Gudrun Ensslin (IPA: [ˈguːdʁuːn ˈɛnsliːn]; August 15, 1940 – October 18, 1977) was a founder of the German terrorist group Red Army Faction (Rote Armee Fraktion, or RAF, also known as the Baader-Meinhof Gang. Events 778 - The Battle of Roncevaux Pass, at which Roland is killed Year 1940 ( MCMXL) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Events 1009 - The Church of the Holy Sepulchre, a Christian church in Jerusalem, is completely destroyed by the Fatimid Also 1977 (album by Ash. Year 1977 ( MCMLXXVII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Terrorism is the systematic use of terror especially as a means of coercion The Red Army Faction or RAF ( German Rote Armee Fraktion) (in its early stages commonly known as Baader-Meinhof Group ''Gang'' was one ) After becoming romantically involved with co-founder Andreas Baader, Ensslin was influential in the radicalization of Baader's left-wing beliefs and the intellectual head of the RAF. Andreas Bernd Baader ( 6 May 1943 – 18 October 1977) was one of the first leaders of the German organization Red Army Faction
Ensslin was born in the village of Bartholomä in Baden-Württemberg, Germany, the fourth of seven children. Bartholomä is a Town in the German state of Baden-Württemberg, in Ostalbkreis district Baden-Württemberg is one of the 16 states ( Bundesländer) of the Federal Republic of Germany. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Her father, Helmut Ensslin, was a pastor of the Evangelical Church in Germany (EKD). EKD redirects here For the Basque political party see Democracia Cristiana Vasca. Ensslin was a stereotypical good girl, who did well at school and enjoyed reading the Bible. Etymology According to the Online Etymology Dictionary, the word bible is from Latin biblia, traced from the same word through Medieval Latin and Late Latin In her family, the social injustices of the world were often discussed and Gudrun is said to have been sensitized to social problems in West Germany and the world as a whole. West Germany ( Inf German: Westdeutschland or West-Deutschland) was the common English name for the Federal Republic of Germany (
At the age of eighteen, Gudrun got the chance to spend a year in the United States of America, where she attended a high school in Pennsylvania. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania ( often colloquially referred to as PA (its abbreviation by natives and Northeasterners is a state located in the Northeastern After high school, she received a scholarship from the Studienstiftung des deutschen Volkes, like Ulrike Meinhof and Horst Mahler, two other members of the Red Army Faction, due to her excellent exams. The German National Academic Foundation or German National Merit Foundation ( German: Studienstiftung des deutschen Volkes, short Studienstiftung Ulrike Marie Meinhof ( October 7, 1934 in Oldenburg, Germany &ndash May 9, 1976 in Stuttgart, Horst Mahler (born 23 January 1936 in Haynau, Lower Silesia, now Chojnów Poland) is a German Neo-Nazi lawyer who is known The Red Army Faction or RAF ( German Rote Armee Fraktion) (in its early stages commonly known as Baader-Meinhof Group ''Gang'' was one Gudrun went to study philosophy, Anglistik (English Studies) and Germanistik (German Studies), where she met Bernward Vesper. Philosophy is the study of general problems concerning matters such as existence knowledge truth beauty justice validity mind and language English studies is an academic discipline that includes the study of Literatures written in the English language (including literatures from the U German studies is the field of Humanities that researches documents and disseminates German language and literature in both its historic and present forms His father had been a poet for the Nazis and Bernward published his work with Ensslin. Will Vesper (b Barmen, Germany 11 October 1882: d Gut Triangel bei Gifhorn, 14 March 1962) was a German Vesper still thought like his father and was a right-wing German, but on the other hand, he was also a left-wing German and some of his thoughts were a mixture of both, so were his texts. Gudrun Ensslin defined herself through her boyfriends and so she was also not sure, whether to be more right or left at this time in Tübingen, where both studied. Together with two other students, Ensslin and Vesper started a small business, a publishing house called Studio neue Literatur. At this time, Ensslin also tried to become a teacher. In 1965 Gudrun and Bernward got engaged and moved to West Berlin, where Gudrun worked on a doctorate at the Free University. Year 1965 ( MCMLXV) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. West Berlin was the name given to the western part of Berlin between 1949 and 1990 In West Berlin, they demonstrated against the Bomb and the presence of American military bases.
In May of 1967, Ensslin gave birth to a son, Felix Robert. Year 1967 ( MCMLXVII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. The relationship between Ensslin and Vesper was however doing badly, and Ensslin became engrossed in the prevailing left-wing culture. Further strains were put on the relationship when Ensslin participated in an experimental film entitled Das Abonnement (The Subscription) .
In June of 1967 Ensslin participated in political protests against the Shah of Iran, who was visiting Germany at the time. Year 1967 ( MCMLXVII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. Protest expresses relatively overt reaction to events or situations sometimes in favor though more often opposed Though the Shah was viewed by governments in the West as a reformer, his regime was known to be brutal against political opponents, and the state police force (SAVAK) was believed to routinely torture prisoners. SAVAK ( Persian: ساواک short for سازمان اطلاعات و امنیت کشور Sazeman-e Ettela'at va Amniyat-e Keshvar, National Intelligence and Security
Fights broke out between pro-Shah and anti-Shah factions on the Shah's arrival. A young man by the name of Benno Ohnesorg was shot in the back of the head by a police officer. Benno Ohnesorg (/ˈbɛnoː ˈoːʰnəzɔɐk/ October 15, 1940 – June 2, 1967) was a German university student who was shot (The organisation known as the Movement 2 June, which would become allied to the RAF, was named after this event. The Movement 2nd June (German Bewegung 2 Juni) was a well known West German Militant group based in West Berlin. ) The next night, Gudrun Ensslin angrily denounced West Germany as a fascist state at a political meeting. Fascism is a totalitarian nationalist and corporatist ideology
The police officer, Karl-Heinz Kurras, was charged with manslaughter and acquitted of the charge on November 23, 1967 causing a public outrage. Events 800 - Charlemagne arrives at Rome to investigate the alleged crimes of Year 1967 ( MCMLXVII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. Things cooled down however, and this enraged Ensslin. She left Bernward Vesper and her child in January 1968 and with Andreas Baader, whom she had met in the Summer of '67, she decided to actively fight "the system". Year 1968 ( MCMLXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. On the night of April 2 1968 two fires broke out in two department stores in Frankfurt. Events 68 - Galba, Governor of Hispania, names himself legatus senatus populique Romani, breaking the line of Baader, Ensslin, Thorwald Proll and Horst Söhnlein were arrested three days later, and in October 1968 were sentenced to three years in prison. They were released pending an appeal in June 1969, but fled when the appeal was dismissed. Baader was arrested on April 3, 1970. Ensslin, Ulrike Meinhof, who was at that time a well-known leftist polemicist, and two other women freed him on May 14, 1970. Ulrike Marie Meinhof ( October 7, 1934 in Oldenburg, Germany &ndash May 9, 1976 in Stuttgart, Year 1970 ( MCMLXX) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. One person was shot. This was the beginning of the gang's violent crimes, and the RAF. Ensslin became one of the most wanted people in Germany. She was arrested in a boutique June 8th, 1972 in Hamburg. Year 1972 ( MCMLXXII) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Hamburg (English, German: ˈhambʊɐk local pronunciation Low German / Low Saxon: Hamborg) is the second-largest city in Germany
Several attempts to free her from prison, through hostage-taking by sympathizers and so-called members of the 2nd generation of the RAF, failed. One was the abduction of Hanns-Martin Schleyer on September 5, 1977, and when this failed to work, the hijacking of a Lufthansa airliner on October 17. Also 1977 (album by Ash. Year 1977 ( MCMLXXVII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays Lufthansa Flight 181, commonly known as The Landshut (ˈlants When the airplane was stormed by a German anti-terrorist unit, Schleyer was killed, and Ensslin was found hanging in her cell early in the morning of October 18. Events 1009 - The Church of the Holy Sepulchre, a Christian church in Jerusalem, is completely destroyed by the Fatimid Officially, her death was ruled a suicide. However, sympathizers and Irmgard Möller, the only surviving RAF member imprisoned at Stammheim Prison, insist that the deaths had been extrajudicial executions. Irmgard Möller (also spelled Irmgard Moeller) (born May 13, 1947, Bielefeld) was a West German Urban guerrilla and member Stammheim Prison (Justizvollzugsanstalt Stuttgart-Stammheim is a Prison in Stuttgart, Baden Württemberg, Germany. For extrajudicial executions see also Assassination Extra-judicial killings are the illegal killing of leading political trades union dissidents
Ensslin's life story was fictionalized into the film Marianne and Juliane. Marianne and Juliane is a 1981 film directed by Margarethe von Trotta.