Gun politics is a set of legal issues surrounding the ownership, use, and regulation of firearms as well as safety issues related to firearms both through their direct use and through legal and criminal use. Many Australians (765000 or 52% of Australian adults as of August 2007 legally own and use Firearms for Hunting, the control of feral animals, and Target shooting All Firearms in Brazil are required to be registered with the state the minimum age for ownership is 25 and it is generally illegal to carry a gun outside a residence Gun politics in Canada is controversial though less contentious than it is in the United States. In Finland there are 32 privately owned firearms per 100 civilians according to the Finnish Ministry of the Interior The German Weapons Act (Waffengesetz is a gun regulation law enacted in Germany in 1972 The United Mexican States or Mexico ( Spanish: Estados Unidos Mexicanos or México) has some of the strictest Gun laws in About 230000 licensed firearms owners and hundreds of thousands of people without licences own and use New Zealand's estimated 1 See also Diplomatic and humanitarian efforts in the Somali Civil War After the Fall of Mogadishu and Kismayo In South Africa, owning a gun is conditional on a competency test and several other factors including background checking of the applicant inspection of an owners premises and licensing The gun policy in Switzerland is unique in Europe The personal weapon of militia personnel is kept at home as part of the military obligations Gun politics in the United Kingdom, much like Gun politics in Australia, places its main considerations on how best to ensure public safety and how deaths involving firearms Gun politics in the United States, incorporating the political aspects of Gun politics, and firearms rights has long been among the most controversial and intractable issues 
Various domains of gun politics exist. See also Gun politics Various domains of Gun politics exist reflecting rights responsibilities restrictions and controls These can be broken down to international, national, state, community, individual, city, religious, and corporate domains.
Nations hold the power to defend themselves from their neighbors, or to police within their own boundaries, as a fundamental power of a sovereign state. Nairobi (naɪˈroʊbɪ is the capital and largest city of Kenya. The Republic of Kenya is a country in East Africa. It is bordered by Ethiopia to the north Somalia to the northeast Tanzania to the south Sovereignty is the exclusive Right to control a Government, a country, a people or oneself Yet, nations may lose their sovereignty by circumstances. Nations can be and have been forced to disarm by other nations, upon losing a war, or may have arms embargos or sanctions placed on them. In international Commerce and politics, an embargo is the prohibition of commerce International sanctions are actions taken by Countries against others for political reasons either Unilaterally or Multilaterally. Likewise, nations that violate international arms control agreements, even if claiming they are acting within the scope of their national sovereignty, often find themselves faced with a range of penalties or sanctions regarding firearms by neighboring states.
Interpol often serves as an authorized law enforcement body having jurisdiction investigating allegations of international weapons smuggling. The International Criminal Police Organization, better known by its telegraphic address Interpol is an organization facilitating international police cooperation Illegal arms trafficking, also known as Gunrunning is trafficking in ( Smuggling) contraband Weapons and Ammunition.
National and regional police and security services also conduct their own gun regulations. For example, the U. S. Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms (BATFE) supports the United States' International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR) program "to aggressively enforce this mission and reduce the number of weapons that are illegally trafficked worldwide from the United States and used to commit acts of international terrorism, to subvert restrictions imposed by other nations on their residents, and to further organized crime and narcotics-related activities. The Bureau of Alcohol Tobacco Firearms and Explosives (abbreviated ATF) is a specialized federal law enforcement and regulatory organization within the United " 
There are many areas of debate into what kinds of firearms should be allowed to be privately owned, if any, and how, where and when they may be used.
In 2003 the Center for Disease Control published a review of studies from several countries. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (or CDC) is an agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services based in unincorporated They state that they found "insufficient evidence to determine the effectiveness of any of the firearms laws reviewed for preventing violence". 
For every firearm, a purchaser must obtain a Permit To Acquire. Many Australians (765000 or 52% of Australian adults as of August 2007 legally own and use Firearms for Hunting, the control of feral animals, and Target shooting The first permit for each person has a mandatory 28 day delay before it is issued. In some states, such as Queensland, this is waived for second and subsequent firearms of the same class, whilst in others, such as New South Wales, it is not. For each firearm a "Genuine Reason" must be given, relating to pest control, hunting, target shooting, or collecting. Self-defence is not accepted as a reason for issuing a licence.
Canada requires all firearms to be registered with the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and all firearms owners to be licensed with the Canadian Firearms Centre. All Firearms in Brazil are required to be registered with the state the minimum age for ownership is 25 and it is generally illegal to carry a gun outside a residence Gun politics in Canada is controversial though less contentious than it is in the United States. The licensing requires extensive background checks, that applicants take the Canadian Firearms Safety Course, and that all firearms must be stored locked and unloaded.  There is some concern in Canada about the smuggling of handguns into Canada across the border from the United States where firearms are more easily purchased. 
In late 2007 the European Union lawmakers adopted a legislative report to tighten gun control laws and establish an extensive firearms database.  Passed with overwhelming backing, the tough new gun control rules were "hoped to prevent Europe from becoming a gun-friendly culture like the United States". 
The UK and the United States share a common origin as to the right to bear arms, which is the 1689 Bill of Rights. Gun politics in the United Kingdom, much like Gun politics in Australia, places its main considerations on how best to ensure public safety and how deaths involving firearms  However, over the course of the 20th century, the UK gradually implemented tighter regulation of the civilian ownership of firearms through the enactment of the 1968, 1988, 1994 and 1997 Firearms(Amendment) Acts leading to the current outright ban on the ownership of all automatic, and most self loading, firearms in the UK. The ownership of breach-loading handguns is, in particular, also very tightly controlled and effectively limited (other than in Northern Ireland) to those persons who may require such a handgun for the non routine humane killing of injured or dangerous animals. Each firearm owned must be registered on a Firearms Certificate (FAC) which is issued by the local police authority who will require the prospective owner to demonstrate a "good reason" for each firearm held (e. g. pest control or target shooting) and may place restrictions on the FAC relating to the type and amount of ammunition that is held and the places and the uses the firearms are put to.  Self defence is not considered an acceptable "good reason" for firearm ownership. The police may amend, or revoke, a FAC at any time and refuse a FAC for any reason.
Japan, in the postwar period, has had gun regulation which is strict in principle, but the application and enforcement has been inefficient. In Finland there are 32 privately owned firearms per 100 civilians according to the Finnish Ministry of the Interior The German Weapons Act (Waffengesetz is a gun regulation law enacted in Germany in 1972 Gun licensing is required, but is generally treated as only a formality. There are background check requirements, but these requirements are typically not enforced unless a specific complaint has been filed, and then background checks are made after the fact. As is common in Japan, "regulations are treated more as road maps than as rules subject to active enforcement. Japan is still a very safe country when it comes to guns, a reality that has less to do with laws than with prevailing attitudes". 
The weapons law begins by stating 'No-one shall possess a fire-arm or fire-arms or a sword or swords', and very few exceptions are allowed.  The only types of firearms which a Japanese citizen may even contemplate acquiring is a rifle or shotgun. Sportsmen are permitted to possess shotguns or rifles for hunting and for skeet and trap shooting, but only after submitting to a lengthy licensing procedure.  Without a license, a person may not even hold a gun in his or her hands.
Recently in Japan the ruling conservative LDP party, in response to violent crimes by minors and gangsters, has called for rewriting the constitution to include new more stringent firearms control measures. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. The, frequently abbreviated to LDP or, is a Centre right, conservative, Political party and the largest party in Japan. History Origins Despite their notoriety in modern Japan the precise origin of the Yakuza is still somewhat the subject of debate  In January 2008 Prime Minister Yasuo Fukuda in a policy speech called for tighter regulations on firearms. was the 91st Prime Minister of Japan, serving from 2007 to 2008 
Mexico has strict gun laws. The United Mexican States or Mexico ( Spanish: Estados Unidos Mexicanos or México) has some of the strictest Gun laws in Mexican citizens may purchase arms for self-protection or hunting only after receiving approval of a petition to the Defense Department, which performs extensive background checks. The allowed weapons are restricted to relatively low-caliber and must be purchased from the Defense Department only. President Felipe Calderón has recently called attention to the problem of the smuggling of guns from the United States into Mexico, guns which are easily available both legally and illegally in the United States, and has called for increased cooperation from the United States to stop this illegal weapons trafficking. This article is about the current president of Mexico For the Filipino politician and historical figure see Felipe Calderón y Roca. 
While having a large amount of civilian owned guns, Norway has a low gun crime rate. While having a large amount of civilian owned guns Norway has a low Gun crime rate. This is because of well established hunting and wildlife traditions of Norway which make guns an everyday object.
Switzerland has one of the highest gun ownership rates in the world, coupled with one of the lowest rates of gun-related deaths. In South Africa, owning a gun is conditional on a competency test and several other factors including background checking of the applicant inspection of an owners premises and licensing The gun policy in Switzerland is unique in Europe The personal weapon of militia personnel is kept at home as part of the military obligations  In recent times political opposition has expressed a desire for tighter gun regulations.  Switzerland practices universal conscription, which requires that all male citizens keep fully-automatic firearms at home in case of a call-up. Conscription (also known as the draft, the call-up or national service) is a general term for involuntary labor demanded by some established authority Every male between the ages of 20 and 42 is considered a candidate for conscription into the military, and following a brief period of active duty will commonly be enrolled in the militia until age or an inability to serve ends his service obligation. The military of Switzerland, officially known as the Swiss Armed Forces, is a unique institution somewhere between a Militia and a regular army.  During their enrollment in the armed forces, these men are required to keep their government-issued selective fire combat rifles and semi-automatic handguns in their homes. A selective fire Firearm can be fired in both semi-automatic and any number of automatic modes by means of a selector A semi-automatic, or self-loading Firearm is a gun that requires only a trigger pull for each round that is fired unlike a single-action  Up until September 2007, soldiers also received 50 rounds of government-issued ammunition in a sealed box for storage at home.  In addition to these official weapons, Swiss citizens are allowed to purchase surplus-to-inventory combat rifles, and shooting is a popular sport in all the Swiss cantons. Ammunition (also MilSpec surplus) sold at rifle ranges is intended to be expended at the time of purchase, but target and sporting ammunition is widely available in gun and sporting goods stores. A United States Defense Standard, often called a military standard, " MIL-STD " or " MIL-SPEC " is used to help achieve standardization
The issue of firearms takes a high-profile position in United States culture and politics. Gun politics in the United States, incorporating the political aspects of Gun politics, and firearms rights has long been among the most controversial and intractable issues The George R Brown Convention Center opened on September 26, 1987 on the east side of Downtown The Virginia Tech massacre was a School shooting consisting of two separate attacks approximately two hours apart on April 16 2007 that took place on the campus of Michael Bouchard, Assistant Director/Field Operations of ATF, estimates that 5,000 gun shows take place each year in the United States. The Bureau of Alcohol Tobacco Firearms and Explosives (abbreviated ATF) is a specialized federal law enforcement and regulatory organization within the United  Incidents of gun violence in 'gun-free' school zones, such as the Virginia Tech massacre of 2007 have ignited debate involving gun politics in the United States. The Gun-Free School Zones Act of 1990 was enacted as section 1702 of the Crime Control Act of 1990 () on November 29[[ 990]] The Virginia Tech massacre was a School shooting consisting of two separate attacks approximately two hours apart on April 16 2007 that took place on the campus of Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Gun politics in the United States, incorporating the political aspects of Gun politics, and firearms rights has long been among the most controversial and intractable issues
In the United States, the mood of the American public strongly opposes "bans" on gun ownership, while strongly supporting "limits" on handguns and military-type semi-automatic weapons. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the 
In the United States, opinion is very strongly divided between those who oppose restrictions on gun ownership and those who favor greater restrictions. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the  This leads to intensive political debate about the benefit or detriment of firearm regulation.  Incidents of gun violence and self-defense in the United States — about 10,000 murders are committed using firearms annually, while an estimated 2. 5 million crimes may be thwarted through civilian use of firearms annually — have ignited debate on the topic of gun politics in the United States. Gun politics in the United States, incorporating the political aspects of Gun politics, and firearms rights has long been among the most controversial and intractable issues A study by the American Journal of Public Health found that "the United States has higher rates of firearm ownership than do other developed nations, and higher rates of homicide. The American Journal of Public Health (AJPH is a peer reviewed monthly journal of the American Public Health Association (APHA List of countries by homicide rate Homicide ( Latin homicidium, homo human being + caedere to cut kill refers to the act of killing another Of the 233,251 people who were homicide victims in the United States between 1988 and 1997, 68% were killed with guns, of which the large majority were handguns. " The ATF estimated in 1995 that the number of firearms available in the US was 223 million. The Bureau of Alcohol Tobacco Firearms and Explosives (abbreviated ATF) is a specialized federal law enforcement and regulatory organization within the United 
In the United States, gun rights proponents question whether any requirement that firearms be registered constitutes a violation of their individual rights interpretation of the Second Amendment. The Second Amendment (Amendment II to the United States Constitution is a part of the United States Bill of Rights that protects the pre-existing Some perceive that firearms registration—by making it easier for Federal agents to target gun owners for harassment and confiscation—constitutes an easily exploited encroachment upon individual personal privacy and property rights.  In contrast, the Department of Justice advocates in a brief to the United States Supreme Court that reasonable regulation of weaponry has always been allowed by the Second Amendment in the interests of public safety.  The Supreme Court has not yet ruled on the case, the District of Columbia v. Heller. District of Columbia v Heller, 554 US ___ (2008 is a Legal case in which the Supreme Court of the United States held that the Second
Fully-automatic firearms are legal in most states in the United States but have requirements for registration and restriction under federal law. An automatic firearm is a Firearm that automatically extracts and ejects the fired cartridge case and loads a new case usually through the energy of the fired The National Firearms Act of 1934 required approval of the local police chief and the payment of a $200 tax for initial registration and for each transfer. The National Firearms Act (" NFA " 73rd Congress, Sess  The Gun Control Act of 1968 prohibited imports of all "nonsporting" firearms and created several new categories of restricted firearms. The Gun Control Act of 1968, Pub L No 90-618 82 Stat 1213 (also known as GCA or GCA68, and codified as Chapter 44 of Title 18 United States Code The act also prohibited further registry of most automatic firearms. The Firearm Owners Protection Act of 1986 imposed restrictions on some semiautomatic weapons and banned private ownership of machine guns manufactured after it took effect. The Firearm Owners' Protection Act (FOPA, Pub L No 99-308 100 Stat 
The result has been a massive rise in the price of machine-guns available for private ownership, as an increased demand chases the fixed, pre-1986 supply. For example, the Heckler & Koch MP5 submachine-gun, which may be sold to law enforcement for about $1,000, costs a private citizen about $20,000. The MP5 is a 9 mm Submachine gun of German design developed in the 1960s by a team of engineers from the West German arms manufacturer  This price difference dwarfs the $200 tax stamp.
Political scientist Earl R. Kruschke states, regarding the fully-automatic firearms owned by private citizens in the United States, that "approximately 175,000 automatic firearms have been licensed by the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms (the federal agency responsible for administration of the law) and evidence suggests that none of these weapons has ever been used to commit a violent crime. "
Several studies have sought to examine the potential links between rates of gun ownership and rates of gun-related suicide within various jurisdictions around the world.  Martin Killias, while stopping just short of asserting causality, concludes that more guns usually means more victims of suicide and homicide. 
Rich et al. , however, found that increased gun restrictions, while reducing suicide-by-gun, resulted in no net decline in suicides, because of substitution of other methods . Japan is often cited as another counter-example to Killias's assertion, as Japan has one of the highest suicide rates in the world while private firearm ownership is almost non-existent.
Advocates for gun rights often point to previous totalitarian regimes that passed gun control legislation, which was later followed by confiscation. Totalitarianism (or totalitarian rule) is a concept used to describe Political systems where a State regulates nearly every aspect of public and private The country of Iraq under Saddam had a populace that was very well armed. Totalitarian governments such as Fascist Italy during World War II, as well as some Communist states such as the People's Republic of China are examples of this, although most rural Chinese citizens had rifles for small game and protecting their farms from pests. Fascism is a totalitarian nationalist and corporatist ideology Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including Communist state is a term used by many Political scientists to describe a Form of government in which the State operates under a one-party system Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES Bolshevik Russia and the Soviet Union did not abolish personal gun ownership during the initial period from 1918 to 1929; the introduction of gun control in 1929 coincided with the beginning of the repressive Stalinist regime There are several countries that have had gun control in place for many years—the United Kingdom, Australia and Canada for example—that are not totalitarian governments. Bolshevist Russia or Bolshevik Russia is a common term for the Bolshevik side in the Russian Civil War, or more specifically the Russian The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 Stalinism is the political regime named after Joseph Stalin, leader of the Soviet Union from 1929–1953 The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page Some make the argument that in order for a population to successfully fight a repressive government small arms would not suffice, but resistance would require heavy weaponry: tanks, airplanes and artillery. A counterargument is that some guerrilla movements have had success using only small arms and improvised explosives (e. g. Vietnam and Iraq). .
While many democracies in Western Europe have adopted gun control, there are democratic countries that allow their citizens to own firearms such as the United States, New Zealand and Switzerland.  However, other democracies like Japan have very strict laws against citizens owning firearms and don't reveal totalitarian tendencies. The best known example of a country which was democratic prior to becoming totalitarian, the Weimar Republic, had restrictive gun laws, which the Nazis changed with the Reichswaffengesetz in 1938, though they prohibited possession of weapons by Jews shortly thereafter. The term Weimar Republic ( ˈvaɪmarɐ repuˈbliːk is used by historians to signify the democratic and Republican period of Germany from 1919 to 1933 Nazism, which was a short name for National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus refers primarily to the Ideology and practices of the National Socialist German PLEASE TAKE NOTE************ 
Other countries that were briefly democratic before becoming totalitarian are: countries of the former USSR (e. g. , Belarus, Kazakhstan, Russia, Turkmenistan, etc. Belarus ( Belarusian Беларусь / Biełaruś is a Landlocked country in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the north and east Kazakhstan, also Kazakstan ( Қазақстан, Qazaqstan, qɑzɑqˈstɑn Казахстан, Kazakhstán,) officially the Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending Turkmenistan ( Türkmenistan; also known as Turkmenia) is a Turkic country in Central Asia. ) and many African countries (e. g. Zimbabwe, Angola). See also Great Zimbabwe National Monument. For information about the March and June 2008 presidential elections see Zimbabwean presidential election Angola, officially the Republic of Angola (República de Angola Pronounced ʁɛˈpublikɐ dɨ ɐ̃ˈgɔlɐ Repubilika ya Ngola is a country in south-central All have (and had) restrictive gun laws. In such countries as South Africa and Zimbabwe (then Rhodesia), the black majority was prevented from legally owning guns by the white minority, aiding in the establishment of white rule. The Republic of South Africa (also known by other official names) is a country located at the southern tip of the continent of Africa
Firearms-rights advocates also point to the example of Japan. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. During the early Middle Ages, there was a high percentage of weapons ownership within the general populace, and this hindered the Japanese Imperial government in establishing totalitarian control within the country.  The Japanese populace was eventually disarmed, and weapons ownership was strictly limited to the elite and their Samurai bodyguards. is the term for the military nobility of Pre-industrial Japan.  Peasants, without any access to arms, were at the mercy of powerful warlords.
Some also oppose registration of guns or licensing of gun owners because they believe that if captured, the associated records would provide military invaders with the locations and identities of gun owners, simplifying elimination of law-abiding patriotic resistance fighters. Location and capture of such records is a standard doctrine taught to military intelligence officers; and was widely practiced by German and Soviet troops during World War II. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including Once the Nazis had taken and consolidated their power, they then proceeded to implement gun control laws to disarm the population and wipe out the opposition. Genocide of disarmed Jews, gypsies, and other undesirables followed.  The Battles of Lexington and Concord, sometimes known as the Shot heard 'round the world, in the 1770s, were started in part because General Gage sought to carry out an order by the British government to disarm the populace. The Battles of Lexington and Concord were the first military engagements of the American Revolutionary War. The " Shot heard round the world " is a well known phrase that has come to represent several historical incidentals throughout world history Thomas Gage (1719 April 2, 1787) was a British general and commander in chief of the North American forces from 1763 to 1775 during the early days of the
The economist, and opinion editorialist John Lott, in his book More Guns, Less Crime, claims to have identified a positive correlation between gun control legislation and crimes in which criminals confront citizens— that is, an increase in the number or strictness of gun control laws is correlated with an increase in the number or severity of violent crimes. John Richard Lott Jr (born More Guns Less Crime is a book by Dr John Lott that examines how violent crime rates change when states pass " shall issue " Concealed Besides showing a drop in crime correlating with shall issue laws, Lott's results also show that increasing the unemployment rate is statistically associated with a drop in crime and that a small decrease in the population which is black, female, and between 40 and 49 would result in a big decrease in homicide. Unemployment occurs when a person is available to work and currently seeking work but the person is without work.  Lott's results suggest that allowing law-abiding citizens to carry concealed firearms, deters crime because potential criminals do not know who may or may not be carrying a firearm. The possibility of getting shot by an armed victim is a substantial deterrent to crime and prevents not only petty crime but physical confrontation as well from criminals. Lott's data comes from the FBI's crime statistics from all 3,054 US counties. 
Criminologist Gary Kleck criticizes Lott's theories as overemphasizing the threat to the average American from armed crime and therefore the need for armed defense. Gary Kleck (born March 2 1951) is a criminologist at Florida State University who is an expert on the links between guns violence and gun control Paradoxically, Kleck's work speaks towards similar support for firearm rights by showing that the number of Americans who report incidents where their guns averted a threat vastly outnumber those who report being the victim of a firearm-related crime. .
The efficacy of gun control legislation at reducing the availability of guns has been challenged by, among others, the testimony of criminals that they do not obey gun control laws, and by the lack of evidence of any efficacy of such laws in reducing violent crime. In his paper, Understanding Why Crime Fell in the 1990s: Four Factors that Explain the Decline and Six that Do Not, University of Chicago economist Steven Levitt argues that available data indicate that neither stricter gun control laws nor more liberal concealed carry laws have had any significant effect on the decline in crime in the 1990s (In his 2005 book, Freakonomics, Levitt argues that legalized abortion was the most important factor). The University of Chicago is a Private university located principally in the Hyde Park neighborhood of Chicago. Steven David "Steve" Levitt (born May 29, 1967) is a prominent American Economist best known for his work on crime in particular on Freakonomics A Rogue Economist Explores the Hidden Side of Everything is a 2005 non-fiction book by University of Chicago Economist Steven Levitt While the debate remains hotly disputed, it is therefore not surprising that a comprehensive review of published studies of gun control, released in November 2004 by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, was unable to determine any reliable statistically significant effect resulting from such laws, although the authors suggest that further study may provide more conclusive information. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (or CDC) is an agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services based in unincorporated
Thirty-nine U.S. states have passed "shall issue" concealed carry legislation of one form or another. A US state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of the United States of America that share Sovereignty with the federal government In the United States, carrying a concealed weapon ( CCW, also known as concealed carry) is the legal authorization for private citizens to carry In these states, law-abiding citizens (usually after giving evidence of completing a training course) may carry handguns on their person for self-protection. Other states and some cities such as New York may issue permits. New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous In the United States, carrying a concealed weapon ( CCW, also known as concealed carry) is the legal authorization for private citizens to carry Only Illinois, Wisconsin and the District of Columbia have explicit legislation restricting personal carry, although gun-control laws in the District of Columbia were ruled unconstitutional by the US Court of Appeals for the DC Circuit on March 9, 2007. The State of Illinois ( roughly ill-i-NOY is a state of the United States of America, the 21st to be admitted to the Union. Wisconsin ( or wɪˈskɑnsɨn (French Ouisconsin) is one of the fifty United States of America, located in the north central part of the United States Washington DC ( formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D Washington DC ( formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D Vermont and Alaska place no restrictions on lawful citizens carrying concealed weapons. Vermont ( is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States of America. Alaska ( Аляска Alyaska) is a state in the United States of America, in the northwest of the North American continent Alaska retains a shall issue permit process for reciprocity where allowed.
Supporters of gun-rights consider self-defense to be a fundamental and inalienable human right and believe that firearms are an important tool in the exercise of this right. The right of self-defense (also called alter ego defense, defense of others, defense of a third person) is the right for civilians acting on their Human rights refers to the "basic Rights and freedoms to which all humans are entitled They consider the prohibition of an effective means of self defense to be unethical and to violate Constitutional guarantees. Ethics is a major branch of Philosophy, encompassing right conduct and good life For instance, in Thomas Jefferson’s "Commonplace Book," a quote from Cesare Beccaria reads, "laws that forbid the carrying of arms . Thomas Jefferson (April 13 1743 – July 4 1826 was the third President of the United States (1801–1809 the principal author of the Declaration of Independence Beccaria redirects here This article is about the philosopher and politician . . disarm only those who are neither inclined nor determined to commit crimes . . . Such laws make things worse for the assaulted and better for the assailants; they serve rather to encourage than to prevent homicides, for an unarmed man may be attacked with greater confidence than an armed man. "
Opponents of lawful arming of individuals for self-defense argue that potential victims who present their weapons likely would escalate a confrontation and suffer greater injury than had they been unarmed. However, the opposite has been found to be true: armed potential victims have a significantly greater likelihood over unarmed or totally weapon-less victims of escaping criminal assault uninjured. The United States Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, found that "A fifth of the victims defending themselves with a firearm suffered an injury, compared to almost half of those who defended themselves with weapons other than a firearm or who had no weapon. "
Gun control advocates argue that the strongest evidence linking availability of guns to injury and mortality rates comes in studies of domestic violence, most often referring to the series of studies by Arthur Kellermann. Injury or bodily injury is Damage or Harm caused to the Structure or function of the Body caused by an outside agent or Mortality rate is a measure of the number of Deaths (in general or due to a specific cause in some population scaled to the size of that population per unit time Domestic violence (also known as domestic abuse or spousal abuse) occurs when a family member partner or ex-partner attempts to physically or psychologically dominate Dr Arthur L Kellermann MD MPH FACEP (born 1955 is professor and founding chairman of the department of Emergency Medicine at Emory University in In response to public suggestions by some advocates of firearms for home defense, that homeowners were at high risk of injury from home invasions and would be wise to acquire a firearm for purposes of protection, Kellermann investigated the circumstances surrounding all in-home homicides in three cities of about half a million population each over five years, and found that the risk of a homicide was in fact slightly higher in homes where a handgun was present, rather than lower. Home Invasion is the fifth solo album by Ice T. Released in 1993, the album was Ice T's first release on Rhyme Syndicate Records. From the details of the homicides he concluded that the risk of a crime of passion or other domestic dispute ending in a fatal injury was much higher when a gun was readily available (essentially all the increased risk being in homes where a handgun was kept loaded and unlocked), compared to a lower rate of fatality in domestic violence not involving a firearm. A crime of passion, in popular usage refers to a crime in which the perpetrator commits a crime especially assault or Murder, against a Spouse or other loved one This increase in mortality, he postulated, was large enough to overwhelm any protective effect the presence of a gun might have by deterring or defending against burglaries or home invasions, which occurred much less frequently. The increased risk averaged over all homes containing guns was similar in size to that correlated with an individual with a criminal record living in the home, but substantially less than that associated with demographic factors known to be risks for violence, such as renting a home versus ownership, or living alone versus with others. 
Critics of Kellermann's work and its use by advocates of gun control point out that since it deliberately ignores crimes of violence occurring outside the home (Kellermann states at the outset that the characteristics of such homicides are much more complex and ambiguous, and would be virtually impossible to classify rigorously enough), it is more directly a study of domestic violence than of gun ownership. Kellermann does in fact include in the conclusion of his 1993 paper several paragraphs referring to the need for further study of domestic violence and its causes and prevention. Researchers John Lott, Gary Kleck and many others dispute Kellermann's work.   Kleck agrees only with Kellermann's finding that contrary to widespread perception, the overall frequency of homicide in the home by an invading stranger is much less than that of domestic violence. Kellerman's work has also being criticized because he ignores factors such as guns being used to protect property, save lives, and deter crime without killing the criminal—which, Kleck and others argue, accounts for the large majority of defensive gun uses. 
In several countries, such as in Finland, the firearm politics and gun control is directly linked on the armed forces' reserves and reservist training. Finland, officially the Republic of Finland ( is a Nordic country situated in the Fennoscandian region of northern Europe. This is especially true in countries which base their armies on conscription; since every able-bodied male basically is a soldier, he is expected to be able to handle the gun reasonably and be able to practice for the time of need. Conscription (also known as the draft, the call-up or national service) is a general term for involuntary labor demanded by some established authority
Switzerland is a noted example of a country in which, due to the country's conscription and militia traditions, firearm ownership is widespread. Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation The term militia is commonly used today to refer to a military force composed of ordinary Citizens to provide defense emergency law enforcement or Paramilitary service Owing to Switzerland's history, all able-bodied male Swiss citizens aged between 21 and 50 (55 for officers) are issued assault rifles and ammunition in order to perform their annual military obligations. An officer is a member of an armed force who holds a position of authority An assault rifle is a Selective fire Rifle or Carbine (not to be confused with a semi-automatic only replica firing Ammunition with muzzle Ammunition, often referred to as ammo, is a generic term derived from the French language la munition which Because of this, Switzerland is one of the few nations in the world with a higher rate of firearm ownership than the United States. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the  Also, Switzerland has a relatively low rate of gun crime. Gun violence is the broadly defined category of Violence and Crime committed with the use of a Firearm; it does not include the safe lawful use of firearms  The comparatively low level of violent crime, despite the liberal gun laws, is demonstrated by the fact that Swiss politicians rarely have the same level of police protection as their counterparts in the United States and other countries, as was noted following the fatal shooting of several government officials in the Swiss canton of Zug in September 2001. Police are agents or agencies usually of the executive, empowered to enforce the law and to effect public and social order through the legitimatized use of force The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The 26 cantons of Switzerland are the states of the Federal state of Switzerland. Zug (German) is the capital of the Canton of Zug in Switzerland. September 2001: January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September  According to many historians, Switzerland's militia tradition of "every man a soldier" contributed to the preservation of its neutrality during the Second World War, when it was not invaded by Nazi Germany. For other uses of Neutral and Neutrality see Neutral A neutral country takes no side in a War between other parties World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including Nazi Germany and the Third Reich are the common English names for Germany under the regime of Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist German Workers Despite Switzerland being a thorn in Germany's side, it was not invaded because the military cost to the Nazis would have been too high,  although this is meanwhile considered a legend regarding the existence of detailed invasion plans, which rated the Swiss defense capacity as overall low. Operation Tannenbaum (Operation Pine Tree was the planned invasion of Switzerland by Nazi Germany during World War II. 
Likewise, it is very difficult to get a licence for a pistol or revolver in Finland, but relatively easy for a rifle or shotgun. The rationale is that long firearms are awkward to use in robberies and other felonies, but they are almost exclusively used in war; therefore practising or hunting with a long firearm is both relatively safe for the general populace and especially beneficial when the situation of crisis arises.
Jeff Snyder is perhaps the best known spokesman for the view that gun possesson is a civil right, and that therefore arguments about whether gun restrictions reduce or increase violent crime are beside the point: "I am am not here engaged in. . . recommending. . . policy prescriptions on the basis of the promised or probable results [on crime]. . . Thus these essays are not fundamentally about guns at all. They are, foremost, about. . . the kind of people we intend to be. . . and the ethical and political consequences of decisions [to control firearms]. " He terms the main principle behind gun control "the instrumental theory of salvation:" that, lacking the ability to change the violent intent in criminals, we often shift focus to the instrument in an attempt to "limit our ability to hurt ourselves, and one another. "  His work discusses the consequences that flow from conditioning the liberties of all citizens upon the behavior of criminals.
Some of the earliest gun-control legislation at the state level were the "black codes" that replaced the "slave codes" after the Civil War, attempting to prevent blacks' having access to the full rights of citizens, including the right to keep and bear arms.  Laws of this type later used racially neutral language to survive legal challenge, but were expected to be enforced against blacks rather than whites. 
In response to the pro-gun Black Panthers, Ronald Reagan of California signed the Mulford Act in 1967, which prohibited the carrying of guns. The Black Panther Party (originally the Black Panther Party for Self-Defense) was a Marxist / Maoist African-American organization established California ( is a US state on the West Coast of the United States, along the Pacific Ocean. A favorite target of gun control is so-called "junk guns," which are generally cheaper and therefore more accessible to the poor. However, some civil rights organizations favor tighter gun regulations. In 2003, the NAACP filed suit against 45 gun manufacturers for creating what it called a "public nuisance" through the "negligent marketing" of handguns, which included models commonly described as Saturday night specials. Saturday Night Special is a 60 minute long Comedy - Variety show. The suit alleged that handgun manufacturers and distributors were guilty of marketing guns in a way that encouraged violence in black and Hispanic neighborhoods. "The gun industry has refused to take even basic measures to keep criminals and prohibited persons from obtaining firearms," NAACP President/CEO Kweisi Mfume said. Kweisi Mfume (born Frizzell Gerald Gray, October 24, 1948, in Baltimore Maryland) is the former President / CEO of "The industry must be as responsible as any other and it must stop dumping firearms in over-saturated markets. The obvious result of dumping guns is that they will increasingly find their way into the hands of criminals. "
The NAACP lawsuit was dismissed in 2003.  It, and several similar suits--some brought by municipalities seeking re-imbursement for medical costs associated with criminal shootings--were portrayed by gun-rights groups as "nuisance suits," aimed at driving gun manufacturers (especially smaller firms) out of business through court costs alone, as damage awards were not expected.  These suits prompted the passage of the Protection of Lawful Commerce in Arms Act in October, 2005. The Protection of Lawful Commerce in Arms Act was passed by the U
Martin Luther King said, "By our readiness to allow arms to be purchased at will and fired at whim. Martin Luther King Jr ( January 15, 1929 April 4, 1968) was an American clergyman, Activist and prominent leader . . we have created an atmosphere in which violence and hatred have become popular pastimes. "
The specter of the private ownership of guns and their relationship to domestic violence casualties is a very significant variable used for political leverage in the policy debate. While many shootings occurring in the course of a heated mutual argument of passion, others occur where a partner or family member of a "romantic" or familial relationship, who is an ongoing victim of domestic physical abuse or sexual abuse uses the force of a firearm in self-defense action against the perpetrator who also happens to be known to or related to the victim. Physical abuse is abuse involving contact intended to cause feelings of intimidation Pain, Injury, or other physical Suffering or Harm. Sexual abuse, also referred to as molestation, is the forcing of undesired sexual acts by one person upon another As a corollary, in such policy advertising campaigns, the comparison of "domestic" gun casualties is usually not accompanied by murder and assault prosecution numbers stemming from the shootings occurring in that context. Murder is the unlawful killing of another human person with Malice aforethought, as defined in Common Law countries Assault is a Crime of Violence against another person. In some Jurisdictions including Australia and New Zealand, In many of the latter cases, the victim firing in self-defense is frequently a woman or youth victim of a more physically powerful abuser. In those situations gun rights advocates argue that the firearm arguably becomes an equalizer against the lethal and disabling force frequently exercised by the abusers. 
In 2002 in the U. S. , 1,202 women were killed by their intimate partners, accounting for 30 percent of the 4006 women murdered that year. 700 women were killed by intimate partners using guns.  The same year, 175 men were killed by intimate partners. 
In a similar fashion, many gun control advocates point to statistics in advertising campaigns purporting that "approximately 9 or so children are killed by people discharging firearms every day across the US," and argue that this statistic is seldom accompanied by a differentiation of those children killed by individuals from unintentional discharges and stray bullets, and of those "children," under the age of majority—which is 18-21 in the U. S. —who are killed while acting as aggressors in street gang related mutual combat or while committing crimes, many of which are seen as arising from the War on Drugs. Gangsters redirects here For the computer game see Gangsters (video game. The War on Drugs is a prohibition campaign undertaken by the United States government with the assistance of participating countries intended to reduce the Illegal There is further controversy regarding courts, trials, and the resulting sentences of these mostly "young men" as adults despite them not having reached the age of consent. The defense of infancy is a form of defense known as an Excuse so that Defendants falling within the definition of an "infant" are excluded A significant number of gun related deaths occur through suicide.
There has been widespread agreement on both sides that the use of trigger locks and the importance of gun safety education has a mitigating effect on the occurrence of accidental discharges involving children. A trigger lock is a device designed to prevent a Firearm from being discharged while the device is in place (For discussions on politics concerning firearms and gun safety see Gun politics. There is somewhat less agreement about vicarious liability case law assigning strict liability to the gun owner for those firearms casualties occurring when a careless gun owner loses proper custody and control of her or his firearm. This article is about vicarious liability in private litigation for vicarious liability in criminal law see Vicarious liability (criminal. Strict liability is a Legal doctrine that makes a person responsible for the damage and loss caused by his/her acts and omissions regardless of Culpability (or fault
The FBI's annual Uniform Crime Report ranking of cities over 40,000 in population by violent crime rates (per 100,000 population) finds that the ten cities with the highest violent crime rates for 2003 include three cities in the very strict state of New Jersey, one in the fairly restrictive state of Massachusetts, whereas the rest have recently adopted laws that allow for the carrying of a handgun with a permit: