|Age of Enlightenment Classicism|
|Classicism between the Wars|
Great Books refers to a curriculum and a book list. For the works or study of works from classical antiquity see Classics Classicism, in the arts, refers generally to Classical antiquity (also the classical era or classical period) is a broad term for a long period of cultural History centered on the Mediterranean The Age of Enlightenment or The Enlightenment is a term used to describe a phase in Western philosophy and cultural life centered upon the eighteenth century Neoclassicism (sometimes rendered as Neo-Classicism or Neo-classicism) is the name given to quite distinct movements in the decorative and The dates of the Classical period in Western music are generally accepted as 1750 to 1810 Classical economics is widely regarded as the first modern school of economic thought. Neoclassicism (sometimes rendered as Neo-Classicism or Neo-classicism) is the name given to quite distinct movements in the decorative and Neoclassicism in music was a 20th century development particularly popular in the period between the two World Wars in which composers drew inspiration from music of the 18th century Neoclassical ballet It is the style of 20th century Classical ballet exemplified by the works of George Balanchine Neoclassical economics is a term variously used for approaches to Economics focusing on the determination of prices outputs and income distributions in markets Mortimer Adler lists three criteria for including a book on the list:
--(Adler, "Second Look", pg 142)
It came about as the result of a discussion among American academics and educators, starting in the 1920s and 1930s and begun by Prof. John Erskine of Columbia University, about how to improve the higher education system by returning it to the western liberal arts tradition of broad cross-disciplinary learning. John Erskine ( October 5 1879 - June 2 1951) was a US educator and author born in New York City. Columbia University is a private University in the United States and a member of the Ivy League. The term liberal arts refers to a particular type of educational Curriculum broadly defined as a Classical education. These academics and educators included Robert Hutchins, Mortimer Adler, Stringfellow Barr, Scott Buchanan, and Alexander Meiklejohn. Robert Maynard Hutchins ( January 17, 1899, Brooklyn New York – May 17, 1977, Santa Barbara California) husband of Mortimer Jerome Adler ( December 28, 1902 &ndash June 28, 2001) was an American Aristotelian philosopher Stringfellow Barr (b January 15 1897, Suffolk, Virginia - February 3 1982, Alexandria, Virginia) Scott Milross Buchanan ( March 17, 1895 - March 25, 1968) was an American educator philosopher and foundation consultant Alexander Meiklejohn ( February 1, 1872 &mdash December 17, 1964) was a philosopher, university administrator and Free-speech The view among them was that the emphasis on narrow specialization in American colleges had harmed the quality of higher education by failing to expose students to the important products of Western civilization and thought. Higher education is Education that is provided by universities, vocational universities, Community colleges Liberal arts colleges
They were at odds both with much of the existing educational establishment and with contemporary educational theory. Educational theorists like Sidney Hook and John Dewey (see pragmatism) disagreed with the premise that there was crossover in education (e. Sidney Hook ( December 20 1902 &ndash July 12 1989) was a prominent New York intellectual and Philosopher who championed John Dewey (October 20 1859 &ndash June 1 1952 was an American Philosopher, Psychologist, and educational reformer, whose thoughts and ideas have Pragmatism generally considered to have originated in the late nineteenth century with Charles Peirce, who first stated the Pragmatic maxim. Crossover, sometimes referred to as cross-pollination is a philosophical presupposition of Liberal arts, Great books, and Integrative learning approaches g, that a study of philosophy, formal logic, or rhetoric could be of use in medicine or economics).
Great Books started out as a list of 100 essential primary source texts considered to constitute the Western Canon. The Western canon is a term used to denote a canon of books and more widely music and art, that has been the most influential in This list was always intended to be tentative, although many critics considered it presumptuous and laughable to nominate 100 Great Books to the exclusion of all others.
The Great Books Program is a curriculum that makes use of this list of texts. The undergraduate program as implemented at St. John's College involves a four-year set course of studies consisting of four classes:
As much as possible, students rely on primary sources. St John's College is a Liberal arts college with two US campuses Annapolis Maryland and Santa Fe New Mexico. In Science, the term natural science refers to a naturalistic approach to the study of the Universe, which is understood as obeying rules or law of Aristotle (Greek Aristotélēs) (384 BC – 322 BC was a Greek philosopher a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. Albert Einstein ( German: ˈalbɐt ˈaɪ̯nʃtaɪ̯n; English: ˈælbɝt ˈaɪnstaɪn (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955 was a German -born theoretical Euclid ( Greek:.) fl 300 BC also known as Euclid of Alexandria, is often referred to as the Father of Geometry Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people Logic is the study of the principles of valid demonstration and Inference. Philosophy is the study of general problems concerning matters such as existence knowledge truth beauty justice validity mind and language Literature is the Art of written works Literally translated the word means "acquaintance with letters" (from Latin littera letter They are encouraged to conduct classes themselves, with guidance from a tutor. In British Australian New Zealand Italian and some Canadian universities, a tutor is often but not always a Postgraduate Student or a Lecturer
In 1919, Professor Erskine taught the first course based on the "great books" program, titled "General Honors," at Columbia University. Columbia University is a private University in the United States and a member of the Ivy League. Erskine left for the University of Chicago in the 1920's, and helped mold its core curriculum. The University of Chicago is a Private university located principally in the Hyde Park neighborhood of Chicago. It initially failed, however, shortly after its introduction due to fallings-out between the instructors over the best ways to conduct classes and due to concerns about the rigor of the courses. However, to this day, both Chicago and Columbia maintain required core curricula heavily focused on the "great books" of the Western Canon. In formal education a curriculum (plural curricula) is the set of courses and their content offered at a School or University. The Western canon is a term used to denote a canon of books and more widely music and art, that has been the most influential in Several schools maintain a Great Books Program as an option for students, but some of the most prominent schools are the University of Notre Dame, University of San Francisco, University of Dallas, Furman University, St. John's College sister schools, Shimer College, Thomas Aquinas College, Gutenberg College, the Torrey Honors Institute at Biola University, the Integral Liberal Arts program at Saint Mary's College of California (Moraga), the Hutchins School at Sonoma State University, and the Louisiana Scholars' College at Northwestern State University (Natchitoches). The University of Notre Dame du Lac (or simply Notre Dame) (ˌnoʊtɚˈdeɪm is a private Roman Catholic Research university located in University of San Francisco ( USF) is a private Jesuit Roman Catholic University in San Francisco California. The University of Dallas is a private Catholic university located in Irving Texas. Furman University is a private, Coeducational non-sectarian University in Greenville, South Carolina, United States St John's College is a Liberal arts college with two US campuses Annapolis Maryland and Santa Fe New Mexico. Shimer College is a Liberal arts College in Chicago, Illinois, which is best known for its intellectual atmosphere small class sizes and Thomas Aquinas College is a Roman Catholic Liberal arts college offering a single integrated academic program Gutenberg College is a private four-year Great Books college in Eugene Oregon. Torrey Honors Institute is a Christian classical education ("great books" program at Biola University in California Biola University is a private, Non-denominational, Evangelical Christian university located near Los Angeles, noted for its conservative Saint Mary's College of California is a private Coeducational College located in Moraga California, United States. Sonoma State University is a public coeducational business and Liberal arts college affiliated with the California State University system The Louisiana Scholars' College at Northwestern State University prides itself on being Louisiana's designated four-year selective-admissions honors college in the Northwestern State University, often called NSU, is a public four-year University primarily situated in Natchitoches, Louisiana, with a nursing 
The Great Books of the Western World is a hardcover 60-volume collection (originally 54 volumes) of the books on the Great Books list. Great Books of the Western World is a series of books originally published in the United States in 1952 by Encyclopædia Britannica Inc Great Books of the Western World is a series of books originally published in the United States in 1952 by Encyclopædia Britannica Inc Many of the books in the collection were translated into English for the first time. A prominent feature of the collection is a two-volume "Syntopicon" that includes essays written by Mortimer Adler on 102 "great ideas. " Following each essay is an extensive outline of the idea with page references to relevant passages throughout the collection. Familiar to many Americans, the collection is available from Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc. , which owns the copyright.
Shortly after Adler retired from the Great Books Foundation in 1989, a second edition (1990) of the Great Books of the Western World was published; it included for the first time works by black, Hispanic, and women authors. The Great Books Foundation, incorporated in the state of Illinois and based in Chicago, is an independent nonprofit Educational organization whose mission  During his tenure as president of the Foundation, Adler had resisted such inclusions. 
"In the course of history. Robert Maynard Hutchins ( January 17, 1899, Brooklyn New York – May 17, 1977, Santa Barbara California) husband of . . new books have been written that have won their place in the list. Books once thought entitled to belong to it have been superseded; and this process of change will continue as long as men can think and write. It is the task of every generation to reassess the tradition in which it lives, to discard what it cannot use, and to bring into context with the distant and intermediate past the most recent contributions to the Great Conversation. "
The following is an example list from How to Read a Book by Mortimer Adler and Charles Van Doren. Mortimer Jerome Adler ( December 28, 1902 &ndash June 28, 2001) was an American Aristotelian philosopher Charles Lincoln Van Doren (born February 12, 1926) a noted American Intellectual, writer and editor who was involved in a television (1940, 1972)
In 1993 and 1994, the Learning Channel did a series of one hour shows discussing many of the great books of history and their impact on the world. Homer ( Ancient Greek:, Homēros) is a legendary ancient Greek epic Poet, traditionally said to be the author of the epic poems the The Iliad ( Greek: Ἰλιάς (Ancient Ιλιάδα (Modern is together with the Odyssey, one of two ancient The Odyssey ( Greek: Ὀδύσσεια or Odússeia) is one of two major ancient Greek epic poems attributed to Homer. In Western Christianity, the Old Testament refers to the books that form the first of the two-part Christian Biblical canon. Aeschylus (ˈɛskɨləs or /ˈiːskɨləs/ Greek: Ασχύλος, Aischylos, 525 BC/524 BC 456 BC/455 BC was an ancient Greek Playwright Sophocles (ˈsɒfəkliːz Ancient Greek, sopʰoklɛ̂ːs circa Herodotus of Halicarnassus ( Greek: Hēródotos Halikarnāsseús) was a Greek Historian who lived in the 5th century BC ( 484 BC&ndash The Histories of Herodotus of Halicarnassus is considered the first work of history in Western literature. Euripides ( Ancient Greek:) (ca 480 BC–406 BC was the last of the three great tragedians of classical Athens (the other two being Aeschylus Thucydides ( C 460 BC &ndash C 395 BC) ( Greek Θουκυδίδης Thoukydídēs) was a Greek The History of the Peloponnesian War is an account of the Peloponnesian War in Ancient Greece, fought between the Peloponnesian League (led by Hippocrates of Cos II or Hippokrates of Kos ( ca. 460 BC – ca Aristophanes (Ἀριστοφάνης ˌærɪˈstɒfəniːz in English ca Biography Early life Birth and family Plato was born in Athens Greece Aristotle (Greek Aristotélēs) (384 BC – 322 BC was a Greek philosopher a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. Euclid ( Greek:.) fl 300 BC also known as Euclid of Alexandria, is often referred to as the Father of Geometry Euclid's Elements ( Greek:) is a mathematical and geometric Treatise consisting of 13 books written by the Greek Archimedes of Syracuse ( Greek:) ( c. 287 BC – c 212 BC was a Greek mathematician, Physicist, Engineer In Mathematics, a conic section (or just conic) is a Curve obtained by intersecting a cone (more precisely a circular Conical surface Marcus Tullius Cicero ( Classical Latin ˈkikeroː usually ˈsɪsərəʊ in English January 3, 106 BC &ndash December 7, 43 BC was a Roman Titus Lucretius Carus (ca 99 BC- ca 55 BC was a Roman Poet and Philosopher. On the Nature of Things (Latin De rerum natura) is a first century BC Poem by the Roman Poet and Philosopher Publius Vergilius Maro ( October 15, 70 BCE &ndash September 21, 19 BCE later called Virgilius, and known in English as Virgil or Quintus Horatius Flaccus, ( Venosa, December 8, 65 BC - Rome, November 27, 8 BC known in the English-speaking world as Horace Titus Livius (traditionally 59 BC &ndash AD 17 known as Livy in English, was a Roman historian who wrote a monumental history of Rome Ab Urbe condita (literally "from Publius Ovidius Naso ( March 20, 43 BC – 17 AD was a Roman poet known to the English -speaking world as Ovid who wrote on many topics including Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus ( Greek: Μέστριος Πλούταρχος c Plutarch 's Lives of the Noble Greeks and Romans, commonly called Parallel Lives or Plutarch's Lives, is a series of The Moralia (gr Greek &mdash loosely translatable Publius (or Gaius) Cornelius Tacitus (ca 56 &ndash ca 117 was a senator and a Historian of the Roman Empire. Histories ( Latin: Historiae) is a book by Tacitus, written c The Annals, or in Latin, Annales, is a history book by Tacitus covering the reign of the four Roman Emperors succeeding Germania was the Latin Exonym for Nicomachus (Νικόμαχος (c 60 &ndash c 120 was an important mathematician in the ancient world and is best known for his works Introduction to Arithmetic Introduction to Arithmetic was written by Nicomachus almost two thousand years ago and contains both philosophical prose and very basic mathematical ideas Epictetus ( Greek:; ca 55&ndashca 135 was a Greek Stoic philosopher. Claudius Ptolemaeus ( Greek: Klaúdios Ptolemaîos; after 83 &ndash ca Almagest is the Latin form of the Arabic name ( الكتاب المجسطي, al-kitabu-l-mijisti, i Lucian of Samosata (Λουκιανός ὁ Σαμοσατεύς Lucianus c Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus (often referred to as "the wise" ( April 26, 121 – March 17, 180) was Roman Emperor Meditations (Τὰ εἰς ἑαυτόν Ta eis heauton, literally "thoughts/writings addressed to himself" is the title of a series of personal writings Galen ( Greek: Γαληνός Galēnos; Latin: Claudius Galenus, Aelius Galenus, Claudius Aelius Galenus, or Plotinus ( Greek:) (ca AD 204–270 was a major philosopher of the ancient world who is widely considered the founder of Neoplatonism (along with his The Six Enneads, sometimes abbreviated to The Enneads or Enneads, is the collection of writings of Plotinus, edited and Confessions ( Latin: Confessiones) is the name of an Autobiographical work consisting of 13 books by St The Song of Roland (La Chanson de Roland is the oldest remaining major work of French literature. The Nibelungenlied, translated as The Song of the Nibelungs, is an epic poem in Middle High German. Njáls saga (also known as "Brennu-Njáls saga" or "The Story of the burning of Njáll") is arguably the most famous of the Sagas of The Summa Theologica (or the Summa Theologiae or simply the Summa, written 1265 &ndash 1274) is the most famous The Divine Comedy Geoffrey Chaucer (c 1343 – 25 October 1400? was an English author poet Philosopher, bureaucrat, courtier and Diplomat. Troilus and Criseyde (circa 1380-87 is Geoffrey Chaucer 's Poem in Rhyme royal ( rime royale) re-telling the tragic love story of The Canterbury Tales is a collection of stories written by Geoffrey Chaucer in the 14th century (two of them in Prose, the rest in verse) Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci ( April 15 1452 – May 2 1519 was an Italian Polymath, having been a scientist Mathematician, Engineer Il Principe ( The Prince) is a political Treatise by the Florentine public servant and political theorist The Praise of Folly ( Greek title Morias Enkomion (Μωρίας Εγκώμιον, Latin: Stultitiae Laus, sometimes translated as De revolutionibus orbium coelestium ( On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres) first printed in 1543 in Nuremberg, is the seminal work on Sir Thomas More (7 February 1478 – 6 July 1535 from 1935 Saint Thomas More, was an English Lawyer, author and statesman who in his lifetime gained Utopia is a name for an ideal community taken from the title of a book written in 1516 by Sir Thomas More describing a fictional Island in the Martin Luther (November 10 1483 February 18 1546 was a German Monk, theologian, university professor Father of Protestantism, and church reformer The Life of Gargantua and of Pantagruel (in French, La vie de Gargantua John Calvin (or Jean Calvin) (10 July 1509 – 27 May 1564 was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and Institutes of the Christian Religion is John Calvin 's seminal work on Protestant Systematic theology. Michel Eyquem de Montaigne (French miʃɛl ekɛm də mɔ̃tɛɲ ( February 28 1533 &ndash September 13 1592) was one of the most influential writers Essays is the title of a book written by Michel de Montaigne that was first published in 1580. William Gilbert, also known as Gilbard ( Colchester, England, May 24, 1544 &ndash London, England, November 30 Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra ( in modern Spanish; September 29, 1547 &ndash April 22, 1616) was a Spanish Novelist es '''''Don Quixote''''' (, see spelling and pronunciation below fully titled es '''''El ingenioso hidalgo Don Quijote de la Mancha''''' ("The Ingenious Hidalgo Don Edmund Spenser (c 1552 &ndash 13 January, 1599) was an important English Poet and Poet Laureate best known for The The Faerie Queene is an English epic poem by Edmund Spenser, published first in three books in 1590 and later in six books in 1596 Francis Bacon 1st Viscount St Alban KC QC (22 January 1561 – 9 April 1626 was an English Philosopher, Statesman, and author The Novum Organum is a philosophical work by Francis Bacon published in 1620. In 1623 Sir Francis Bacon expressed his aspirations and ideals in The New Atlantis. William Shakespeare ( baptised Galileo Galilei (15 February 1564 &ndash 8 January 1642 was a Tuscan ( Italian) Physicist, Mathematician, Astronomer, and Philosopher Sidereus Nuncius (usually translated into English as Sidereal Messenger, although Starry Messenger and Sidereal Message are Johannes Kepler (ˈkɛplɚ ( December 27 1571 &ndash November 15 1630) was a German Mathematician, Astronomer William Harvey ( April 1, 1578 – June 3, 1657) was an English Physician who is credited with being the first in Exercitatio Anatomica de Motu Cordis et Sanguinis in Animalibus, (An Anatomical Exercise on the Motion of the Heart and Blood in Living Beings is the best-known work of the physician Generation of Animals (or On the Generation of Animals, or in Latin De Generatione Animalium) is a text by Aristotle. Thomas Hobbes (born 5 April 1588died 4 December 1679 was an English philosopher, whose famous 1651 book Leviathan established the foundation Leviathan or The Matter Forme and Power of a Common Wealth Ecclesiasticall and Civil, commonly called Leviathan, is a book written by Thomas In 1619, René Descartes began work on an unfinished treatise regarding the proper method for scientific and philosophical thinking entitled Rules for the Direction Organization How to think correctly The Method of Science Morals Maxims deduced from this Method Proof of God and the Soul Physics the heart Meditations on First Philosophy (subtitled In which the existence of God and the immortality of the soul are demonstrated) is a philosophical treatise written John Milton ( 9 December, 1608 – 8 November, 1674) was an English Poet, Prose Polemicist and Jean-Baptiste Poquelin, also known by his Stage name, Molière, ( January 15, 1622 – February 17 1673) was a French Blaise Pascal (blɛz paskal (June 19 1623 &ndash August 19 1662 was a French Mathematician, Physicist, and religious Philosopher The Pensées (literally "thoughts" represented a defense of the Christian religion by Blaise Pascal, the renowned 17th century philosopher Christiaan Huygens (ˈhaɪgənz in English ˈhœyɣəns in Dutch) ( April 14, 1629 &ndash July 8, 1695) was a Dutch Baruch or Benedict de Spinoza (ברוך שפינוזה Bento de Espinosa Benedictus de Spinoza ( November 24, 1632 – February 21, Ethics is a philosophical book written by Baruch Spinoza. It was written in Latin. John Locke (29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704 was an English Philosopher. An Essay Concerning Human Understanding is one of John Locke 's two most famous works the other being his Second Treatise on Civil Government Jean Racine ( ( December 22, 1639 &ndash April 21, 1699) was a French Dramatist, one of the "big three" of Sir Isaac Newton, FRS (ˈnjuːtən 4 January 1643 31 March 1727) Biography Early years See also Isaac Newton's early life and achievements The Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica ( Latin: "mathematical principles of natural philosophy" often Principia Opticks is a book written by English physicist Isaac Newton that was released to the public in 1704. The Discourse on Metaphysics ( Discours de métaphysique, 1686 is a short (60 pages in translation book by Gottfried Leibniz in which he develops a philosophy New Essays on Human Understanding ("Nouveaux essais sur l'entendement humain" is a chapter-by-chapter rebuttal by Gottfried Leibniz of John Locke The Monadology ( Monadologie, 1714 is one of Gottfried Leibniz ’s works that best define his philosophy monadism. Daniel Defoe (1659/1661 — April 24, 1731 was an English Writer, Journalist, and Pamphleteer, who gained enduring fame for The Life and Strange Surprising Adventures of Robinson Crusoe (of York Mariner Who lived Eight and Twenty Years all alone in an un-inhabited Island on the Coast of America near the Mouth Jonathan Swift (30 November 1667 A Tale of a Tub was the first major work written by Jonathan Swift, composed between 1694 and 1697 and published in 1704 Gulliver's Travels (1726 amended 1735 officially Travels into Several Remote Nations of the World in Four Parts A Modest Proposal For Preventing the Children of Poor People in Ireland from Being a Burden to Their Parents or Country and for Making Them Beneficial to the Public, William Congreve ( 24 January 1670 &ndash 19 January 1729) was an English Playwright and Poet. The Way of the World is a play written by British Playwright William Congreve. George Berkeley (ˈbɑrkli (12 March 1685 14 January 1753 also known as Bishop Berkeley, was a Philosopher. Alexander Pope (21 May 1688 – 30 May 1744 is generally regarded as the greatest English Poet of the eighteenth century best known for his Satirical An Essay on Criticism was the first major poem written by the English writer Alexander Pope (1688-1744 The Rape of the Lock is a Mock-heroic Narrative poem written by Alexander Pope, first published anonymously in Lintot's Miscellany An Essay on Man is a poem published by Alexander Pope in 1734. Charles-Louis de Secondat baron de La Brède et de Montesquieu (Eng Persian Letters ( Lettres persanes) is a satirical work by Charles de Secondat baron de Montesquieu, recounting the experiences of The Spirit of Laws (French De l'esprit des lois) is a Treatise on Political theory first published anonymously by Charles de Secondat François-Marie Arouet ( 21 November 1694 30 May 1778) better known by the Pen name Voltaire, was a French --> Candide ou l'Optimisme (1759 is a French Satire by the Enlightenment Philosopher Voltaire, English translations of which The Dictionnaire philosophique ( Philosophical Dictionary) is an Encyclopedic dictionary published by Voltaire in 1764 Henry Fielding ( April 22, 1707 &ndash October 8, 1754) was an English Novelist and Dramatist known for his Joseph Andrews, or The History of the Adventures of Joseph Andrews and of his Friend Mr Tom Jones can refer to Tom Jones (singer (born 1940 Welsh pop music singer Tommy Lee Jones (born 1946 American actor and director Samuel Johnson (often referred to as Dr Johnson) (18 September The History of Rasselas Prince of Abissinia, often Lives of the Most Eminent English Poets (1779&ndash81 was a work by Samuel Johnson, comprising short biographies and critical appraisals of 52 poets most of whom David Hume (26 April 1711 25 August 1776 Scottish Philosopher, Economist, and Historian is an important figure in Western philosophy A Treatise of Human Nature is a book by Scottish philosopher David Hume, first published in 1739 – 1740. An Enquiry concerning Human Understanding is a book by the Scottish Empiricist and Philosopher David Hume, published in 1748 Discourse on the Origin and Basis of Inequality Among Men (Discours sur l'origine et les fondements de l'inégalité parmi les hommes is a book by the philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau The Social Contract Or Principles of Political Right (1762 by Jean-Jacques Rousseau, is the book in which Rousseau theorized about Social contracts Laurence Sterne ( November 24, 1713 &ndash March 18, 1768) was an Irish -born English Novelist and an Anglican The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy Gentleman (or more briefly Tristram Shandy) is a novel by Laurence Sterne. A Sentimental Journey Through France and Italy is a novel by the Irish-born English author Laurence Sterne, written and first published in 1768, as Adam Smith ( baptised 16 June 1723 – 17 July 1790) was a Scottish moral philosopher and a pioneer of Political economy. The Theory of Moral Sentiments was written by Adam Smith in 1759 An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations is the Magnum opus of the Scottish economist Adam Smith. Immanuel Kant (ɪmanuəl kant 22 April 1724 12 February 1804 was an 18th-century German Philosopher from the Prussian city of Königsberg The Critique of Pure Reason (Kritik der reinen Vernunft by Immanuel Kant, first published in 1781, second edition 1787, is one The Critique of Practical Reason ( Kritik der praktischen Vernunft in the original German) is the second of Immanuel Kant 's three critiques first The Critique of Judgement ( Kritik der Urteilskraft, 1790 or in the new Cambridge translation Critique of the Power of Judgement, also known Edward Gibbon ( April 27, 1737 January 16, 1794) was an English historian and Member of Parliament. The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire (known popularly as The History) was written by English Historian James Boswell 9th Laird of Auchinleck ( October 29, 1740 - May 19, 1795) was a lawyer diarist and Author born in Edinburgh John Jay (December 12 1745 – May 17 1829 was an American Politician, Statesman, revolutionary, Diplomat, a Supreme Court James Madison Jr (March 16 1751 – June 28 1836 was an American Politician, the fourth President of the United States (1809–1817 and one of the Founding The Federalist Papers are a series of 85 articles advocating the ratification of the United States Constitution. Jeremy Bentham ( IPA: or) (15 February 1748&ndash6 June 1832 was an English Jurist, Philosopher, and legal and Social reformer Edmund Burke ( 12 January, 1729 9 July, 1797) was an Irish statesman author orator Political theorist, and Reflections on the Revolution in France (1790 by Edmund Burke, is one of the best-known intellectual attacks against the (then-infant French Revolution ˈjoːhan ˈvɔlfgaŋ fɔn ˈgøːtə (in English generally ˈgɝːtə 28 August 1749 22 March 1832 was a German writer Johann Wolfgang von Goethe 's Faust is a tragic play. It was published in two parts de Faust der Tragödie erster Teil (translated Jean Baptiste Joseph Fourier ( March 21, 1768 &ndash May 16, 1830) was a French Mathematician and Physicist Phänomenologie des Geistes ( 1807) is one of GWF Hegel 's most important philosophical works Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel 's Elements of the Philosophy of Right ( Grundlinien der Philosophie des Rechts) was published in 1820, though the Lectures on the Philosophy of History, also translated as Lectures on the Philosophy of World History ( German Vorlesungen über die Philosophie der Weltgeschichte Samuel Taylor Coleridge ( 21 October 1772 &ndash 25 July 1834) was an English Poet, Critic and philosopher Biographia Literaria is an Autobiography in discourse by Samuel Taylor Coleridge, which he published in 1817. Jane Austen (16 Pride and Prejudice, first published on 28 January 1813, is the most famous of Jane Austen 's novels and one of the first " romantic EMMA - the Ethnic Multicultural Media Academy (Awards - was founded in 1997 by Bobby Syed. Carl Philipp Gottlieb von Clausewitz (ˈklaʊzəvɪts ( July 1, 1780 – November 16, 1831) was a Prussian soldier military historian Vom Kriege (fɔm ˈkʁiːgə is a book on War and Military strategy by Prussian general Carl von Clausewitz, written mostly Henri-Marie Beyle ( January 23, 1783 &ndash March 23, 1842) better known by his Pen name Stendhal, was a 19th-century Le Rouge et le Noir ( The Red and the Black) is a Novel by Stendhal, published in 1830 The Charterhouse of Parma ( French: La Chartreuse de Parme) is a novel published in 1839 by Stendhal. Don Juan (Spanish or Don Giovanni (Italian is a legendary fictional Libertine whose story has been told many times by many authors Michael Faraday, FRS ( September 22 1791 – August 25 1867) was an English Sir Charles Lyell 1st Baronet, KT, FRS (14 November 1797 &ndash 22 February 1875 was a Scottish Lawyer, Geologist, and protagonist Principles of Geology is a book by the Scottish geologist Charles Lyell. Auguste Comte (full name Isidore Marie Auguste François Xavier Comte; 17 January 1798 – 5 September 1857 was a French thinker who is generally credited for having Le Père Goriot (English Father Goriot or Old Goriot) is an 1835 novel by French novelist and playwright Honoré de Balzac (1799–1850 Eugénie Grandet (1833 is a Novel by Honoré de Balzac about Miserliness and how it is bequeathed from the father to the daughter Eugénie Ralph Waldo Emerson (May 25 1803 &ndash April 27 1882 was an American essayist philosopher poet and leader of the Transcendentalist movement in the early 19th century Nathaniel Hawthorne (born Nathaniel Hathorne; July 4 1804 – May 19 1864 was an American novelist and Short story writer The Scarlet Letter is the Magnum opus of Nathaniel Hawthorne. De la démocratie en Amérique (published in two volumes the first in 1835 and the second in 1840 is a classic French text by Alexis de Tocqueville John Stuart Mill (20 May 1806 &ndash 8 May 1873 British Philosopher, political economist, civil servant and Member of Parliament, was an influential On Liberty is a philosophical work by 19th century English Philosopher John Stuart Mill, first published in 1859 Utilitarianism is the idea that the moral worth of an action is solely determined by its contribution to overall Utility, that is its contribution to happiness The Subjection of Women is the title of an essay written by John Stuart Mill in 1869 possibly jointly with his wife Harriet Taylor Mill, stating an argument Charles Robert Darwin (February 12 1809 &ndash April 19 1882 was an English naturalist, who realised and demonstrated that all Species of life Charles Darwin 's On the Origin of Species (published 24 November 1859) is a seminal work in Scientific literature and arguably the The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex is a book on Evolutionary theory by English naturalist Charles Darwin, first The Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick Club, better known as The Pickwick Papers, is the first novel by Charles Dickens. David Copperfield or The Personal History Adventures Experience and Observation of David Copperfield the Younger of Blunderstone Rookery (which he never meant to publish Hard Times- For These Times is a Novel by Charles Dickens, first published in 1854 Claude Bernard ( July 12, 1813 – February 10, 1878) was a French Physiologist. Civil disobedience is the active refusal to obey certain Laws demands and commands of a Government, or of an occupying power, without resorting to physical Walden (first published as Walden or Life in the Woods) by Henry David Thoreau is one of the best-known Non-fiction books written Friedrich Engels (28 November 1820 – 5 August 1895 was a German social scientist and philosopher, who Manifesto of the Communist Party ( often referred to as The Communist Manifesto, was first published on February 21, 1848, and is Mary Ann (Marian Evans ( 22 November 1819 – 22 December 1880) better known by her Pen name George Eliot, was an Adam Bede, the first novel written by George Eliot (the pen name of Mary Ann Evans was published in 1859. Middlemarch is a Novel by George Eliot, the pen name of Mary Anne Evans later Marian Evans Herman Melville (August 1 1819 &ndash September 28 1891 was an American novelist Short story writer Essayist and poet Moby-Dick is an 1851 Novel by Herman Melville. The story tells the adventures of the wandering sailor Ishmael and his voyage on the whaleship Billy Budd is a Novella begun around 1886 by American author Herman Melville, left unfinished at his death in 1891 and not published until 1924 Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoevsky (Фёдор Миха́йлович Достое́вский, sometimes transliterated Dostoyevsky, Dostoievsky, Crime and Punishment (Преступление и наказание is a Novel by Russian author Fyodor Dostoevsky that The Idiot is a novel written by the Russian author Fyodor Dostoevsky and first published in 1868 The Brothers Karamazov (Братья Карамазовы /'bratʲjə karə'mazəvɨ/ is the final Novel by the Russian author Fyodor Dostoevsky Gustave Flaubert (gystaːv flobɛːʁ in French ( December 12, 1821 &ndash May 8, 1880) was a French writer who is counted among Madame Bovary is a Novel by Gustave Flaubert, who was attacked for obscenity by public prosecutors when it was first serialized in La Revue de "Ibsen" redirects here For other people named Ibsen see Ibsen (disambiguation. Leo Tolstoy, or Count Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy ( –) (Лев Никола́евич Толсто́й, was a Russian Writer widely regarded War and Peace (Война и мир Voyna i mir) is a Novel by Leo Tolstoy, first published from 1865 to 1869 in Russkii Vestnik Anna Karenina ( Анна Каренина) also Anglicised as Anna Karenin, is a Novel by the Russian writer Leo Tolstoy What Is Art? (Что такое искусство? takoye iskusstvo?'' 1897) is a book by Leo Tolstoy in which he argues against numerous aesthetic Samuel Langhorne Clemens (November 30 1835 – April 21 1910 better known by the Pen name Mark Twain, was an American Humorist, satirist Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (often shortened to Huck Finn) is a novel written by American Humorist Mark Twain. The Mysterious Stranger is an Unfinished work written by the American author Mark Twain that was worked on periodically from For other people named William James see William James (disambiguation William James (January 11 1842 – August 26 1910 was a pioneering The Principles of Psychology is a monumental text in the history of Psychology, written by William James and published in 1890. The Varieties of Religious Experience A Study in Human Nature is a book by the Harvard psychologist and philosopher William James that comprises his edited Essays in Radical Empiricism (ERE by William James is a collection edited and published posthumously by his colleague and biographer Ralph Barton Perry Henry James, OM ( –) son of theologian Henry James Sr, brother of the philosopher and psychologist William James and diarist Alice James The American is a Novel The Ambassadors is a 1903 novel by Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (October 15 1844 August 25 1900 ( was a nineteenth-century German philosopher and classical philologist Thus Spoke Zarathustra (German Also sprach Zarathustra, sometimes translated Thus Spake Zarathustra) subtitled A Book for All and None Beyond Good and Evil (German Jenseits von Gut und Böse) subtitled "Prelude to a Philosophy of the Future" ( Vorspiel einer Philosophie der Zukunft On the Genealogy of Morality, or On the Genealogy of Morals (German Zur Genealogie der Moral) subtitled "A Polemic " ( Eine Streitschrift Jules Henri Poincaré ( 29 April 1854 &ndash 17 July 1912) (ˈʒyl ɑ̃ˈʁi pwɛ̃kaˈʁe was a French Mathematician Sigmund Freud (ˈziːkmʊnt ˈfʁɔʏt born Sigismund Shlomo Freud (May 6 1856 &ndash September 23 1939 was an Austrian Psychiatrist who founded The Interpretation of Dreams is a book by Sigmund Freud. The first edition was first published in German in November 1899 as Die Traumdeutung Civilization and Its Discontents is a book by Sigmund Freud. Written in 1929 and first published in German in 1930 as Das Unbehagen in der Kultur George Bernard Shaw ( (26 July 1856 &ndash 2 November 1950 was an Irish Playwright. Time and Free Will An Essay on the Immediate Data of Consciousness ( Essai sur les données immédiates de la conscience) is the title of Henri Bergson's Matter and Memory is one of the four main works by the French philosopher Henri Bergson ( 1859 - 1941) John Dewey (October 20 1859 &ndash June 1 1952 was an American Philosopher, Psychologist, and educational reformer, whose thoughts and ideas have Alfred North Whitehead, OM ( February 15 1861, Ramsgate, Kent, England &ndash December 30 1947, George Santayana ( December 16, 1863, Madrid &ndash September 26, 1952, Rome) was a Philosopher, Essayist The Life of Reason, subtitled "the Phases of Human Progress" is a book published in five volumes from 1905 to 1906 by Spanish -born American Philosopher State and Revolution is a book written by Vladimir Lenin in August and September of 1917 Valentin Louis Georges Eugène Marcel Proust (maʁsɛl pʁust (10 July 1871 &ndash 18 November 1922 was a French Novelist Essayist and Critic In Search of Lost Time or Remembrance of Things Past (À la recherche du temps perdu is a semi-autobiographical In Search of Lost Time or Remembrance of Things Past (À la recherche du temps perdu is a semi-autobiographical Bertrand Arthur William Russell 3rd Earl Russell, OM, FRS (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970 was a British Philosopher, Historian The Problems of Philosophy (1912 is one of Bertrand Russell 's attempts to create a brief and accessible guide to the problems of Philosophy. Paul Thomas Mann ( June Joseph and His Brothers ( Joseph und seine Brüder) is a four-part novel by Thomas Mann, published over the course of 16 years Albert Einstein ( German: ˈalbɐt ˈaɪ̯nʃtaɪ̯n; English: ˈælbɝt ˈaɪnstaɪn (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955 was a German -born theoretical The Evolution of Physics: From Early Concept to Relativity and Quanta (1938 is a book by Albert Einstein and Leopold Infeld. James Augustine Aloysius Joyce (2 February 1882 &ndash 13 January 1941 was an Irish expatriate writer widely considered to be one of the most influential writers of the "The Dead" is the final short story in the 1914 collection Dubliners by James Joyce. Dubliners is a collection of 15 short stories by James Joyce, first published in 1914 A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man is a semi-autobiographical Novel by James Joyce, first serialized in The Egoist Ulysses is a novel by James Joyce, first serialized in parts in the American journal The Little Review from March 1918 to December 1920 Jacques Maritain ( November 18, 1882 &ndash April 28, 1973) was a French Catholic Philosopher. The Trial ( Der Process) is a novel by The Castle is a philosophical novel by Franz Kafka. In it a protagonist known only as K This page is about the universal historian Arnold Joseph Toynbee for the economic historian Arnold Toynbee see this article. A Study of History is the 12-volume Magnum opus of British Historian Arnold J Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre (21 June 1905 &ndash 15 April 1980 commonly known simply as Jean-Paul Sartre (ʒɑ̃ pol saʁtʁə was a French Nausea (orig French La Nausée) is a novel by the existentialist philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre, published in 1938 and written No Exit is a 1944 existentialist play by Jean-Paul Sartre, originally published in French as Huis Clos Being and Nothingness An Essay on Phenomenological Ontology ( French: L'Être et le néant: Essai d'ontologie phénoménologique) sometimes subtitled Aleksandr Isayevich Solzhenitsyn ( Алекса́ндр Иса́евич Солжени́цын) (December 11 1918 – August 3 2008 was a Russian Novelist The First Circle ( В круге первом, V kruge pervom) is a novel by Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn released in 1968 Cancer Ward is a 1968 novel by Russian author Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn. TLC (generally called as The Learning Channel) is a cable TV network in the US and Canada, that carries a variety of informational and It was narrated by Donald Sutherland. Donald McNicol Sutherland OC (born July 17, 1935) is a Canadian Actor with a film career spanning over 50 years