|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
|Area||196,024 km² (75,685 sq mi)|
|Governor||Naval Kishore Sharma|
|Chief Minister||Narendra Modi|
|Legislature (seats)||Unicameral (182)|
Seal of Gujarat
Gujarat (Gujarati: ગુજરાત Gujǎrāt, pronounced ) is a state in western India. Gujrat ( Urdu / Punjabi:) is a city in Pakistan and is the capital of Gujrat District and the Gujrat Tehsil subdivision in India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country A geographic coordinate system enables every location on the Earth to be specified in three coordinates using mainly a spherical coordinate system. Indian Standard Time ( IST) is the time observed throughout India and Sri Lanka, with a Time offset of UTC+530. UTC+530 is the Timezone for Indian Standard Time Sri Lanka Time The geography of India is diverse with landscape ranging from snow-capped mountain ranges to deserts plains rainforests hills and plateaus To help compare Orders of magnitude of different geographical regions we list here Surface areas between 100000 km² and 1000000 km² Wikipedia_talkFeatured_lists#Proposed_change_to_all_featured_lists for an explanation of this and other inclusion tags below -->This is a list of Indian state Gandhinagar ( Gujarati: ગાંધીનગર Hindi: गाँधीनगर is the capital of Gujarat State India. Ahmedabad (અમદાવાદ Amdāvād, Hindi: अहमदाबाद) is the largest city in A district is an administrative division of a state in India India is divided into twenty-eight states and seven Union territories (UT The Indian state of Gujarat has 26 districts. The state was created in 1960 out of the 17 northern districts of the former Bombay State: Ahmedabad The Constitution of India envisages Hindi as the primary official language to be used by the Union Government, with English as the subsidiary official language Gujarati (ગુજરાતી Gujǎrātī ? Shri Nawal Kishore Sharma, born 5 July 1925 in Dausa, Rajasthan, is the current Governor of Gujarat state in India, a position he This article lists the Chief Ministers of Gujarat state in chronological order Narendra Damodardas Modi ( Gujarati: નરેંદ્ર દામોદરદાસ મોદી nəɾɛn̪d̪ɾə d̪ämod̪əɾd̪äs mod̪i born 17 September The States Reorganization Act of 1956 was a major reform of the boundaries and governance of India 's states and territories. Year 1960 ( MCMLX) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Events 305 - Diocletian and Maximian retire from the office of Roman Emperor. Unicameralism is the practice of having only one legislative or Parliamentary chamber ISO 3166-2 is the second part of the ISO 3166 standard published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO ISO 3166-2IN is an ISO standard which defines Geocodes it is the subset of ISO 3166-2 which applies to India. A geographic coordinate system enables every location on the Earth to be specified in three coordinates using mainly a spherical coordinate system. Gujarati (ગુજરાતી Gujǎrātī ? India is a union of states comprising twenty-eight states and seven union territories. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country Gujarat borders Pakistan to the north west and the state of Rajasthan to the north and northeast, Madhya Pradesh to the east, Maharashtra and the Union territories of Diu, Daman, Dadra and Nagar Haveli to the south. Pakistan () officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country located in South Asia, Southwest Asia, Middle East and Rājasthān ( Devanāgarī: राजस्थान raːdʒəst̪ʰaːn is the largest state of the Republic of India in terms of area Madhya Pradesh (abbreviated as MP) ( Hindī: मध्य प्रदेश pronounced, Translation: Middle Province) often Maharashtra ( Marathi: mahārāṣṭra, IPA) is a state located on the western coast of India. A Union Territory is a sub-national administrative division of India. WikipediaWikiProject Indian cities for details --> Diu is a city in Diu district in the union territory of Daman and Diu, India. For the Indian musical form see Dadra. Dadra and Nagar Haveli ( Gujarati: દાદરા અને નગર હવેલી Marathi Historically, the North was known as Anarta, the Kathiawad peninsula, "Saurastra", and the South as "Lata".  Gujarat was also known as Pratichya and Varuna. The international border with Pakistan is to the north-west. Pakistan () officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country located in South Asia, Southwest Asia, Middle East and The Arabian Sea makes up the state's western coast. The Arabian Sea ( Arabic: بحر العرب transliterated: Baḥr al-'Arab Sanskrit: सिन्धु सागर transliterated: Its capital, Gandhinagar is a planned city and is located near Ahmedabad, the commercial center of Gujarat. Gandhinagar ( Gujarati: ગાંધીનગર Hindi: गाँधीनगर is the capital of Gujarat State India. A new town, planned community or planned city is a City, Town, or Community that was carefully planned from its inception and is typically Ahmedabad (અમદાવાદ Amdāvād, Hindi: अहमदाबाद) is the largest city in
The name of the state is derived from anshua (ansus Rāshtra), which means anshua nation. Situated on the western coast of India, the name of the state is derived from Gujjarātta (Gurjar Rāshtra which means the land of the Gujjars. Anshuas were an old clan that was present even during the Mahabharata period, according to another theory, they are one of the Central Asian tribes that migrated to India beginning from around the first century BC. Central Asia is a region of Asia from the Caspian Sea in the west to central China in the east and from southern Russia in the north to northern Pakistan in the south From around 35-405AD it was settled and ruled by the Iranian Sakas. The Sakas ( English form of Old Iranian Sakā, Nominative plural masculine case; Ancient Greek Σάκαι, Gujarat was part of the Indo-greek kingdoms. The Indo-Greek Kingdom (or sometimes Graeco-Indian Kingdom) covered various parts of the northwest and northern Indian subcontinent during the last two centuries Gujarat's coastal cities, chiefly Bharuch, served as ports and trading centres for the Maurya and Gupta empires. WikipediaWikiProject Indian cities for details --> History Bharuch was once but a small village on the banks of the Narmada River but that rivers inland The Maurya Empire ( 322 – 185 BCE) ruled by the Mauryan dynasty was a geographically extensive and powerful political and military The Gupta Empire ( Hindi: गुप्त राजवंश was ruled by members of the Gupta dynasty from around 320 to 550 C After the collapse of the Gupta empire in the sixth century, Gujarat flourished as an independent Hindu kingdom. The Maitraka dynasty, descended from a Gupta general, ruled from the sixth to the eighth centuries from their capital at Vallabhi, although they were ruled briefly by Harsha during the seventh century. The Maitraka dynasty ruled Gujarat in western India from the c Vallabhi (modern Vala) is an ancient city located in Saurashtra Peninsula in Gujarat, in western India, near Bhavnagar. Harsha or Harshavardhana (हर्षवर्धन or "Harsha vardhan" ( 590 &ndash 647) was an Indian emperor who ruled Northern India In 775 the first Parsi (Zoroastrian) refugees arrived in Gujarat from Iran. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. The Arab rulers of Sind sacked Vallabhi in 770, bringing the Maitraka dynasty to an end. The araB gene Promoter is a bacterial promoter activated by e L-arabinose binding Sindh ( Sindhī: سنڌ Urdu: سندھ is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and historically is home to the Sindhis. A branch of the Pratihara clan ruled Gujarat after the eighth century. Origin The Gurjar Pratiharas were one of the Agnikula clans of Rajputs according to a legend given in later manuscripts of Prithviraj Raso From the ninth century it was ruled by the Solanki dynasty and saw many invasions by Muslim rulers from Central Asia. The Solanki (from Chalukya, an ancient Indian dynasty are a Hindu clan who ruled parts of western and central India between the 10th Solanki rule continued until Gujarat was incorporated by the Muslim rulers of Delhi in the late thirteenth century, History dates back to 2400 BCE when Harappan civilization flourished and planned port Lothal was established.
In 1297 to 1298 Allauddin Khilji, Sultan of Delhi, destroyed Anhilwara and incorporated Gujarat into the Delhi Sultanate. Ala-ud-din Khilji ( Pashto / Arabic: علاء الدين الخلجي) (real name Juna Khan) (b The Delhi Sultanate ( Urdu: دلی سلطنت, दिल्ली सलतनत or Sultanat e Hind ( سلطنتِ هند; सलतनत ए After Timur's sacking of Delhi at the end of the fourteenth century weakened the Sultanate, Gujarat's Muslim governor Zafar Khan Muzaffar asserted his independence, and his son, Sultan Ahmed Shah (ruled 1411 to 1442), restructured Ahmedabad as the capital. Timur also written Emir Timur or Amir Temur ( Chagatai: تیمور - Tēmōr " Iron " (1336 – 19 February 1405 among Delhi (दिल्ली ਦਿੱਲੀ دلی d̪ɪlːiː sometimes referred to as Dilli) is the second largest metropolis of India, with a population Ahmed Shah was a Sultan of Gujarat 's ruling Muzaffarid dynasty from 1411 until his death in 1442 Ahmedabad (અમદાવાદ Amdāvād, Hindi: अहमदाबाद) is the largest city in Cambay eclipsed Bharuch as Gujarat's most important trade port. WikipediaWikiProject Indian cities for details --> Khambhat, formerly known as Cambay, is a city and a Municipality in Anand district WikipediaWikiProject Indian cities for details --> History Bharuch was once but a small village on the banks of the Narmada River but that rivers inland The Sultanate of Gujarat remained independent until 1576, when the Mughal emperor Akbar conquered it and annexed it to the Mughal Empire. The Gujarat Sultanate was an independent kingdom established in the early 15th century in Gujarat. Akbar redirects here For other uses see Akbar (disambiguation Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbar ( Jalāl ud-Dīn Muhammad Akbar The Mughal Empire ( Persian and self-designation گورکانی; مغلیہ سلطنت) was an Islamic imperial power which ruled most The port of Surat become the prominent and main port of India during Mughal rule. Gujarat remained a province of the Mughal empire until the Marathas sacked eastern and central Gujarat in the eighteenth century; Western Gujarat (Kathiawar and Kutch) were divided among numerous local rulers. The Marāthās ( Marathi: mr मराठा also Mahrattas) form an Indo Aryan group of Hindu Warriors hailing mostly from the present-day Kathiawar or Kathiawad ( Gujarati: કાઠીયાવાડ; kaʈʰijaʋaɽ is a Peninsula in western India. Kachchh (also spelled as Kutch) is a District of Gujarat state in western India.
Portugal was the first European power to arrive in Gujarat, acquiring several enclaves along the Gujarati coast, including Daman and Diu as well as Dadra and Nagar Haveli. Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula. Daman and Diu ( Gujarati: દમણ અને દિવ Marathi: दमण आणि दीव Portuguese: Damão e Diu is a Union territory For the Indian musical form see Dadra. Dadra and Nagar Haveli ( Gujarati: દાદરા અને નગર હવેલી Marathi The British East India Company established a factory in Surat in 1614, which formed their first base in India, but it was eclipsed by Bombay after the British acquired it from Portugal in 1668. The Honourable East India Company ( HEIC) referred to most commonly as the East India Company, also historically and colloquially as John Company, or A factor, from the Latin "he who does" (parallel to agent, from Latin agens) is a person who professionally acts as the representative of another individual Mumbai ( Marathi:,, IPA: formerly Bombay, is the capital of the Indian state of Maharashtra and the financial The Company wrested control of much of Gujarat from the Marathas during the Second Anglo-Maratha War. The Marāthās ( Marathi: mr मराठा also Mahrattas) form an Indo Aryan group of Hindu Warriors hailing mostly from the present-day The Second Anglo-Maratha War (1803 - 1805 was the second conflict between the British East India Company and the Maratha Empire in India. Many local rulers, notably the Maratha Gaekwads of Baroda (Vadodara), made a separate peace with the British, and acknowledged British sovereignty in return for retaining local self-rule. The Marāthās ( Marathi: mr मराठा also Mahrattas) form an Indo Aryan group of Hindu Warriors hailing mostly from the present-day The Gaekwad or Gaikwad (once rendered as Guicowar, also given (incorrectly as Gaekwar) ( Gujarati: ગાયકવાડ; Marathi Gujarat was placed under the political authority of the Bombay Presidency, with the exception of Baroda state, which had a direct relationship with the Governor-General of India. The Bombay Presidency was a former province of British India. The Governor-General of India (or from 1858 to 1947 the Viceroy and Governor-General of India) was the head of the British administration in India, and From 1818 to 1947, most of present-day Gujarat, including Kathiawar, Kutch, and northern and eastern Gujarat were divided into dozens of princely states, but several districts in central and southern Gujarat, namely Ahmedabad, Broach (Bharuch), Kaira, Panch Mahals, and Surat, were ruled directly by British officials. Kathiawar or Kathiawad ( Gujarati: કાઠીયાવાડ; kaʈʰijaʋaɽ is a Peninsula in western India. Kachchh (also spelled as Kutch) is a District of Gujarat state in western India. For other uses see Principality, Other princely states A Princely State (also called Native State or Indian State) was a Ahmedabad (અમદાવાદ Amdāvād, Hindi: अहमदाबाद) is the largest city in WikipediaWikiProject Indian cities for details --> History Bharuch was once but a small village on the banks of the Narmada River but that rivers inland WikipediaWikiProject Indian cities for details --> Kheda is a town and a Municipality in Kheda district in the Indian state Panchmahal, also Panch Mahal, is a district in the western India, in the eastern portion of Gujarat state
Leaders like Mahatma Gandhi, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, Morarji Desai, K.M. Munshi, Narhari Parikh, Mahadev Desai, Mohanlal Pandya, Bhulabhai Desai and Ravi Shankar Vyas all hailed from Gujarat. Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi ( Gujarati: મોહનદાસ કરમચંદ ગાંધી moɦən̪d̪äs kəɾəmʧən̪d̪ gän̪d̪ʱi (2 October 1869 – 30 January Vallabhbhai Patel (વલ્લભભાઈ પટેલ IPA:) (31 October 1875 – 15 December 1950 was a political and social leader of India who played Morarji Ranchhodji Desai ( मोरारजी देसाई) (29 February 1896 &ndash 10 Kanhaiyalal Maneklal Munshi ( December 30, 1887 - February 8, 1971) was an Indian Freedom fighter from the state of Narhari Parikh was an Indian freedom fighter and social reformer who was a close associate of Mahatma Gandhi and the chief architect of the Indian Independence Mahadev Desai ( January 1, 1892 &ndash August 15, 1942) was an Indian independence activist and nationalist writer he was most famously known e' Mohanlal Pandya' was an Indian freedom fighter, social reformer and one of the earliest followers of Mahatma Gandhi. Bhulabhai Desai ( October 13 1877 - May 6 1946) was an Indian freedom fighter and acclaimed Lawyer. Ravi Shankar Vyas was an Indian Freedom fighter and social reformer hailing from and working in the state of Gujarat. As well, Mohammed Ali Jinnah's, Pakistan's first Governor-General, father was from an area which later became Gujarat. Muhammad Ali Jinnah Urdu: (December 25 1876 – September 11 1948 was a Pakistani politician and leader of the All India Muslim League who founded Pakistan Gujarat was also the site of some of the most popular revolts, including the Satyagrahas in Kheda, Bardoli, Borsad and the Salt Satyagraha. Satyagraha ( Sanskrit: सत्याग्रह satyāgraha) is a philosophy and practice of Nonviolent resistance developed by Mohandas WikipediaWikiProject Indian cities for details --> Kheda is a town and a Municipality in Kheda district in the Indian state WikipediaWikiProject Indian cities for details --> Bardoli is a city and a Municipality in Surat district in the state of Gujarat, WikipediaWikiProject Indian cities for details --> Borsad is a city and a Municipality in Anand district in the state of Gujarat, The Salt Satyagraha was a campaign of non-violent protest against the British salt tax in colonial India which began with the Salt March to Dandi on March 12 1930
After Indian independence and the partition of India in 1947, the new Indian government grouped the former princely states of Gujarat into three larger units; Saurashtra, which included the former princely states on the Kathiawad peninsula, Kutch, and Bombay state, which included the former British districts of Bombay Presidency together with most of Baroda state and the other former princely states of eastern Gujarat. This is a listing of people who campaigned against or are considered to have campaigned against foreign domination and cultural imposition on the Indian sub-continent The term " Indian independence movement " is diffuse incorporating various national and regional campaigns agitations and efforts of both Nonviolent and Militant The Partition of India was the partition of the British Indian Empire which led to the creation on August 14, 1947 and August 15, Saurashtra (also Soruth and Sorath) is a region of western India, located on the Arabian Sea coast of Gujarat state Kathiawar or Kathiawad ( Gujarati: કાઠીયાવાડ; kaʈʰijaʋaɽ is a Peninsula in western India. Kachchh (also spelled as Kutch) is a District of Gujarat state in western India. The State of Bombay is a former state of India. During British rule, portions of the western coast of India under direct British rule were part of the In 1956, Bombay state was enlarged to include Kutch, Saurashtra, and parts of Hyderabad state and Madhya Pradesh in central India. Hyderābād and Berar (హైదరాబాదు حیدر آباد under the Nizams was the largest Princely state in the erstwhile Indian Empire Madhya Pradesh (abbreviated as MP) ( Hindī: मध्य प्रदेश pronounced, Translation: Middle Province) often The new state had a mostly Gujarati-speaking north and a Marathi-speaking south. Marathi (mr मराठी Marāṭhī) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by the Marathi people of what is considered western India. Agitation by Marathi nationalists for their own state led to the split of Bombay state on linguistic lines; on 1 May 1960, it became the new states of Gujarat and Maharashtra. Events 305 - Diocletian and Maximian retire from the office of Roman Emperor. Year 1960 ( MCMLX) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Maharashtra ( Marathi: mahārāṣṭra, IPA) is a state located on the western coast of India. The first capital of Gujarat was Ahmedabad; the capital was moved to Gandhinagar in 1970. Ahmedabad (અમદાવાદ Amdāvād, Hindi: अहमदाबाद) is the largest city in Gandhinagar ( Gujarati: ગાંધીનગર Hindi: गाँधीनगर is the capital of Gujarat State India.
Gujarat was hit by a devastating earthquake on January 26, 2001 at 08:46, which claimed more than 12,000 lives, injured another 55,000 people and severely affected the lives of forty million people in the region. The 2001 Gujarat earthquake occurred on January 26, 2001, which coincided with the 51st celebration of Republic Day (India at 0317 hrs GMT An earthquake is the result of a sudden release of energy in the Earth 's crust that creates Seismic waves Earthquakes are recorded with a Seismometer Events 1340 - King Edward III of England is declared King of France. Year 2001 ( MMI) was a Common year starting on Monday according to the Gregorian calendar.
In February 2002, violence broke out across the state claiming around a thousand lives. The 2002 Gujarat violence describes a series of communal Riots between the communities of Hindus and Muslims that took place in the Indian An official estimate stated that 790 Muslims and 254 Hindus were killed, 223 people were reported missing and 2,500 were injured.  Independent estimates by rights groups and NGOs place the figure higher, nearer to 2000. More than one hundred and fifty thousand people were displaced. Organisations such as Human Rights Watch criticised the Indian government for failure to address the resulting humanitarian condition of people, "overwhelming majority of them Muslim," who fled their homes for refugee camps in the aftermath of the riots. Human Rights Watch is a United States -based international Non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on Human rights.  The riots followed the Godhra Train Burning incident, where 58 Hindu Kar Sevaks were burnt alive on a train carriage that was torched. The Godhra train burning incident occurred in the town of Godhra in the Indian state of Gujarat at 0830 hours (830 AM on 27 February 2002. Kar Sevaks refers to those who offer services for free (that is a Volunteer) to a religious cause particularly to Hindutva. The carriage carrying the pilgrims was set on fire by a Muslim mob. The police investigation determined that the attack had been a conspiracy planned the previous day by Muslim citizens. 
On 6 April 2006, an earthquake was reported at 11:29:16 p. m. IST in Gujarat, India's Kutch and Saurashtra region. Intensity of the earthquake was measured at 5. 5 on the Richter Scale. 
Gujarat is the westernmost state of India. The NASA Earth Observatory is an online publishing organization of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration of the United States (US It is bounded by the Arabian Sea to the west and southwest, and Pakistan to the northwest. The Arabian Sea ( Arabic: بحر العرب transliterated: Baḥr al-'Arab Sanskrit: सिन्धु सागर transliterated: Pakistan () officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country located in South Asia, Southwest Asia, Middle East and The state of Rajasthan is to the northeast, Madhya Pradesh to the east, and Maharashtra and the union territory of Dadra and Nagar Haveli to the south and southeast of Gujarat. Rājasthān ( Devanāgarī: राजस्थान raːdʒəst̪ʰaːn is the largest state of the Republic of India in terms of area Madhya Pradesh (abbreviated as MP) ( Hindī: मध्य प्रदेश pronounced, Translation: Middle Province) often Maharashtra ( Marathi: mahārāṣṭra, IPA) is a state located on the western coast of India. For the Indian musical form see Dadra. Dadra and Nagar Haveli ( Gujarati: દાદરા અને નગર હવેલી Marathi
The relief is low in the most parts of the state and involves diverse climate conditions. The winters are mild, pleasant, and dry with average daytime temperatures around 83 °F(29 °C) and nights around 53 °F(12 °C) with 100 percent sunny days and clear nights. The summers are extremely hot and dry with daytime temperatures around 105 °F(41 °C) and at night no lower than 85 °F(29 °C). The time just before the monsoon the temperatures are similar to above but with high humidity which makes the air feel hotter. Relief comes when the monsoon season starts around in mid June. The day temperatures are lower to around 95 °F(35 °C) but humidity is very high and nights are around 80 °F(27 °C). Most of the rainfall occurs in this season. There is sometimes too much rain which cause severe floods. Sun is a rare sight during the monsoon season. Though mostly dry, it is desertic in the north-west, and wet in the southern districts due to heavy monsoon season. A desert is a Landscape or region that receives very little precipitation. A monsoon is a seasonal prevailing wind which lasts for several months
Ahmedpur Mandvi Beach - Ahmedpur Mandvi Beach is situated on the coastline of the state of Gujarat and is one of the finest beaches in India. It is located in Ahemdpur Mandvi, which is the historic port town of Maharao of Kutch.
Chorwad Beach - Chorwad Beach of Gujarat is another splendid beach situated on the west coast of India. It is situated at a distance of 66 km from Junagadh. Chorwad has a high potential of attracting both domestic as well as international tourists. The beach constitutes of rocky hills and presents opportunity for thrilling boat rides.
Diu Beach - Diu beach is situated off the Saurashtra coast and is connected to the state of Gujarat via a causeway. Diu is a secluded island and does not have much population. This makes it the place ideal for a serene vacation, away from the worries of daily life.
Gopnath Beach - Gopnath Beach is situated in the Bhavnagar district of Gujarat. It is located on the coast of the Gulf of Kambhat, at a distance of 75 km from the city of Bhavnagar. Gopnath is a pristine beach known for its natural beauty.
Kutch Mandvi Beach - Kutch Mandvi is an important beach in Gujarat, situated at Mandvi. Mandvi is the historic port town of Maharao of Kutch, located at a distance of 75 km from Bhuj. Kutch Mandvi was once inhabited by the Maharao of Kutch and was an important seaport.
Umbergam Beach - Umargam is about 6 km from Umargam Road railway station on Mumbai-Surat rail section . This region was part of Thane district prior to creation of Gujarat in 1960.
Umargam is situated on the southern bank of Nargol creek. It was a small village about two centuries ago, serving as a transit point for exporting marine products from the fishing port Nargol on the Northern Bank of the creek.
In the olden days an oil lamp on a wooden tripod was provided at the entrance of the creek which was later replaced by a 500 W electric lamp over a trestle tower erected at the same spot.
In order to assist the coastal shipping and traffic to gulf of Khambat and gulf of Kachchh the present Lighthouse Tower was constructed in 1979 and PRB-42 equipment was commissioned into service on 21st May 1979. The solar panels were installed in 1998 and genset added in 1999 so as to augment the power position.
The 2. 4 m diameter GI lantern house fabricated at Mumbai was installed at the station and the `C’ type sealed beam lamps were replaced by `D’ type sealed beam lamps on 31st March 2002.
The population of the Gujarat State was 50,671,017 as per the 2001 census data. The density of population is only 258 persons per sq. km. and compares favourably with the other states of the country.
Its official and primary language is Gujarati. Gujarati (ગુજરાતી Gujǎrātī ? About 89. 1% of the population of Gujarat are Hindu. A Hindu ( Devanagari: हिन्दू is an adherent of the philosophies and scriptures of Hinduism, a set of religious, Philosophical  Muslims account for 9. A Muslim (مسلم pronounced Muslim, not Muzlim) is an adherent of the Religion 1%, Jain 1. Jainism, traditionally known as Jain Dharma / Shraman Dharma (जैन धर्म is an ancient religion of India. 0% and Sikh 0. Sikh (English or; ਸਿੱਖ sikkh, IPA) is the title and name given to an adherent of Sikhism. 1% of the population.  Most of the Gujarati Hindus are strict vegetarians. Amongst Hindus the deity of Krishna is famously worshipped in His form of Shrinathji throughout Gujarat. Krishna (कृष्ण in Devanagari kṛṣṇa in IAST, ˈkr̩ʂɳə in classical Sanskrit is a deity worshiped across many traditions of Hinduism Shrinathji is a deity form of Krishna situated in the Temple town of Nathdwara near Udaipur in Rajasthan, and is the presiding central Gujarat is the birthplace of Gandhi. Gujarat is also the birthplace of the Swaminarayan sect of Hinduism.
91% of Hindus in Gujarat speak Gujarati while the rest speak Hindi, Marathi and other languages. Almost 88% of the Muslims speak Gujarati while the rest speak Urdu. Almost all of the Jains speak Gujarati (A few speak Marwari as well). Parsi Zoroastrians also speak Gujarati as their native language.
Besides Gujarati the Kutchi language is widely spoken in the Kutch District. Kachhi (also spelled Cutchi or Kachchhi) ( Urdu: کچھی) is a Indo-Aryan Language spoken in the Kutch region of the Kachchh (also spelled as Kutch) is a District of Gujarat state in western India.
Gujarat is home to many different ethnic and religious groups including:
Hindus in Gujarat are divided along the following caste lines. A Hindu ( Devanagari: हिन्दू is an adherent of the philosophies and scriptures of Hinduism, a set of religious, Philosophical The Huns were an early confederation of Central Asian equestrian nomads or semi-nomads with a Turkic core of aristocracy The Sakas ( English form of Old Iranian Sakā, Nominative plural masculine case; Ancient Greek Σάκαι, A Muslim (مسلم pronounced Muslim, not Muzlim) is an adherent of the Religion
The two largest Hindu caste, Koli Patel and Patel, are distributed throughout Gujarat,mainly leuva Patel are found in charotar (Central Gujarat in Kheda,Anand,Ahemdavad distincts)and in Surastra and Kathiyavad ,Kadava patel are founds mainly in North Gujarat and also some parts of central and south Gujarat. while other are found only in certain areas of Gujarat. e. g. Anavil are mainly found in South Gujarat while Lohanas are found in Saurashtra region.
Gujarat as a heavily industrialized state of India, attracts lots of outsiders from various parts of India.
|District||# of Talukas||# of villages||Area (Square kilometers)||Population (As of 2001)|
|Dahod||7||1,102||5,292. Ahmedabad (અમદાવાદ Amdāvād, Hindi: अहमदाबाद) is the largest city in 5||1,635,374 (16,35,374)|
|Vadodara||12||1,548||7,549. Kachchh (also spelled as Kutch) is a District of Gujarat state in western India. 5||3,639,775 (36,39,775)|
This is a chart of trend of gross state domestic product of Gujarat at market prices estimated by Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation with figures in millions of Indian Rupees.
Gujarat controls some of the largest businesses in India.  Major Agricultural produce of the state include cotton, groundnuts, peanuts, dates, sugar cane, milk & milk products. Cotton is a soft staple Fibre that grows around the seeds of the cotton plant ( Gossypium sp Peanuts is a syndicated daily and Sunday Comic strip written and illustrated by Charles M The Date Palm ( Phoenix dactylifera) is a palm in the genus Phoenix, extensively cultivated for its edible Fruit. Sugarcane ( Saccharum) is a genus of 6 to 37 species (depending on taxonomic interpretation of tall perennial grasses (family Poaceae tribe Andropogoneae Milk is an opaque white liquid produced by the Mammary glands of female Mammals (including Monotremes. Industrial products include cement, and petrol. In the most general sense of the word a cement is a binder a substance which sets and hardens independently and can bind other materials together
The worlds largest ship breaking yard is in Gujarat near Bhavnagar at Alang. Reliance Petroleum Limited, one of the group companies of Reliance Industries Limited founded by Dhirubhai Ambani operates the oil refinery at Jamnagar which is the world's largest grass roots refineries. The company has also planned another SEZ(special economic zone), in Jamnagar. 
Gujarat ranks first nationwide in gas-based thermal electricity generation with national market share of over 8% and second nationwide in nuclear electricity generation with national market share of over 1%. This is a list of States and Union Territories of India by installed capacity of power utilities with generation mode break-up as of 3 April 2006 published by the Ministry of Power
Over 20% of the S&P CNX 500 conglomerates have corporate offices in Gujarat.
As per RBI report, in year 2006-07, 26% out of total bank finance in India was in Gujarat. This is a list of NSE-indexed conglomerates with corporate offices in Gujarat.
One of India's most industrialized states, Gujarat maintains a variety of industries, the principal ones being general and electrical engineering and the manufacture of textiles, vegetable oils, chemicals, soda ash, and cement. Electrical engineering, sometimes referred to as electrical and electronic engineering, is a field of Engineering that deals with the study and application of A textile is a flexible material comprised of a network of natural or artificial Fibres often referred to as thread or Yarn. Sodium carbonate (also known as washing soda or soda ash), is a Sodium Salt of Carbonic acid. New industries include the production of fertilizers and petrochemicals. Fertilizers ( also spelt fertiliser are chemical compounds given to Plants to promote growth they are usually applied either through the soil for uptake by plant Petrochemicals are chemical products made from raw materials of Petroleum or other Hydrocarbon origin Major resources produced by the state include cotton, peanuts, dates, sugarcane, and petrol. The state is rich in calcite, gypsum, manganese, lignite, bauxite, limestone, agate, feldspar and quartz sand and successful mining of these minerals is done in their specified areas. Calcite is a carbonate mineral and the most stable polymorph of Calcium carbonate ( Ca[[carbon C]] O 3 Gypsum is a very soft Mineral composed of Calcium sulfate dihydrate with the Chemical formula Ca[[sulfur S]] O 4·2 Manganese (ˈmæŋgəniːz is a Chemical element, designated by the symbol Mn. Lignite, often referred to as brown coal, or Rosebud coal by Northern Pacific Railroad, is a soft brown fuel with characteristics that put it somewhere Bauxite is the most important Aluminium Ore. It consists largely of the minerals Gibbsite Al(OH3 Boehmite γ-AlO(OH and Gujarat produces about 90% of India’s required amount of Soda Ash and gives the country about 66% of its national requirement of salt. It is one of India's most prosperous states, having a per-capita GDP significantly above India's average. Kalol Khambat and Ankaleshwar are today known for their oil and natural gas production. ‘Dhuvaran’ has a thermal power station, which uses coal, oil and gas. The Tarapur nuclear station in Maharashtra supplies the remaining power. Also on the Gulf of Khambat, 50 kilometers southeast of Bhavnagar , is the Alang Ship Recycling Yard (the world's largest). General Motors produces the ‘Astra’ car at Halol near Vadodara. Jalalpur is a large town of Gujarat, where several small and large textile industrial units have been established. Surat, a city by the Gulf of Khambat, is a hub of the global diamond trade.
During the period 1960-90, Gujarat established itself as a leader in various industrial sectors - Textiles, Engineering, Chemicals, Petrochemicals, Drugs & Pharmaceuticals, Dairy, Cement & Ceramics, Gems & Jewellery, etc. Post-liberalization period saw Gujarat's State Domestic Product (SDP) rising at an average growth rate of 14% per annum in real terms (from 1994 -2002). Gujarat achieved as much as 35% of augmentation in its power generation capacity during the period 1995-96 and 2000-01. The producers (IPPs) have contributed significantly in this addition. As a matter of fact Gujarat is one of the first few states in India to have encouraged private sector investment and are already in operation. In addition the liquid cargo (Chemicals) handling port at Dahej is also set up in joint sector and made operational. At an investor's summit entitled Vibrant Gujarat arranged between January 10, 2007 to January 13, 2007, at Science City, Ahmedabad, the state government signed 104 Memoranda of Understandings for Special Economic Zones totalling worth Rs 2. Events 49 BC - Julius Caesar crosses the Rubicon, signaling the start of civil war. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Events 532 - Nika riots in Constantinople. 888 - Odo Count of Paris becomes King of the Franks Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Ahmedabad (અમદાવાદ Amdāvād, Hindi: अहमदाबाद) is the largest city in 5 lakh crore. . However, most of the investment was from domestic industry. 
Gujarat is the main producer of tobacco, cotton, and groundnuts in India. Other major food crops produced are rice, wheat, jowar, bajra, maize, tur, and gram. Gujarat has an agricultural economy; the total crop area amounts to more than one-half of the total land area.
Animal husbandry and dairying have played a vital role in the rural economy of Gujarat. Dairy farming, primarily concerned with milk production, functions on a cooperative basis and has more than a million members. Gujarat is the largest producer of milk in India. Amul milk co-operative federation products are well known all over India and is Asia's biggest dairy. Amul (Anand Milk Union Limited, formed in 1946 is a Dairy Cooperative movement in India. Among livestock raised are buffalo and other cattle, sheep, and goats. As per the results of livestock census 1997, there were 209. 70 lakh livestock in Gujarat State. As per the estimates of the survey of major livestock products, during the year 2002-03 the Gujarat produced 6. 09 million tonnes of milk, 385 million eggs and 2. 71 million kg of wool. Gujarat also contributes inputs to industries like textiles, oil and soap.
On 1960-05-01, Gujarat was created out of the 17 northern districts of former State of Bombay. See also Districts of Gujarat, Chief Ministers of Gujarat On 1960-05-01, Gujarat was created out of the 17 northern Districts of former The Indian state of Gujarat has 26 districts. The state was created in 1960 out of the 17 northern districts of the former Bombay State: Ahmedabad This article lists the Chief Ministers of Gujarat state in chronological order Year 1960 ( MCMLX) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Events 305 - Diocletian and Maximian retire from the office of Roman Emperor. Districts are a type of Administrative division, in some countries managed by a Local government. The State of Bombay is a former state of India. During British rule, portions of the western coast of India under direct British rule were part of the These districts were further subdivided later on. There are 26 administrative districts in the state (as of 2007). Districts are a type of Administrative division, in some countries managed by a Local government.
Gujarat is governed by a Legislative Assembly of 182 members. Legislative Assembly is the name given in some countries to either a Legislature, or to one of its chambers. Members of the Legislative Assembly (MLA) are elected on the basis of adult suffrage from one of 182 constituencies, of which 13 are reserved for scheduled castes and 26 for scheduled tribes. Scheduled Castes ("SC"s and Scheduled Tribes ("ST"s are Indian population groupings that are explicitly recognized by the Constitution of Ādivāsīs (in Devanagari script: आदिवासी literally "original inhabitants" comprise a substantial indigenous minority of the population The term of office for a member of the Legislative Assembly is five years. The Legislative Assembly elects a speaker, who presides over the meetings of the legislature. A governor is appointed by the President of India, and is Assembly, and to address the House after every general election and the commencement of each year's first session of the Legislative Assembly. The President of India or Rashtrapati ( Hindi: राष्ट्रपति a Sanskrit Neologism, lit The leader of the majority party or coalition in the legislature (Chief Minister) or his or her designee acts as the Leader of the Legislative Assembly. The administration of the state is led by the Chief Minister.
After gaining independence in 1947, the Indian National Congress party (INC) ruled the Bombay state (which included present-day Gujarat and Maharashtra). Indian National Congress-I (also known as the Congress Party and abbreviated INC) is a major Political party in India. The State of Bombay is a former state of India. During British rule, portions of the western coast of India under direct British rule were part of the Maharashtra ( Marathi: mahārāṣṭra, IPA) is a state located on the western coast of India. Congress continued to govern Gujarat after the state's creation in 1960. During and after India's State of Emergency of 1975-1977, public support for the Congress Party eroded, but it continued to hold government until 1995. See also Indian Emergency (1975–1977 A State of emergency in India refers to a period of governance under an altered In the 1995 Assembly Polls, the Congress lost to the BJP and Keshubhai Patel came to power. The Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP (भारतीय जनता पार्टी, Translation: Indian People's Party) founded in 1980 is a major Political Keshubhai Patel (born 24 July 1930) was Chief Minister of the Western State of Gujarat in India from March 1995 to October 1995 and from His Government lasted only 2 years. The fall of that government was provoked by a split in the BJP led by Shankersinh Vaghela and has won most of the subsequent polls. In 2001, following the loss of 2 assembly seats in by-elections, Keshubhai Patel resigned and yielded power to Narendra Modi. A by-election or bye-election (called special election in the United States) is an Election held to fill a political office that has become vacant Narendra Damodardas Modi ( Gujarati: નરેંદ્ર દામોદરદાસ મોદી nəɾɛn̪d̪ɾə d̪ämod̪əɾd̪äs mod̪i born 17 September The BJP retained a majority in the 2002 election, and Narendra Modi has since served as Chief Minister of the state. On 1st June, 2007, Narendra Modi became the longest serving Chief Minister of Gujarat. Events 193 - Roman Emperor Didius Julianus is Assassinated 987 - Hugh Capet is elected Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century.  On Dec 23rd 2007, the BJP won the state elections in Gujarat and Narendra Modi became the chief minister for the third time in a row. The Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP (भारतीय जनता पार्टी, Translation: Indian People's Party) founded in 1980 is a major Political
This is a chart of trend of own tax revenues (excluding the shares from Union tax pool) of the Government of Gujarat assessed by the Finance Commissions from time to time with figures in millions of Indian Rupees.
|Year||Own tax revenues|
This is a chart of trend of own non-tax revenues (excluding the shares from Union tax pool) of the Government of Gujarat assessed by the Finance Commissions from time to time with figures in millions of Indian Rupees.
Gujarat has 13 universities and 4 agricultural universities. A university is an institution of Higher education and Research, which grants Academic degrees in a variety of subjects Gujarat also has an Indian Institute of Management, at Ahmedabad, National Institute of Design, at Ahmedabad and a National Institute of Technology at Surat. The Indian Institutes of Management (IIMs are India's premier Management institutes that also conduct research and provide consultancy services in the field of management Ahmedabad (અમદાવાદ Amdāvād, Hindi: अहमदाबाद) is the largest city in The article for the postgraduate campus can be found at National Institute of Design Gandhinagar The National Institute of Design (राष्ट्रीय Ahmedabad (અમદાવાદ Amdāvād, Hindi: अहमदाबाद) is the largest city in National Institutes of Technology (NITs are premier colleges of engineering and technology education in India. Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay is going to start a new campus in Gujarat in the near future. The Indian Institute of Technology Bombay ( Marathi / Hindi: भारतीय प्रौद्योगिकी संस्थान मुंबई popularly
Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute has been established under Council for Scientific and Industrial Research Govt. Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute was opened by Jawahar Lal Nehru. The Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR is South Africa 's central and premier scientific research and development organisation of India at Bhavnagar. It was inaugurated by Late Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, the First Prime Minister of India on 10 April, 1954, with a view to carry out research on marine salt, and salt from inland lakes and sub-soil brine. It is working on reverse osmosis, electro membrane process, salt and marine chemicals, analytical science, marine biotechnology, and other related fields. Reverse osmosis (RO is a separation process that uses pressure to force a Solution through a membrane that retains the Solute on one side and allows the
Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad, one of the internationally reputed management research institute is located in Gujarat's commercial capital Ahmadabad and is the top ranked management institutes in the country . The Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad (IIM Ahmedabad also known as IIMA is considered to be the premier institute of management education in India B. K. School of Business Management is ranked 6th in terms of financial fanagement 
Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology, Surat is one of the best engineering colleges in India. Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology Surat (NIT Surat is one of the 20 National Institutes of Technology (NITs established in India in June 1961 It is one of the 20 NITs created by the central govt. and is a deemed university. It has students from all over India and some foreign students as well
Gujarat Science City , is a government initiative to draw more students towards education in science, which hosts India's first IMAX 3D theatre, an energy park, a hall of science, an amphitheatre, and dancing musical fountains among others. Gujarat Science city is situated at Hebatpur Ahmedabad. Gujarat Science city is an initiative of Government of Gujarat. Science (from the Latin scientia, meaning " Knowledge " or "knowing" is the effort to discover, and increase human understanding IMAX (short for Image MAXimum is a Film format created by Canada 's IMAX Corporation that has the capacity to display images of far greater size and An amphitheatre (alternatively amphitheater) is an open-air venue for spectator sports concerts rallies or theatrical performances A musical fountain is a type of Animated Fountain for Entertainment purposes that creates an Aesthetic design and sometimes a three-dimensional
Numerous important religious sites are located in Gujarat. List of Research organisations and Educational Institutions of Gujarat.
Dwarkanath Temple in Dwarka is one of the important temples dedicated to Krishna. WikipediaWikiProject Indian cities for details --> Dwarka, also spelled Dvarka, Dwaraka, and Dvaraka, is a city and a Municipality Krishna (कृष्ण in Devanagari kṛṣṇa in IAST, ˈkr̩ʂɳə in classical Sanskrit is a deity worshiped across many traditions of Hinduism On the tip of the Arabian Sea it was home to Krishna. The Arabian Sea ( Arabic: بحر العرب transliterated: Baḥr al-'Arab Sanskrit: सिन्धु सागर transliterated: Krishna (कृष्ण in Devanagari kṛṣṇa in IAST, ˈkr̩ʂɳə in classical Sanskrit is a deity worshiped across many traditions of Hinduism The Rann of Kutchch covers a large portion of western Gujarat, and is world-famous for its rare ecosystem, fossils, wildlife and terrain. The Rann of Kutch is a seasonally marshy region located in the Thar Desert biogeographic province in Gujarat state of northwestern India FOSSIL is a standard protocol for allowing serial communication for Telecommunications programs under the DOS Operating system.
Palitana Temples are a complex of Jain temples situated 51 km south west of Bhavnagar. Jainism, traditionally known as Jain Dharma / Shraman Dharma (जैन धर्म is an ancient religion of India. Bhavnagar (ભાવનગર भावनगर) is a city in the Indian state of Gujarat. There are 863 temples from base to the peak of the Shatrunjaya hill, where the Palitana temples are located.
Somnath Temple located in the Prabhas Kshetra near Veraval in Saurashtra, on the western coast of Gujarat, India is one of the twelve Jyotirlings (golden lingas) or symbols of the God Shiva. WikipediaWikiProject Indian cities for details --> Veraval ( Gujarati:વેરાવળ Hindi:वेरावल is a city and a Municipality It is mentioned in the Rig Veda. Somnath means "The Protector of Moon God". The Somnath Temple is known as 'the Shrine Eternal', as the temple has been destroyed six times, but was rebuilt on each occasion.
Modhera Sun Temple is famous for its rare position as specifically and uniquely designed for the worship of the Sun, Lord Surya. In Hinduism, Surya ( Devanagari: सूर्य sūrya, lit "the Supreme Light" Malay: Suria; Thai: While the main temple is beautifully and intricately designed with complex architecture, painting and sculptures, there is a central pond and surrounding it stand 108 small temples for each of the Sun God's 108 names.
Shankheshwar Jain Temples are dedicated to the 23rd Tirthankar, Lord Parshvanath. In Jainism, a Tirthankar (" Fordmaker " (also Tirthankara or Jina) is a Human being who achieves enlightenment (perfect Parshvanath or Parshvanatha ( pārśvá-nātha, occasionally spelled Parshvanath or Parswanath) was the twenty-third Tirthankara It is believed that this idol was revealed by Lord Krishna himself, by the teachings of Arisht Nemi the 22nd Tirthanakra. Krishna (कृष्ण in Devanagari kṛṣṇa in IAST, ˈkr̩ʂɳə in classical Sanskrit is a deity worshiped across many traditions of Hinduism It is near Ahmedabad.
Patan houses 84 magnificent Jain Temples built by Samrat Kumarpal, who was a staunch disciple of Hemchandracharya, a Jain monk. A dehrasar is a Temple for followers of Jainism. Jain idols of Tirthankaras are worshipped there Jainism, traditionally known as Jain Dharma / Shraman Dharma (जैन धर्म is an ancient religion of India.
Girnar is an epitome of communal harmony & amicable relations among Jains & Hindus. Jainism, traditionally known as Jain Dharma / Shraman Dharma (जैन धर्म is an ancient religion of India. A Hindu ( Devanagari: हिन्दू is an adherent of the philosophies and scriptures of Hinduism, a set of religious, Philosophical This high-rising steep hill houses shrines of both major religions. One dedicated to Neminath or Arisht Nemi, the 22nd tirthankara, where he is believed to attain nirvana, and another dedicated to Guru Dattatreya,a Hindu deity. Neminatha was twenty-second Jain Tirthankar of the present age ( Avsarpini) In Jainism, a Tirthankar (" Fordmaker " (also Tirthankara or Jina) is a Human being who achieves enlightenment (perfect In sramanic philosophy Nirvana (निर्वाण| Nirvāṇa; निब्बान Nibbāna; Prakrit: णिव्वाण A Hindu ( Devanagari: हिन्दू is an adherent of the philosophies and scriptures of Hinduism, a set of religious, Philosophical
Ambaji This temple is dedicated to goddess Ambaji. It is situated on the Arasur Hill and can be approached by road from Abu Road in Rajasthan, as well as from all other important places in Gujarat. A folk drama called 'Bhavai' is performed in the courtyards of the temple.
Dakor This temple town dedicated to Lord Krishna is situated about 90 km from Ahmedabad. The temple of Ranchodrai has the idol of Lord Krishna which is believed to have been brought from Dwarka by a devotee.
Becharaji This temple is another important seat of Mother Goddess in Mehsana district. This temple is thronged by Hindu devotees, especially childless women.
In Gujarat, there have been several great religious figures. Sant Dadu Dayal (1554-1603), a saint-poet and a major Bhakti figure from Ahmedabad treated equally both Rama and Allah as names of God and became popular in Northern India. Dadu Dayal (1544 - 1603 was a sant from Gujarat, India. "Dadu" means brother and "Dayal" means "the compassionate one" Bhakti ( Devanāgarī: भक्ति) is a word of Sanskrit origin meaning devotion. He wrote, "The illusion of Allah and Rama hath been dispelled by my mind ; since I see Thee in all. "
Gujarat is also the home of Gandhi who preached the unity between all religions and became a world-wide figure for peaceful struggle against tyranny.
Gujarat is a part of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization.
Many Hindu religious traditions developed in Gujarat. A Hindu ( Devanagari: हिन्दू is an adherent of the philosophies and scriptures of Hinduism, a set of religious, Philosophical Gujarat is the birth-place of Lord Shiva's avatar Lakulisa (Staff-God). Avatar or Avatara (अवतार IAST Avatāra) is often inaccurately translated into English as incarnation Lakulisa - the founder of the Pasupata Shaivite school He was (the Pasupata school does not exist any more believed by the Pasupata school to be an Avatar He established the Pasupata Shaivite tradition (one of the six major schools of Shaivism) in 2 A. Pashupata Shaivism - one of the main Shaivite schools The Pashupatas (Sanskrit Pāśupatas) are the oldest named Shaivite group Shaivism, also spelled "Saivism" names the oldest of the four sects of Hinduism. D. or 3 A. D. According to some traditions he was born in Kayarohana or Kayavatara in Saurashtra while other traditions hold that it was Karavana, in the modern-day town of Dabhoi Taluka near Baroda, another that it was Ulkapuri (modern Avakhal) and another that it was in Braoch or Bharuch.  From Gujarat it spread north to Kashmir, South to Tamil Nadu, East to Nepal (where the Pashupatinath Temple stills exists popularly. Pashupatinath temple (पशुपितनाथ मन्िदर) is a Hindu temple located on the shore of the Bagmati river on the eastern part of Kathmandu )
Gujarat is home to Hindu saints of all castes! Sant Dhudhalinath and Sant Girnari Velnathji were Adivasis, Sant Bhojo Nachabkha and Madhavagar were Shudras, Mahatma Gandhi and Lala Bhagat were Vaish, Sant Kilha was a Kshatriya and Lakulisa and Chakradhara were Brahmins. Ādivāsīs (in Devanagari script: आदिवासी literally "original inhabitants" comprise a substantial indigenous minority of the population
The Bhakti movement was very popular in Gujarat where devotees of both Islam and Hinduism focused worship of God, trying to rid any separations based on faith in God. The Bhakti movement was a Hindu religious movement in which the main spiritual practice was loving devotion to God, or Bhakti. For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. Hinduism is a religious tradition that originated in the Indian subcontinent.
Swami Chakradhara was another major figure of the Bhakti movement, born in Gujarat in 1194 A. D.  and he is believed to be the avatar of Vishnu. Chakradhara Maharaja established the Manhubhava Vaishnavite sect which spread to Maharashtra as well. The sect still exists today in Gujarat and Maharashtra.
Sant Kilha was another Vaishnavite saint of Gujarat born to a Subedar (army man) father.  He was the disciple of Krishnasdas (of Jaipur) and became his successor at the seat of Galta - Kilha's branch became known as the "Tapasa branch. " Besides Ram Bhakti (devotion to Lord Rama), he was also inclined towards yog-saghana and this is why he was made acharya of the Galta Gaddi. Rama ( IAST: rāma Devanāgarī: राम Khmer: Phreah Ream Thai: Phra Ram Lao: Phra Lam Tagalog:  He is said to be the founder of the Khati sect.  Jalarama, a devotee of Lord Rama is another popular figure. Jalarama's birthday is still celebrated by Gujarati (in Gujarat and abroad) as Jalaram Jayanti.
Gujarat was one of the first places the Muslims came to India. A Muslim (مسلم pronounced Muslim, not Muzlim) is an adherent of the Religion King Arjun of Gujarat permitted the Muslim trader from Ormuz to build a mosque in Gujarat and even paid for the expenses of a certain Shiite festival. 
The Sufi saints are very popular in Gujarat. Sufism ( تصوّف - taṣawwuf, Persian: صوفیگری sufigari, Turkish: tasavvuf, Urdu: تصوف Shaykh Makhu was a Sufi saint of the Shattari lineage.  "Since Gujarat is situated on the western border of India, there was a direct interaction with people of Arabia and Persia. Many Gujarati Saints and Sufis became famous. Among them names of Sheikh Ganjul lim (1381), Syed Burhanuddin (1411) and Sheikj Wajihuddin Gujarati are well known. 
This religion founded by Zarathustra Spitma (better known as "Zoroaster") resembles Hinduism in many ways (although differing as a strict monotheism too. Zoroaster ( Latinized from Greek variants) or Zarathushtra (from Avestan Zaraθuštra) also referred to as Zartosht (زرتشت )
They Zoroastrians also known as "Parsi" and "Irani" entered Gujarat from the Persian Empire, by attack of the Arabs. The Iranis are an ethno-religious community of the Indian subcontinent; descendants of Zoroastrians who emigrated from Greater Iran (in the main from They originally settled along coastal Gujarat in villages like Sanjan in Valsad district, along Gujarat-Maharashtra border. Sanjan is the second station in Gujarat (the first station is Umbergaon just inside the Gujarat- Maharashtra border when travelling on the Western Railway line The Qissa-i Sanjan is a poem discussing the Zoroastrians landing in Sanjan by generosity of Rana Jada, and being allowed to practice their customs. The Story of Sanjan (also Qissa-i Sanjan or Kisse-i Sanjan) is an account of the early years of Zoroastrian settlers on the Indian subcontinent
They have many businesses in India and are economically very powerful.
Similarities with Hinduism is seen in Zoroastrianism in beliefs that the cow is very sacred. The term sacred cow has passed into the English language to mean an object or practice which is considered immune from criticism especially unreasonably so In the 9th chapter of the of the Vendidad of the Avesta, the purificatory power of cow urine is dilated upon.  It is declared to be a panacea for all bodily and moral evils. It is drunk as well as applied externally as is done by Hindus also.  Urine of the bull, called "nirang" is brought to the house of an orthodox Parsi every morning and is (like cow milk) applied to the face, hands and feet. 
There were several Zoroastrian organizations formed to educate the Parsis on their heritage. Rahnumai Maznayasnam Sabha, established in 1851 by English-educated Parsis like Naoroji Furdunji, and funds supplied by K. N. Kama. Much attention focused on the improved of women in society; the purdah was rid, age of marriage raised, and education promoted. This article is about the practice of preventing men from seeing women  Gradually the Parsis emerged as the most Westernised community in India. 
Around 3500 festivals are celebrated in Gujarat. - the state is known as the land of fairs and festivals. Some of these fairs and festivals are :
Bhavnath Mahadev Mela (February)
The Bhavnath Mahadev Temple, situated at the foot of Mount Girnar in the city of Junagadh is the site of the Bhavnath Mahadev fair held for five days in February, during the festival of Mahashivratri. The Mahapuja of Lord Shiva takes place at midnight in this temple on the 14th day of the dark half of the month of Magh. When the puja (prayer ceremony) starts, Naga Bavas (naked sages) living nearby, move towards the fair seated on elephants, holding flags and blowing conch shells. It is firmly believed that Lord Shiva himself visits the shrine on this occasion. Visitors are served free meals by the organizers. Special stalls sell idols, rosaries or holy beads brought by vendors from Ayodhya and Mathura, utensils of brass and copper, sweets and fruits. The Bhavnath Mahadev Temple is surrounded by many equally ancient and holy places.
Dangs Darbar (March)
Dangs Darbar is the name of the annual fair held every year in Ahwa, the most important town in the Dangs a few days before Holi. The Dangs is one of the most delightful districts of Gujarat and is located high in the Saputara hills, the original home of the adivasis, the tribal population of Gujarat. The name 'Darbar' dates back to the time of the British, when a darbar of Rajas and Naiks of neighbouring area used to assemble there. Today it is called Jamabandi Darbar and the District Collector officiates at it. Thousands of tribal people flock to Ahwa from all over the district, dressed in bright colours sounding the Shehnai and beating their drums. Folk dances, dramas and songs enliven the air during the festival.
Chitra - Vichitra Mela (March)
This fair, one of the largest, purely Adivasi (tribal) fairs attended by around 60,000 to 70,000 tribal people. It takes place every year in the village of Gunbhakhari in Sabarkantha district, very near the borders of Rajasthan. It is held a fortnight after Holi, the festival of colours. The site of the fair is attractive as the temple overlooks the rivers Sabarmati, Akul and Vyakul. The name of the fair is derived from Chitravirya and Vichitraviraya, the sons of King Shantanu, who are believed to have lived here and been cured of diseases which afflicted them. The fair attracts large numbers of Bhils (tribals) who come from all the surrounding districts using every imaginable form of transport. The Garasis and Bhil tribals dress in their customary colourful costumes. The costume of the men generally consists of a blue shirt, dhoti and a red or saffron turban. Women don ghaghras (embroidered skirts) which have a circumference of as much as 20 yards, and are covered from head to foot with ornate and heavy silver jewellery. They use liquid kumkum (vermilion) to colour their cheeks and lips a brilliant red, while their eyes are outlined with kajal (kohl). Every group that comes to the fair carries its own drum making the atmosphere come alive with the incessant beat of numerous drums. The women sing folk songs, and everyone dances. The dancing and drumming continue for hours until everyone is exhausted. Over a hundred stalls hold food and drink, and sweets of various kinds. Silver ornaments can be bought and household articles as well. Here, as in other fairs, there is a giant wheel, and a merry-go-round which never cease to spin.
Dhrang Fair (April)
Around 40 km from Bhuj, it is known for the samadhi of the famous saint Menkan Dada who served the community with great love and dedication and won their devotion. He was supposed to be the incarnation of Lakshmanji. A large fair is held on Magh Vad when a large number of Dada's followers from different parts of Gujarat and Rajasthan come to the Samadhi and participate in religious rituals.
Trinetreshwar Mahadev Fair (September-October)
The small hamlet of Tarnetar, about 75 kilometers from Rajkot, is the site for one of Gujarat's most well known annual fairs, held here during the first week of Bhadrapad (September-October). This fair is primarily a 'marriage mart' or 'Swayamvar' for the tribal youth of today who still visit Tarnetar, to find them a suitable bride. The tribal youth elegantly dressed in colourful dhotis, waistcoats and eye-catching turbans come to be chosen by village belles dressed in colourful finery. Like all-important tribal fairs, it is attended by tribes from the adjoining who indulge in dancing, competitive sports and other such forms of entertainment. There are over 300 stalls selling food, refreshments, exhibiting embroidery and cattle shows. The bachelors are usually identified by their large colourful embroidered umbrellas and their distinctive hairstyles. These umbrellas, which have become emblems of the fair, are embroidered by the tribal youth for over a year. The fair is held around the Trinetreshwar Temple dedicated to the three-eyed Lord Shiva, built at the beginning of the century. There is a kund (reservoir) here and it is popularly believed that a dip in its waters is as holy as a dip in the sacred River Ganges. The reservoir is also known as papanshu (the destroyer of sins).
Vautha Mela (November)
This fair is held every year at Vautha, where two rivers, the Sabarmati and the Vatrak meet. Like most fair sites in India, this also has both mythological and current religious associations. The Vautha Mela site is 3 square miles in area. Legends hold that Kartik Swami or Kartikeya, the son of Lord Shiva, visited the site. This is why the fair is held during Kartika Purnima, the full moon night of the month of Kartik, corresponding to November. The site, also known as Saptasangam, is at the confluence of seven rivers. The most important Shiva temple here is the temple of Siddhanath.
What is most significant about this fair is that it is the only major animal trading fair in Gujarat and is on par with the famous camel fair at Pushkar, Rajasthan. However the only animals traded here are donkeys. About 4,000 donkeys are brought every year for sale, usually by Vanjara (gypsy) traders. The pilgrims who visit Vautha during the fair are from several communities and include farmers, labourers and people belonging to several castes.
Shamlaji Melo (November)
The Shamlaji Melo, also called the Kartik Purnima fair is held in the month of November every year and lasts for about two weeks. It is attended by almost two hundred thousand people from adjoining districts and even from Rajasthan. Devotees belonging to various castes and communities including the Garasias and Bhils throng this festival. These pilgrims come in groups, singing devotional songs and carry religious banners to have a darshan (worship)of the deity at the Shamlaji Temple. The Shamlaji Temple is a renowned Vaishnav Shrine and the deity housed here is known by various names included Gadadhar (bearer of the mace) and Shaksi Gopal. The fair is also popular with the tribal people of the area, particularly the Bhils, who revere Shamlaji, the deity they refer to as 'Kalio Bavji', the dark divinity. The temple is of great archaeological significance as it was built in the 11th century. Apart from a darshan of the deity in the temple, the pilgrims consider a bath in the river Meshwo essential.
Other than those festivals observed throughout India, there are festivities specific to Gujarat.
Makar Sankranti and Kite Flying Festival (January)
The Kite Flying Festival takes place in mid January and marks the time when the Sun’s direct rays reach the Tropic of Capricorn, after the winter solstice. A kite is a flying tethered object that depends upon the tension of a tethering system For the novel by Henry Miller, see Tropic of Capricorn (novel. The winter solstice occurs at the instant when the Sun 's position in the sky is at its greatest angular distance on the other side of the equatorial plane from the It is celebrated with lots of folk music and dance as well as kite flying. Folk music can have a number of different meanings including Traditional music: The original meaning of the term "folk music" was synonymous People of Ahmedabad gather on terraces to fly kites of various colours to celebrate Makar Sanskranti or Uttrayana, the welcome to the sun after the cold winter months. Ahmedabad (અમદાવાદ Amdāvād, Hindi: अहमदाबाद) is the largest city in Glass strengthened threads of the Indian fighter kites are matched against each other in the air - the kite fighter who cuts the other thread is the victor. At night, kites with Chinese lanterns are flown and held aloft. Food such as Undiya, sugar cane juice and local sweets is typically served to celebrate the day.
Dance Festival - Modhera (January)
Resting on a knoll in the village of Modhera are the ruins of the 11th century Sun Temple. This article is about ruins in Architecture; for other meanings see Ruins (disambiguation. The outer walls of the temple are covered with sculptures in which the figures of Surya, the sun god are prominent. In Hinduism, Surya ( Devanagari: सूर्य sūrya, lit "the Supreme Light" Malay: Suria; Thai: The Sun Temple is the site of an annual festival of Indian classical dances organized by the Tourism Corporation of Gujarat. The idea is to present classical dance forms in an atmosphere they were originally presented in.
The Kutch Mahotsav (Feb-March)
The ‘Kutch Festival’ or the ‘Rann festival’ is celebrated at the time of the Shiv Ratri in February/ March. The centre of the festival is Bhuj in Kutch. It has crafts, fairs and folk dances and music and cultural shows, all organized by the Gujarat Tourism. Tours are also conducted, out to the ruins of Dhola Vera, a city that was once a part of the Indus Valley civilization.
Bhadra Purnima (September)
The full moon of Bhadrapad is one of the four most important festival days of the year, when farmers and agriculturists come to Ambaji, a place that derives its name from Goddess Ambaji whose shrine is located here. On this occasion, a large fair is organized on full moon days. In the evening, performances of Bhavai, the folk drama of the state is held and Garba programmes are organized. The devout attend readings of the Saptashati, the seven hundred verses in praise of the goddess and visit the temple for a darshan (worship) of her. The Ambaji shrine is the principal shrine of the goddess in Gujarat and its origins are still unknown. The Temple of Ambaji is recognized as one of the original Shakti Pithas (religious texts) where, according to the ancient Scriptures, the heart of the goddess Ambaji fell to earth when her body was dismembered. A triangular Vishwa Yantra, inscribed with figures and the syllable 'Shree' in the centre, represents the deity. There is no idol, which in fact testifies the temple's antiquity. Idol worship became popular much later.
The Tarnetar Fair is one of the most happening events in Gujarat and is held at the Temple of Shiva or Trinetreshwar (three-eyed god), popularly known as Tarnetar. Popular belief associates the village with the Swayamwar (marriage) of Draupadi after Arjun performed the Mastsyavedh, an unparalleled feat of archery. Villagers from all over the state, dressed in their brilliant traditional costumes and exquisite jewellery, flock to Tarnetar. A veritable feast for the eyes is the Rasada, the captivating folk dance performed by hundreds of women moving gracefully in a single circle, dancing gaily to the accompaniment of four drums and jodja pava (double flutes).
The Kutch Mahotsava, is usually organised during the end of February month and beginning of March. The Kutch region in Gujarat abounds with splendid beaches, fascinating wildlife and beautiful palaces and monuments. The TCGL i. e. Tourism Corporation of Gujarat Ltd. , organises the Tour of Kutch which is a six day Tour and the tour covers the Kutch Museum, Mata no Madh, Lakhpat, Narayan Sarovar,
The Shamlaji shrine and the site boast of an ancient and glorious heritage. Thousands of tribal people flock to the Shamlaji fair. Tourism Corporation of Gujarat Ltd. offers a package tour including cultural events and catering services.
Chitra Vichitra Fair
Chitra- Vichitra means "Different" and this Fair it is held near the Border of Rajasthan, in Sabarkantha District, in the village named as Gunbhakhari. There is an interesting story behind the name of this fair. Folklore says that the two sons of Shantanu, Chitraveer and Vichitraveer, wished to repent for the sins they had committed. They were advised by a meditating saint to locate the confluence of three rivers where a Shiva shrine was located. During their quest the two came to this ancient spot, which is now known as Chitra Vichitra and immolated themselves. Since then the tribal folk celebrate the fair every year at the place where the Aakar, Vakar and Sabarmati rivers meet.
Vautha No Melo
Situated at the confluence of two rivers near Ahmedabad, the site attracts people of all communities. Animals, particularly donkeys and camels are sold in large numbers during this fair.
Gujarat has 4 National parks and 21 sanctuaries which include: Nal Sarovar, Anjal, Balaram-Ambaji, Barda, Jambughoda, Jessore, Kachchh Desert, Khavda, Narayan Sarovar, Paniya, Purna, Rampura, Ratanmahal, and Surpaneshwar. T he Gujarat state of manan who owns india has four National Parks and twenty-one Wildlife Sancturies which are managed by the Forest Department of the Government
Gujarat is the only home of Asiatic Lions. The Asiatic Lion ( Panthera leo persica) is a subspecies of the Lion which survives today only in India where it is also known as the Indian lion Outside Africa, Gujarat is the only natural habitat of lions. Gir Forest National Park in south-west part of the state covers only the part of lion's habitat. The Gir Forest National Park and Wildlife Sanctuary (also known as Sasan-Gir and गिर वन) is the sole home Besides lions, the other big cat can be found in the state are Panthers. Panthers are spread across large plains of Saurashtra and mountains of South Gujarat.
Lothal is the site of the ancient ruins of the first Indian port, dating from the time of the Indus Valley Civilization. Lothal ( Gujarātī: લોથલ ˈloːtʰəl Eng Mound of the Dead was one of the most prominent cities of the ancient Indus valley civilization. The Indus Valley Civilization (Mature period 2600&ndash1900 BCE abbreviated IVC, was an ancient Civilization that flourished in the Indus River basin
Dholavira, the ancient city, locally known as Kotada Timba, is one of the largest and most prominent archaeological sites in India, belonging to the Indus Valley Civilization. Dholavira, an ancient metropolitan city, and locally known as Kotada Timba Prachin Mahanagar Dholavira, is one of the largest and most prominent archaeological sites It is located on the Khadir island in the Kutch district of Gujarat - the island is surrounded by water in the monsoon season. The site was occupied from about 2900 BC for about a millennium, declining slowly after about 2100, briefly abandoned and then reoccupied, finally by villagers among its ruins, until about 1450.
Gujarat has the largest number of museums of any state in India. These are all run by the state's own Department of Museums, located at the Principal State museum, the Museum and Picture Gallery, Vadodara. Other mueseums include the Vadodara Museum and Maharaja Fatehsingh Museum in Vadodara, the Watson Museum in Rajkot, the Gandhi Mueseum in Bhavnagar and the Gandhi Smarak Sangrahalaya, Kite Museum and Calico Museum of Textiles in Ahmedabad. The Watson Museum in Rajkot, India is a Museum of human history and culture Rajkot (રાજકોટ राजकोट Rājkot) is the 4th largest city in the state of Gujarat, India. Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi ( Gujarati: મોહનદાસ કરમચંદ ગાંધી moɦən̪d̪äs kəɾəmʧən̪d̪ gän̪d̪ʱi (2 October 1869 – 30 January Bhavnagar (ભાવનગર भावनगर) is a city in the Indian state of Gujarat.
Gujarat is the state having maximum number of airports, currently ten airports. The Culture of Gujarat is that of Gujarat, India. Gujarati Wedding Ceremony HINDU WEDDING Marriage is a highly auspicious occasion in the All are domestic airports except Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel International Airport in Ahmedabad which is offering international flights. Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel International Airport is India 's seventh busiest airport with an average of 150 aircraft movements a day
One of the most popular public transports in Gujarat is the City Bus. The only problem that can surface with the city buses is that the bus numbers and the route information is given in Gujarati. Gujarat State Road Transport Corporation (GSRTC) is the primary body responsible for providing these services. It is a public transport corporation providing bus services and public transit within Gujarat and to the other states in India. Apart from this, there are a number of services provided by GSRTC.
Apart from this, the GSRTC provides special bus services for festivals, industrial zones, schools, colleges and pilgrim places.
Auto rickshaw is an important and frequently used mode of transport in Gujarat. An auto rickshaw or tuk tuk ( auto autorick or rickshaw in popular parlance is a Motor vehicle that is one of the chief