Gunpowder (also called black powder) is a pyrotechnic composition, an explosive mixture of sulfur, charcoal and potassium nitrate (also known as saltpetre or saltpeter) that burns rapidly, producing volumes of hot solids and gases which can be used as a propellant in firearms and fireworks. A black powder substitute is a replacement for Black powder used in muzzleloading and cartridge Firearms Black powder substitutes offer a number A muzzleloader is any Firearm into which the projectile and usually the Propellant charge is loaded from the muzzle of the Gun (i A pyrotechnic composition is a substance or mixture of substances designed to produce an effect by heat light sound gas or smoke or a combination of these as a result of non detonative Sulfur or sulphur (ˈsʌlfɚ see spelling below) is the Chemical element that has the Atomic number 16 Charcoal' is the blackish residue consisting of impure Carbon obtained by removing water and other volatile constituents from Animal and Vegetation Potassium nitrate is a Chemical compound with the Chemical formula K[[Nitrogen N]] O 3 A propellant is a material that is used to move ("propel" an object A firearm is a Tool that projects either single or multiple Projectiles at high velocity through a controlled explosion A firework is classified as a low explosive pyrotechnic device used primarily for aesthetic and entertainment purposes
Gunpowder is classified as a low explosive because of its slow decomposition rate and consequently low brisance. An explosive material is a material that either is chemically or otherwise Energetically unstable or produces a sudden expansion of the material usually accompanied Brisance is a measure of the rapidity with which an Explosive develops its maximum Pressure. Low explosives produce a subsonic deflagration wave rather than the supersonic detonation wave produced by brisants, or high explosives. Deflagration (Lat de + flagrare, "to burn down" is a technical term describing subsonic Combustion that usually propagates through Thermal conductivity Detonation is a process of Supersonic Combustion in which a Shock wave is propagated forward due to energy release in a reaction zone behind it An explosive material is a material that either is chemically or otherwise Energetically unstable or produces a sudden expansion of the material usually accompanied The gases produced by burning gunpowder generate enough pressure to propel a bullet, but not enough to destroy the barrel of a firearm. For the fictional characters see Gunbarrel (Transformers. A gun barrel is the tube usually Metal, through which a controlled Explosion This makes gunpowder less suitable for shattering rock or fortifications, where high explosives such as TNT are preferred. In Geology, rock is a naturally occurring aggregate of Minerals and/or Mineraloids The Earth's outer solid layer the ‘ Lithosphere Trinitrotoluene ( TNT) is a Chemical compound with the formula C6H2(NO23CH3
The term "black powder" was coined in the late 19th century to distinguish prior gunpowder formulations from the new smokeless powders and semi-smokeless powders. Smokeless powder is the name given to a number of Propellants used in Firearms and Artillery which produce negligible smoke when fired unlike the older (Semi-smokeless powders featured bulk volume properties that approximated black powder in terms of chamber pressure when used in firearms, but had significantly reduced amounts of smoke and combustion products; they ranged in color from brownish tan to yellow to white. Most of the bulk semi-smokeless powders ceased to be manufactured in the 1920's. )
Black powder is a granular mixture of
Potassium nitrate is the most important ingredient in terms of both bulk and function because the combustion process releases oxygen from the potassium nitrate; promoting the rapid burning of the other ingredients.  To reduce the likelihood of accidental ignition by static electricity, the granules of modern black powder are typically coated with graphite, which prevents the build-up of electrostatic charge. For the science of static charges see Electrostatics Static electricity refers to the accumulation of excess Electric charge in a The Mineral graphite, as with Diamond and Fullerene, is one of the Allotropes of carbon.
The current standard composition for black powder manufactured by pyrotechnicians was adopted as long ago as 1780. The term "pyrotechnics" can also be used for Fireworks events It is 75% potassium nitrate, 15% softwood charcoal, and 10% sulfur.  These ratios have varied over the centuries, and by country, but can be altered somewhat depending on the purpose of the powder.
The burn rate of black powder can be changed by corning. Corning first compresses the fine black powder meal into blocks with a fixed density (1. 7 g/cm³). The blocks are then broken up into granules. These granules are then sorted by size to give the various grades of black powder. In the USA, standard grades of black powder run from the coarse Fg grade used in large bore rifles and small cannon though FFg (medium and smallbore rifles), FFFg (pistols), and FFFFg (smallbore, short pistols and priming flintlocks). The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Flintlock is the general term for any Firearm based on the flintlock mechanism In the United Kingdom, the gunpowder grains are categorised by mesh size: the BSS sieve mesh size, being the smallest mesh size on which no grains were retained. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Mesh material is often used in determining the Particle size distribution of a Granular material. Recognised grain sizes are Gunpowder 'G 7', 'G 20', 'G 40', and 'G 90'.
A simple, commonly cited, chemical equation for the combustion of black powder is
A more accurate, but still simplified, equation is
The products of burning do not follow any simple equation. One study's results showed that it produced (in order of descending quantities): 55. 91% solid products: potassium carbonate, potassium sulfate, potassium sulfide, sulfur, potassium nitrate, potassium thiocyanate, carbon, ammonium carbonate. 42. 98% gaseous products: carbon dioxide, nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulfide, hydrogen, methane, 1. 11% water.
Black powder formulations where the nitrate used is sodium nitrate tend to be hygroscopic, unlike black powders where the nitrate used is saltpetre. Hygroscopy is the ability of a substance to attract Water Molecules from the surrounding environment through either absorption or Adsorption Because of this, black powder which uses saltpetre can be stored unsealed and remain viable for centuries provided no liquid water is ever introduced; muzzleloaders have been known to fire after hanging on a wall for decades in a loaded state, provided they remained dry. Water is a common Chemical substance that is essential for the survival of all known forms of Life. A muzzleloader is any Firearm into which the projectile and usually the Propellant charge is loaded from the muzzle of the Gun (i By contrast, powder that uses sodium nitrate, which is typically intended for blasting, must be sealed from moisture in the air to remain stable for long times.
Smokeless powder requires precise loading of the charge to prevent damage due to overloading. With black powder, though such damage is still possible, loading can generally be carried out using volumetric measures rather than precise weight.
Generally, high explosives are preferred for shattering rock; however, because of its low brisance, black powder causes fewer fractures and results in more usable stone compared to other explosives, making black powder useful for blasting monumental stone such as granite and marble. Brisance is a measure of the rapidity with which an Explosive develops its maximum Pressure. Granite (ˈɡrænɪt is a common and widely occurring type of intrusive, Felsic, igneous rock. Marble is a nonfoliated Metamorphic rock resulting from the Metamorphism of Limestone, composed mostly of Calcite (a crystalline form of
Black powder is well suited for blank rounds, signal flares, burst charges, and rescue-line launches. A blank is a type of cartridge for a Firearm that contains Gunpowder but no Bullet or shot. A flare, also sometimes called a fusee, is a type of Pyrotechnic that produces a brilliant light or intense heat without an Explosion. In Fireworks, a burst charge is an amount of energetic Pyrotechnic mixture placed in a shell which is ignited when the shell reaches the desired height in order to
Gunpowder can be used to make fireworks by mixing with chemical compounds that produce the desired color. A firework is classified as a low explosive pyrotechnic device used primarily for aesthetic and entertainment purposes
Black powder has relatively low energy density compared to modern smokeless powders and produces a thick smoke that can impair aiming or reveal a shooter's position. Energy density is the amount of Energy stored in a given system or region of space per unit Volume, or per unit Mass, depending on the context although Smoke is the collection of airborne solid and liquid Particulates and Gases ref> ''Smoke Production and Properties'' - SFPE Handbook of Fire Protection Engineering
Combustion converts less than half the mass of black powder to gas; the rest ends up as a thick layer of soot inside the barrel. Soot (ˈsʊt is a general term that refers to the black impure carbon particles resulting from the incomplete combustion of a hydrocarbon In addition to being a nuisance, the residue from burnt black powder is hygroscopic and an anhydrous caustic substance. Hygroscopy is the ability of a substance to attract Water Molecules from the surrounding environment through either absorption or Adsorption When moisture from the air is absorbed, the potassium oxide or sodium oxide turns into hydroxide, which will corrode wrought iron or steel gun barrels. Potassium oxide is a compound of Potassium and Oxygen. This pale yellow solid the simplest oxide of potassium is a rarely encountered highly reactive Sodium oxide is a Chemical compound with the formula Na 2 O. It is used in Ceramics and Glasses Treatment with water In Chemistry, hydroxide is the most common name for the diatomic Anion OH− consisting of Oxygen and Hydrogen QtubIronPillarJPG|thumb|right| Iron pillar at Delhi India containing 98% wrought iron]] Wrought iron is commercially pure Iron. Steel is an Alloy consisting mostly of Iron, with a Carbon content between 0 Black powder arms must be well cleaned both inside and out to remove the residue.
The UN Model Regulations on the Transportation of Dangerous Goods and national transportation authorities, such as United States Department of Transportation, have classified Gunpowder (black powder) as a Group A: Primary explosive substance for shipment because it ignites so easily. The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security A dangerous good is any Solid, Liquid, or Gas that can harm people other living Organisms property or the environment The United States Department of Transportation ( DOT) is a federal Cabinet department of the United States government concerned with Transportation Complete manufactured devices containing black powder are usually classified as Group D: Secondary detonating substance, or black powder, or article containing secondary detonating substance, such as "Firework", "Class D Model Rocket Engine", etc, for shipment because they are harder to ignite than loose powder. As explosives, they all fall into the category of Class 1.
The development of smokeless powders, such as Cordite, in the late 19th century created the need for a spark-sensitive priming charge, such as gunpowder. Smokeless powder is the name given to a number of Propellants used in Firearms and Artillery which produce negligible smoke when fired unlike the older Cordite is a family of smokeless propellants developed and produced in the United Kingdom from 1889 to replace Gunpowder as a military propellant A blasting cap is a small Explosive device generally used to detonate a larger more powerful Explosive such as Dynamite. However, the sulfur content of traditional gunpowders caused corrosion problems with Cordite Mk I and this led to the introduction of a range of sulfur-free gunpowders, of varying grain sizes. Corrosion means the breaking down of essential properties in a material due to Chemical reactions with its surroundings  They typically contain 70. 5 parts of saltpetre and 29. 5 parts of charcoal.  Like black powder, they were produced in different grain sizes. In United Kingdom, the finest grain was known as sulfur-free mealed powder (SMP). Coarser grains were numbered as sulfur-free gunpowder (SFG n): 'SFG 12', 'SFG 20', 'SFG 40' and 'SFG 90', for example, where the number was a BSS sieve mesh size, being the smallest mesh size on which no grains were retained. Mesh material is often used in determining the Particle size distribution of a Granular material.
Most sources credit the discovery of gunpowder to Chinese alchemists in the 9th century searching for an elixir of immortality. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National Alchemy a part of the Occult Tradition is both a philosophy and a practice with an ultimately unknown aim involving the improvement of the alchemist as well as the making of The elixir of life, from Arabic الإكسير also known as the elixir of immortality or Dancing Water or Persian: Aab-e-Hayaat آب حیات  The discovery of gunpowder was probably the product of centuries of alchemical experimentation.  Saltpetre was known to the Chinese by the mid-1st century AD and there is strong evidence of the use of saltpetre and sulfur in various largely medicinal combinations. Medicine is the art and science of healing It encompasses a range of Health care practices evolved to maintain and restore Human Health by the  A Chinese alchemical text from 492 noted that saltpeter gave off a purple flame when ignited, providing for the first time a practical and reliable means of distinguishing it from other inorganic salts, making it possible to evaluate and compare purification techniques. 
Some have heated together sulfur, realgar and saltpeter with honey; smoke and flames result, so that their hands and faces have been burnt, and even the whole house where they were working burned down. Taoism (pronounced /ˈdaʊɪzəm/ or /ˈtaʊɪzəm/ also spelled '''Daoism''') refers to a variety of related Philosophical and Religious traditions Sulfur or sulphur (ˈsʌlfɚ see spelling below) is the Chemical element that has the Atomic number 16 Realgar, α -As4S4 is an Arsenic Sulfide mineral It is a soft sectile mineral occurring in Monoclinic crystals or in Potassium nitrate is a Chemical compound with the Chemical formula K[[Nitrogen N]] O 3 Honey is a sweet and Viscous fluid produced by Honey bees (and some other species and derived from the nectar of Flowers According to the 
Contrary to popular belief, the Chinese did not use gunpowder only for fireworks. The Ming Dynasty ( or Empire of the Great Ming ( was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644 following the collapse of the Mongol -led The Matchlock was the first mechanism or "lock" invented to uncomplicate the firing of a hand-held firearm In fact, the earliest surviving recipes for gunpowder can be found in the Chinese military treatise Wujing zongyao of 1044 AD, which contains three: two for use in incendiary bombs to be thrown by siege engines and one intended as fuel for poison smoke bombs. A military is an Organization authorized by its Nation to use force usually including use of Weapons in defending its Country (or by attacking The Wujing Zongyao ( was a Chinese military compendium written in 1044 AD during the Northern Song Dynasty. Incendiary devices or incendiary bombs are Bombs designed to start Fires or destroy sensitive equipment using materials such as Napalm, Thermite A siege engine is a device that is designed to Break or circumvent City walls and other Fortifications in Siege warfare. A smoke bomb is a Firework designed to produce Smoke upon ignition  The formulas in the Wujing zongyao range from 27 to 50 percent nitrate.  Experimenting with different levels of saltpetre content eventually produced bombs, grenades, and land mines, in addition to giving fire arrows a new lease on life. A bomb is any of a range of devices that typically rely on the Exothermic Chemical reaction of an Explosive material to produce an extremely A land mine is an Explosive device designed to be placed on or in the ground to explode when triggered by an operator or the Proximity of a vehicle person The Fire Arrow is a projectile weapon that uses Black powder.  By the end of the 12th century, there were cast iron grenades filled with gunpowder formulations capable of bursting through their metal containers. Cast iron usually refers to grey cast iron, but identifies a large group of Ferrous Alloys which solidify with a Eutectic.  The 14th century Huolongjing contains gunpowder recipes with nitrate levels ranging from 12 to 91 percent, six of which approach the theoretical composition for maximal explosive force. The Huolongjing ( Wade-Giles: Huo Lung Ching; Traditional Chinese: 火龍經 rendered by its translator into English as 
In China, the 13th century saw the beginnings of rocketry and the manufacture of the oldest gun still in existence, a descendant of the earlier fire-lance, a gunpowder-fueled flamethrower that could shoot shrapnel along with fire. A rocket or rocket vehicle is a Missile, Aircraft or other Vehicle which obtains Thrust by the reaction of the The fire lance ( or fire spear is one of the first gunpowder weapons in the world A flamethrower is a mechanical device designed to project a long controllable stream of Fire. The Huolongjing text of the 14th century also describes hollow, gunpowder-packed exploding cannonballs. Round shot is an obsolete solid Projectile without explosive charge fired from Small arms or Cannons As the name implies round shot is spherical 
Though potassium nitrate (thalj al-Sīn, or "Chinese snow") was earlier known to Arabic chemists, the Islamic world did not acquire knowledge of gunpowder until the 13th century. Potassium nitrate is a Chemical compound with the Chemical formula K[[Nitrogen N]] O 3 The first Arabic reference to gunpowder is found in Hasan al-Rammah's Al-furusiyyah wa al-manasib al-harbiyya (The Book of Military Horsemanship and Ingenious War Devices), written in the 1270s, which included the first gunpowder recipes to approach the ideal composition for explosive gunpowder used in modern times (75% saltpetre (KNO3), 10% sulfur, 15% carbon), such as the tayyar "rocket" (75 parts saltpetre, 8 sulfur, and 15 carbon, by weight) and the tayyar buruq "lightning rocket" (74 parts saltpetre, 10 sulfur, 15 carbon). An explosive material is a material that either is chemically or otherwise Energetically unstable or produces a sudden expansion of the material usually accompanied Sulfur or sulphur (ˈsʌlfɚ see spelling below) is the Chemical element that has the Atomic number 16 Carbon (kɑɹbən is a Chemical element with the symbol C and its Atomic number is 6 He states in his book that many of these recipes were known to his father and grandfather, hence dating back to at least the late 12th century. The earliest known military applications of these explosive gunpowder compositions were the explosive hand cannons first used by the Egyptians to repel the Mongols at the Battle of Ain Jalut in 1260. The hand cannon ( Arabic: midfa; Chinese: 手[[wikt 銃|銃]] as it was called was the first handheld portable This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. The Battle of Ain Jalut (or Ayn Jalut, in Arabic ar عين جالوت the "Eye of Goliath" or the "Spring of Goliath" took place on 3 September 1260 between There were four different gunpowder compositions used for the cannons at the battle, with the most explosive cannon having a gunpowder composition (74% saltpetre, 11% sulfur, 15% carbon) again almost identical to the ideal composition for explosive gunpowder. 
Gunpowder arrived in India by the mid-1300s, but could have been introduced by the Mongols perhaps as early as the mid-1200s. This article is about the history of South Asia prior to the Partition of British India in 1947 
It was written in the Tarikh-i Firishta (1606-1607) that the envoy of the Mongol ruler Hulegu Khan was presented with a dazzling pyrotechnics display upon his arrival in Delhi in 1258 AD. This article is about the founder of the Ilkhanate For the head of the Chagatai khanate please see Qara Hülëgü Hulagu Khan, also known as The term "pyrotechnics" can also be used for Fireworks events Delhi (दिल्ली ਦਿੱਲੀ دلی d̪ɪlːiː sometimes referred to as Dilli) is the second largest metropolis of India, with a population  Firearms known as top-o-tufak also existed in the Vijayanagara Empire of India by as early as 1366 AD. The Vijayanagara Empire ( Kannada: ವಿಜಯನಗರ ಸಾಮ್ರಾಜ್ಯ Telugu: విజయనగర సామ్రాజ్యము was a South  From then on the employment of gunpowder warfare in India was prevalent, with events such as the siege of Belgaum in 1473 AD by the Sultan Muhammad Shah Bahmani. Early Modern warfare is associated with the start of the widespread use of Gunpowder and the development of suitable weapons to use the explosive Belgaum ( Sultan (سلطان is an Islamic title with several historical meanings 
By the 16th century, Indians were manufacturing a diverse variety of firearms; large guns in particular, became visible in Tanjore, Dacca, Bijapur and Murshidabad. Thanjavur ( Tamil: தஞ்சாவூர் also known by its Anglicised name Tanjore, and it is the Eleventh largest city in Tamil Nadu (after Dhaka (also known as Dacca ( Bangla: ঢাকা ɖʱaka is the Capital of Bangladesh and the principal city of Dhaka District. WikipediaWikiProject Indian cities for details --> Murshidabad (মুর্শিদাবাদ is a city in Murshidabad district of West Bengal  Guns made of bronze were recovered from Calicut (1504) and Diu (1533). WikipediaWikiProject Indian cities for details --> For the district with the same name see Kozhikode District. WikipediaWikiProject Indian cities for details --> Diu is a city in Diu district in the union territory of Daman and Diu, India.  Gujarāt supplied Europe saltpeter for use in gunpowder warfare during the 17th century. Gujarat (ગુજરાત Gujǎrāt, pronounced) is a state in western India.  Bengal and Mālwa participated in saltpeter production. Etymology and ethnology The exact origin of the word Bangla or Bengal is unknown though it is believed to be derived from the Dravidian-speaking tribe Bang  The Dutch, French, Portuguese, and English used Chāpra as a center of saltpeter refining. 
War rockets, mines and counter mines using gunpowder were used in India by the time of Akbar and Jahangir. Akbar redirects here For other uses see Akbar (disambiguation Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbar ( Jalāl ud-Dīn Muhammad Akbar Nuruddin Salim Jahangir (full title Al-Sultan al-'Azam wal Khaqan al-Mukarram Khushru-i-Giti Panah Abu'l-Fath Nur ud-din Muhammad Jahangir Padshah Ghazi ''( September 20  Both Hyder Ali and his son Tippu Sultan used black powder technology in iron-cased war rockets with considerable effect against the British, which inspired the development of the Congreve rocket. Hyder Ali or Haidar 'Ali (c 1722 - 1782 was the de facto ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore in southern India. The Congreve Rocket was a British Military Weapon designed by Sir William Congreve in 1804 
The earliest extant written references to gunpowder in Europe are from the works of Roger Bacon. For the Nova Scotia premier see Roger Bacon (politician. Roger Bacon, O In Bacon's Epistola, "De Secretis Operibus Artis et Naturae et de Nullitate Magiae," dated variously between 1248 and 1257, he states:
We can, with saltpeter and other substances, compose artificially a fire that can be launched over long distances. . . By only using a very small quantity of this material much light can be created accompanied by a horrible fracas. It is possible with it to destroy a town or an army . . . In order to produce this artificial lightning and thunder it is necessary to take saltpeter, sulfur, and Luru Vopo Vir Can Utriet.
a child’s toy of sound and fire and explosion made in various parts of the world with powder of saltpeter, sulfur and charcoal of hazelwood. A firecracker (also known as a cracker, noise maker, banger or bunger) is a small Explosive device primarily designed to produce 
The Liber Ignium, or Book of Fires, attributed to Marcus Graecus, is a collection of incendiary recipes, including some gunpowder recipes. Partington dates the gunpowder recipes to approximately 1300.  One recipe for "flying fire" (ingis volatilis) involves saltpeter, sulfur, and colophonium, which, when inserted into a reed or hollow wood, "flies away suddenly and burns up everything. Rosin, formerly called colophony or Greek pitch ( Pix græca) is a solid form of Resin obtained from Pines and some other Plants " Another recipe, for artificial "thunder", specifies a mixture of one pound native sulfur, two pounds linden or willow charcoal, and six pounds of saltpeter.  Another specifies a 1:3:9 ratio. 
Some of the gunpowder recipes in the De Mirabilibus Mundi of Albertus Magnus are identical to the recipes of the Liber Ignium, and according to Partington, "may have been taken from that work, rather than conversely. " Partington suggests that some of the book may have been compiled by Albert's students, "but since it is found in thirteenth century manuscripts, it may well be by Albert. " Albertus Magnus died in 1280 AD.
Shot and gunpowder for military purposes were made by skilled military tradesmen, who later were called firemakers, and who also were required to make fireworks for celebrations of victory or peace. During the Renaissance, two European schools of pyrotechnic thought emerged, one in Italy and the other at Nürnberg, Germany. The Renaissance (from French Renaissance, meaning "rebirth" Italian: Rinascimento, from re- "again" and nascere Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. The Italian school of pyrotechnics emphasized elaborate fireworks, and the German school stressed scientific advancement. Both schools added significantly to further development of pyrotechnics, and by the mid-17th century fireworks were used for entertainment on an unprecedented scale in Europe, being popular even at resorts and public gardens. 
By 1788, as a result of the reforms for which Lavoisier was mainly responsible, France had become self-sufficient in saltpeter, and its gunpowder had become both the best in Europe and inexpensive. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. 
The introduction of smokeless powder in the late 19th century led to a contraction of the gunpowder industry. Smokeless powder is the name given to a number of Propellants used in Firearms and Artillery which produce negligible smoke when fired unlike the older
Gunpowder production in the British Isles appears to have started in the mid 13th century with the aim of supplying The Crown. Throughout the Commonwealth realms The Crown is an abstract metonymic concept which represents the legal authority for the existence of any government  Records show that gunpowder was being made, in England, in 1346, at the Tower of London; a powder house existed at the Tower in 1461; and in 1515 three King's gunpowder makers worked there. Her Majesty's Royal Palace and Fortress, more commonly known as the Tower of London (and historically as The Tower) is a historic monument in central London  Gunpowder was also being made or stored at other Royal castles, such as Portchester Castle and Edinburgh castle. Portchester Castle is a medieval Castle and former Roman fort at Portchester to the east of Fareham in the English county Edinburgh Castle is an ancient Stronghold which dominates the sky-line of the
By the early fourteenth century, according to N. J. G. Pounds's study The Medieval Castle in England and Wales, many English castles had been deserted and others were crumbling. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland Their military significance faded except on the borders. Gunpowder made smaller castles useless. 
Henry VIII was short of gunpowder when he invaded France in 1544 and England needed to import gunpowder via the port of Antwerp. Henry VIII (28 June 1491 &ndash 28 January 1547 was King of England and Lord of Ireland, later King of Ireland and claimant to the Kingdom of ||-||-||-||} Antwerp ( Dutch:, French: Anvers) is a City and Municipality in Belgium and the capital of the 
The English Civil War, 1642-1645, led to an expansion of the gunpowder industry, with the repeal of the Royal Patent in August 1641. The English Civil War (1642-1651 was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians and Royalists. 
The Home Office removed gunpowder from its list of Permitted Explosives; shortly afterwards, on 31 December 1931, Curtis & Harvey's Glynneath gunpowder factory at Pontneddfechan, in Wales, closed down, and it was demolished by fire in 1932. The Home Office is the United Kingdom government department responsible for security and order Events 406 – Vandals, Alans and Suebians cross the Rhine, beginning an invasion of Gallia. Year 1931 ( MCMXXXI) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Glynneath (alternatively Glyn-Neath, Welsh: Cwmnedd or Glyn-nedd) is a small Town situated on the River Neath in the County Pontneddfechan ( Welsh language meaning: bridge over the lesser River Neath is a Village in the Vale of Neath in Neath Port Talbot County 
The last remaining gunpowder mill at the Royal Gunpowder Factory, Waltham Abbey was damaged by a German parachute mine in 1941 and it never reopened. The Royal Gunpowder Mills, Waltham Abbey, an Anchor Point of the European Route of Industrial Heritage, (ERIH set in of parkland and containing A land mine is an Explosive device designed to be placed on or in the ground to explode when triggered by an operator or the Proximity of a vehicle person  This was followed by the closure of the gunpowder section at the Royal Ordnance Factory, ROF Chorley, the section was closed and demolished at the end of World War II; and ICI Nobel's Roslin gunpowder factory which closed in 1954. ROF Chorley was a UK government-owned munitions filling, Royal Ordnance Factory (Filling Factory No World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including Nobel Enterprises is a chemicals business based at Ardeer, near to near Stevenston in North Ayrshire, Scotland. Roslin (sometimes spelt Rosslyn or Roslyn) is a village in Midlothian, Scotland, to the south of the Scottish capital city Edinburgh 
This left the sole United Kingdom gunpowder factory at ICI Nobel's Ardeer site in Scotland; it too closed in October 1976. Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain.  Since then gunpowder has been imported into the United Kingdom. In the late 1970s / early 1980s gunpowder was bought from eastern Europe; particularly from what were then, East Germany and the former Yugoslavia. The German Democratic Republic ( GDR; Deutsche Demokratische Republik DDR; commonly known in English as East Germany) was a Socialist state See also Kingdom of Yugoslavia, Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Yugoslavia ( Serbo-Croatian
Prior to the American Revolutionary War very little gunpowder was made in the United States; and, as a British Colony, most was imported from Britain. In this article the inhabitants of the thirteen colonies that supported the American Revolution are primarily referred to as "Americans" with occasional references to "Patriots" The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The Kingdom of Great Britain, also known as the United Kingdom of Great Britain, was a State in northwest Europe, in existence from 1707 to 1800  In October 1777 the British Parliament banned the importation of gunpowder into America. TalkParliament#Screen-size. -->A  parliament is a Legislature, especially in those  Gunpowder, however, was secretly obtained from France and the Netherlands. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands 
The first domestic supplies of gunpowder were made by E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company. E I du Pont de Nemours and Company (,) is an American chemical company that was founded in July 1802 as a Gunpowder mill by Eleuthère Irénée  The company was founded in 1802 by Eleuthère Irénée du Pont, two years after he and his family left France to escape the French Revolution. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. The French Revolution (1789–1799 was a period of political and social upheaval in the History of France, during which the French governmental structure previously an  They set up a gunpowder mill, the Eleutherian Mills, on the Brandywine at Wilmington, Delaware based on gunpowder machinery bought from France and site plans for a gunpowder mill supplied by the French Government. From 1802 to 1921 Eleutherian Mills was a gunpowder mill site used for the manufacture of explosives by the Du Pont family business Brandywine Creek may refer to several places in the United States mostly streams Streams British Columbia Wilmington is the largest city in the state of Delaware, United States and is located at the confluence of the Christina River and Brandywine  Starting, initially, by reworking damaged gunpowder and refining saltpetre for the US Government they quickly moved into gunpowder manufacture. 
In the United States, saltpetre was worked in the "nitre caves" of Kentucky at the beginning of the 19th century.  Tourists at Mammoth Cave, KY to this day are shown the vast deposits of bat guano, as well as the historic machinery use in its extraction and conversion to usable saltpetre for gunpowder from Revolutionary times right up to World War I. Mammoth Cave National Park is a US National Park in central Kentucky, encompassing portions of Mammoth Cave the longest Cave system known in the Guano (from the Quechua 'wanu' via Spanish) is the Feces of Seabirds Bats and seals
For the most powerful black powder "meal", a wood charcoal is used. From 1802 to 1921 Eleutherian Mills was a gunpowder mill site used for the manufacture of explosives by the Du Pont family business Meal powder is the fine dust left over when Black powder is corned and screened to separate it into different grain sizes Wood is hard fibrous lignified structural tissue produced as secondary Xylem in the stems of Woody plants notably trees but also shrubs Charcoal' is the blackish residue consisting of impure Carbon obtained by removing water and other volatile constituents from Animal and Vegetation The best wood for the purpose is pacific willow, but others such as alder or buckthorn can be used. Willows, sallows and osiers form the Genus Salix, around 400 species of Deciduous Trees and Shrubs found primarily Alder is the common name of a Genus of Flowering plants ( Alnus) belonging to the Birch family (Family Betulaceae) For the genus Hippophae, see Sea-buckthorn. The Buckthorns ( Rhamnus) are a genus (or two genera if Frangula
The ingredients are mixed as thoroughly as possible. This is achieved using a ball mill with non-sparking grinding apparatus (e. A ball mill is a type of grinder used to grind materials into extremely fine powder for use in paints pyrotechnics and ceramics g. , bronze or lead), or similar device. Bronze is any of a broad range of Copper alloys, usually with Tin as the main additive but sometimes with other elements such as Phosphorus Characteristics Lead has a dull luster and is a dense, Ductile, very soft highly Historically, a marble or limestone edge runner mill, running on a limestone bed was used in Great Britain; however, by the mid 19th century this had changed to either an iron shod stone wheel or a cast iron wheel running on an iron bed. Marble is a nonfoliated Metamorphic rock resulting from the Metamorphism of Limestone, composed mostly of Calcite (a crystalline form of Limestone is a Sedimentary rock composed largely of the Mineral Calcite ( Calcium carbonate: CaCO3  The mix is sometimes dampened with alcohol or water during grinding to prevent accidental ignition. In Chemistry, an alcohol is any Organic compound in which a Hydroxyl group ( - O[[hydrogen H]]) is bound to a Carbon
Around the late 14th century, European powdermakers began adding liquid to the constituents of gunpowder to reduce dust and with it the risk of explosion.  The powdermakers would then shape the resulting paste of moistened gunpowder, known as mill cake, into "corns", or granules, to dry. Not only did "corned" powder keep better because of its reduced surface area, gunners also found that it was more powerful and easier to load into guns. Before long, powdermakers standardized the process by forcing mill cake through sieves instead of corning powder by hand.
During the 18th century gunpowder factories became increasingly dependent on mechanical energy. 
Besides its habitual use as an explosive, gunpowder has been occasionally employed for other purposes, After the battle of Aspern-Essling (1809), the surgeon of the Napoleonic Army Larrey combated the lack of food for the wounded under his care by preparing a bouillon of horse meat seasoned with gunpowder for lack of salt. In the Battle of Aspern-Essling ( 21 May – 22 May, 1809) Napoleon attempted a forced crossing of the Danube near Vienna Dominique Jean Larrey ( 8 July, 1766 &ndash 25 July, 1842) was a French surgeon in Napoleon 's army and an important Bouillon, in French cuisine, is simply a Broth. This name comes from the verb bouillir, meaning to boil. Horse meat is the culinary name for meat cut from a Horse. It is slightly sweet tender low in fat and high in protein