Faulkner's The Sound and the Fury and Elizabeth Wurtzel's Prozac Nation. William Faulkner (born William Cuthbert Falkner) ( September 25, 1897 – July 6, 1962) was an American Author The Sound and the Fury is one of the most celebrated novels of the Twentieth century, written by American author William Faulkner, which makes use Elizabeth Lee Wurtzel (born July 31, 1967 in New York City) is an American Writer, Attorney and Journalist Prozac Nation (sub-titled Young and Depressed in America A Memoir) an Autobiography published in 1994 and written by Elizabeth Wurtzel Douglas Preston's ex-CIA agent Wyman Ford is a Harvard alumnus. Douglas Preston (born 1956 in Cambridge Massachusetts) is an Author of several Techno-thriller and horror Novels alone near as long as it used to be several months ago It has been actively summarized and split into sub-articles and there is a dynamic talk page discussion of all Wyman Ford is a fictional character found in many of the solo novels by American Author Douglas Preston. Ford appears in the novels Tyrannosaur Canyon and Blasphemy. Tyrannosaur Canyon is a 2005 Novel by Douglas Preston. The story revolves around the search for a mysterious item buried in the New Mexico desert Blasphemy is a novel by Douglas Preston that was released on January 8, 2008. Much of the action in Margaret Atwood's post-apocalyptic novel The Handmaid's Tale takes place in Cambridge, with vaguely-recognizable Harvard landmarks occasionally making their way into the narrator's place descriptions. Margaret Eleanor Atwood, CC (born November 18, 1939) is a Canadian Writer. The Handmaid's Tale is a dystopian novel by Canadian author Margaret Atwood, first published by McClelland and Stewart in
Also set at Harvard is the Korean hit TV series Love Story in Harvard, filmed at University of Southern California. Korea is a geographic area composed of two sovereign countries a civilization and a former state situated on the Korean Peninsula in East Asia. "Love Story in Harvard" should not be confused with the film " Love Story " also set at Harvard University The University of Southern California (commonly referred to as USC, SC, Southern California, and incorrectly American television's fictional Harvard graduates include Gilligan's Island's resident aristocrat Thurston Howell, III, played by Jim Backus, and M*A*S*H's pompous Boston Brahmin, Major Charles Emerson Winchester III, played by David Ogden Stiers. Gilligan's Island is an American TV sitcom originally produced by United Artists Television. Thurston J Howell III is a character on the CBS Television Sitcom Gilligan's Island, which was in first-run from 1964 James Gilmore Backus ( February 25, 1913  &ndash July 3, 1989) was a radio Television, Film actor, Character M*A*S*H was a Medical drama / Black comedy produced by 20th Television Fox for CBS. Major Charles Emerson Winchester III is a fictional character a principal on the Television series, M*A*S*H, played by David Ogden Stiers. David Ogden Stiers (born October 31, 1942) is an American Actor, Voice actor and Musician, noted for his role in the Ivory Tower is a student-produced Harvard-Radcliffe Television show about fictional Harvard students. Ivory Tower is a long-running College Soap opera. It was first conceived of in 1993 as part of Harvard-Radcliffe Television at Harvard University
Professors Dr. Richard Alpert and Dr. Timothy Leary were fired from Harvard in May of 1963. Timothy Francis Leary ( October 22, 1920 &ndash May 31, 1996) was an American Writer, Psychologist, Futurist Popular opinion attributes their discharge to their activism involving psychedelics, and the popularization and dispensation of psilocybin to students. Psilocybin (IPA /saɪləˈsaɪbɪn/ (also known as psilocybine) is a psychedelic Indole of the Tryptamine family found in Psilocybin
In 1893, Baedeker's guidebook called Harvard "the oldest, richest, and most famous of American seats of learning. Verlag Karl Baedeker is a Germany -based Publisher and pioneer in the business of worldwide Travel guides The guides often " The first two facts remain true today; the third is also arguably true. As of 2007, Harvard has been ranked first among world universities every time since the publications of the THES - QS World University Rankings and the Academic Ranking of World Universities. The THES - QS World University Rankings is an annual publication of university rankings around the world published by The Times Higher Education Supplement (THES The Academic Ranking of World Universities is compiled by Shanghai Jiao Tong University ’s Institute of Higher Education and includes major institutes of higher education ranked The 2007 U.S. News & World Report rankings place Harvard in second place among "National Universities," behind Princeton University. USNews & World Report is an influential weekly American Newsmagazine published in Washington D Princeton University is a private Coeducational research university located in Princeton, New Jersey. 
Harvard is the target of a number of criticisms, some of them leveled by other research-based American universities. It has been accused of grade inflation, as have other colleges and universities. Grade inflation is the supposed increase over time of academic grades, faster than any real increase in standards  A review of the SAT scores of entering students at Harvard over the past two decades shows that the rise in GPAs has been matched by a linear rise in both verbal and math SAT scores of entering students (even after correcting for the renorming of the test in the mid-1990s), suggesting that the quality of the student body and its motivation have also increased.  Regardless, after media criticism, Harvard reduced the number of students who receive Latin honors from 90% in 2004 to 60% in 2005. Moreover, the prestigious honors of "John Harvard Scholar" and "Harvard College Scholar" will now be given only to the top 5 percent and the next 5 percent of each class — essentially, those with a GPA of 3. 8 or above. 
The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, The New York Times, and some students have criticized Harvard for its reliance on teaching fellows for some aspects of undergraduate education; they consider this to adversely affect the quality of education. Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching and Education, founded by Andrew Carnegie in 1905 and Chartered in 1906 by an Act of Congress, is a A teaching assistant (TA is a junior Scholar employed on a temporary contract by a College or University in teaching-related responsibilities  The New York Times article also detailed that the problem was prevalent in some other Ivy League schools.
In 2005, The Boston Globe reported obtaining a 21-page Harvard internal memorandum that expressed concern about undergraduate student satisfaction based on a 2002 Consortium on Financing Higher Education (COFHE) survey of 31 top universities. The Consortium on Financing Higher Education often known as COFHE, is an organization of thirty-one private Colleges and Universities that cooperate and  The Globe presented COFHE survey results and quotes from Harvard students that suggest problems with faculty availability, quality of instruction, quality of advising, social life on campus, and sense of community dating back to at least 1994. The magazine section of the Harvard Crimson echoed similar academic and social criticisms.  The Harvard Crimson quoted Harvard College Dean Benedict Gross as being aware of and committed to improving the issues raised by the COFHE survey.  Former Harvard President Larry Summers stated: "I think the single most important issue is faculty-student engagement, where there is too large a fraction of our teaching that takes place in sections taught by graduate students. Too much of it takes place in large lectures, where faculty members don't know students' names. And too little of it involves the kind of active learning experience, whether it's in a laboratory, a debate in a class, or whether it's a seminar dialogue, or whether it's joint work in an archives. "
Similar types of criticism have been directed at some other large research universities. In addition, some observers do not consider large class sizes in Core Curriculum courses to be an impediment to learning. Professor of Government Michael Sandel, who teaches a popular course called "Justice" with nearly 900 students, has stated that "the large class size actually helps foster learning. So many students are reading the same texts and wrestling with the same moral dilemmas, the discussion continues outside the classroom. "
Harvard has one of the highest alumni giving rates. 
The undergraduate admissions office's preference for children of alumni and affirmative action policies have been the subject of scrutiny and debate. Legacy preferences or legacy admission is a type of preference given by educational institutions to certain applicants on the basis of their familial relationship to Alumni Affirmative action in the United States|Employment equity (Canada|Reservation in India|Numerus clausus The term affirmative action describes many policies aimed at a historically  Under new financial aid guidelines, parents in families with incomes of less than $60,000 will no longer be expected to contribute any money to the cost of attending Harvard for their children, including room and board. Families with incomes in the $60,000 to $80,000 range contribute an amount of only a few thousand dollars a year. In December 2007, Harvard announced that families earning between $120,000 and $180,000 will only have to pay up to 10% of their annual household income towards tuition.
Harvard and its students have also been criticized for self-promotion in various forms. In "A Flood of Crimson Ink," Steinberger asserts that one reason Harvard receives much attention from the press is because "Harvard graduates are disproportionately represented in the upper echelons of American journalism. "
In 2006, Time featured a cover story titled "Who Needs Harvard?", discussing how many students were happier in smaller, lesser-known colleges and universities. Time (trademarked in capitals as TIME) is a weekly American Newsmagazine, similar to Newsweek and 
Harvard also participates in the National Association of Independent Colleges and Universities (NAICU)'s University and College Accountability Network (U-CAN). Founded in 1976 the National Association of Independent Colleges and Universities (NAICU is an organization of private US colleges and universities