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A governor or governour (archaic) is a governing official that is in the leglislative branch usually the executive (at least nominally, to different degrees also politically and administratively) of a non-sovereign level of government, ranking under the Head of state. Politics Politics is the process by which groups of people make decisions In Political science and Constitutional law, the executive is the branch of government responsible for the day-to-day management of the State. Head of state is the generic term for the individual or collective office that serves as the chief public representative of a Monarchic or Republican Nation-state A dictator is an Authoritarian ruler (eg Absolutist or autocratic) who assumes sole and absolute power without hereditary ascension such as an Absolute President is a Title leaders of Organizations companies, Trade unions universities, and countries. For the government of parliamentary systems see Executive (government. This article focuses on the cases where the Head of Government is a separate office from the Head of State Chancellor or chancellour (archaic ( Latin: cancellarius) is an official Title used in countries whose civilization has arisen A premier is a title for the Head of government in some countries This article is about the government position For other uses see Prime Minister (disambiguation. A cabinet is a body of high-ranking members of Government, typically representing the executive branch. A ministry is a specialised organisation responsible for a sector of Government Public administration, sometimes led by a minister, but usually a senior A minister or a secretary is a Politician who holds significant public office in a national or regional Government. A presidential system is a System of government where an executive branch exists and presides (hence the term separately from the Legislature The semi-presidential system is a System of government in which a prime minister and a President are both active participants in the day-to-day administration A parliamentary system, also known as parliamentarianism (and parliamentarism in American English) is a System of government in which Cohabitation in government occurs in Semi-presidential systems such as France 's system when the President is from a different Political party The Westminster system is a democratic Parliamentary system of Government modelled after the British government (the Parliament of the United This is a list of current heads of state and government, showing heads of state and heads of government where different mainly in Parliamentary systems This is a list of the offices of Heads of state, Heads of government, cabinet, and Legislature, of sovereign states. A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning "greater" is a modern title used in many countries for the highest ranking officer in a municipal government Head of state is the generic term for the individual or collective office that serves as the chief public representative of a Monarchic or Republican Nation-state The title also applies to officials with a similar mandate as representatives of a chartered company which has been granted exercise of sovereignty in a colonial area, such as the British HEIC or the Dutch VOC. A chartered company is an association formed by investors or Shareholders for the purpose of trade Exploration and Colonization. The Honourable East India Company ( HEIC) referred to most commonly as the East India Company, also historically and colloquially as John Company, or The Dutch East India Company ( Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie or VOC in old-spelling Dutch, literally "United East Indian These companies operate as a major state within a state with its own armed forces. In assotiations, a governor can be the title of each appointed or (as in the US) elected politician who governs a constitutive state. A politician (from Greek " Polis " is an individual who is involved in influencing public decision making through the influence of Politics or a person A state is a political association with effective Sovereignty over a geographic Area and representing a Population. Most countries in the world have some sort of official known or rendered as "governor," though in some countries the heads of the constitutive states, provinces, communities and regions may have a different title. This is particularly common in European nations and many of their former colonies, with titles such as President of the Regional Council in France and minister-president in Germany. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Other countries using different titles for sub-national units include Spain, Italy and Switzerland. Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation
There can also be non-political governors: high ranking officials in private or similar governance such as commercial and non-profit management, styled governor(s), who simply govern an institution, such as a corporation or a bank. Governance relates to decisions that define expectations, grant power, or verify performance. A corporation is a separate legal entity usually used to conduct business A banker or bank is a Financial institution whose primary activity is to act as a payment agent for customers and to borrow and lend money For example, in the United Kingdom and other Commonwealth countries there are prison governors ("warden" in the United States), school governors and bank governors. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located A prison, penitentiary, or correctional facility is a place in which individuals are physically confined or interned and usually deprived of a range of The United States of America —commonly referred to as the In England, Wales and Northern Ireland, school governors are members of a school's Governing Body
Although the legal and administrative framework of provinces, each administrated by a governor, was created by the Romans, the term governor has been a convenient term for historians to use in describing similar systems in antiquity. A province is a territorial unit almost always an Administrative division. Ancient Rome was a Civilization that grew out of a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 10th century BC "Ancient" redirects here For other uses see Ancient_(disambiguation. Indeed, many regions of the pre-Roman antiquity were ultimately replaced by Roman 'standardized' provincial governments after their conquest by Rome.
Assyria, a ruthless conqueror of a large empire, . . .
From the creation of the earliest Roman subject provinces a governor was appointed each year to administer each of them. See also the related deity Satrapes. Satrap (Persian ساتراپ was the name given to the governors of the Provinces of ancient The Medes were an ancient Iranian people who lived in the northwestern portions of present-day Iran. The Persian Empire was a series of Iranian empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the original Persian homeland and beyond in Western Asia Alexander the Great ( or, Mégas Aléxandros; July 20 356 BC June 10 or June 11 323 BC also known as Alexander III of Macedon (el Ἀλέξανδρος Γ' The Diadochi (plural of Latin Diadochus, from Greek Διάδοχοι, Diadokhoi, "successors" were the rival successors The Seleucid Empire /sə'lusɪd/ ( 312 - 63 BC) was a Hellenistic empire i The Ptolemaic dynasty (sometimes also known as the Lagids, from the name of Ptolemy I's father Lagus) was a Hellenistic Macedonian royal family The Persian Empire was a series of Iranian empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the original Persian homeland and beyond in Western Asia Parthia ( Middle Persian: اشکانیان Ashkâniân) was an Iranian civilization situated in the northeastern part of modern Iran The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Dynasty or Sassanian Dynasty (ساسانیان) is the name used for the third Iranian dynasty and the second Persian empire A Roman governor was an official either elected or appointed to be the chief administrator of Roman law throughout one or more of the many provinces constituting the The core function of a Roman governor was as a magistrate or judge, and the management of taxation and public spending in their area. A magistrate is a judicial officer In Common law systems a magistrate usually has limited authority to administer and enforce the Law.
Under the Republic and the early Empire, however, a governor also commanded military forces in his province. Republican governors were all men who had served in senior magistracies (the consulate or praetorship) in Rome in the previous year, and carried related titles as governor (proconsul or propraetor). Consul (abbrev cos; Latin plural consules) was the highest elected office of the Roman Republic and an appointive office under the Empire Praetor was a title granted by the government of Ancient Rome to men acting in one of two official capacities the commander of an Army, either before The first Emperor, Octavianus Augustus (who acquired or settled a number of new territories; officially his style was republican: Princeps civitatis), divided the provinces into two categories; the traditionally prestigious governorships remained as before (in what have become known as "senatorial" provinces), while in a range of others he retained the formal governorships himself, delegating the actual task of administration to appointees (usually with the title legatus Augusti, although some small provinces received governors with other titles such as procurator). The Principate is the first period of the Roman Empire, extending from the beginning of the reign of Caesar Augustus to the Crisis of the Third Century, The infamous character of Pontius Pilate in the Christian Gospels is a governor of this sort. This article is about the canonical books of the New Testament
A special case was Egypt, a rich 'private' domain and vital granary, where the Emperor almost inherited the theocratic status of a Pharaoh. The Emperor was represented there by a governor sui generis styled Praefectus Augustalis (the very title evokes the religious cult of the Emperor).
Emperors Diocletian (see Tetrarchy) and Constantine in the third and fourth centuries AD carried out a root and branch reorganisation of the administration with two main features:
The prestige governorships of Africa and Asia remained with the title proconsul, and the special right to refer matters directly to the Emperor; the Praefectus Augustalis in Alexandria and the Comes Orientis in Antioch also retained special titles. Otherwise the governors of provinces had various titles without obvious logic, some known as consularis, some as corrector, some as praeses. Consularis is a Latin word derived from cattle Roman history Originally it was simple and adjective meaning "consular" but more interestingly it has also become A corrector (English plural Correctors) is a person who or object that practices Correction, usually by removing or rectifying errors Apart from Egypt and the East (Oriens - viz greater Syria), each diocese was directed by a governor known as a vicarius. The prefectures were directed by praefecti praetorio (a role transformed from a very different one in the early Empire).
This system survived with few significant changes until the collapse of the empire in the West, and in the East the breakdown of order with the Persian and Arab invasions of the seventh century. At that stage a new kind of governor emerged, the Strategos a role leading the themes which replaced provinces at this point, and involving a return to the amalgamation of civil and military office which had been the practice under the Republic and the early Empire. For the board game see Stratego. "Strategus" redirects here
While the Roman administration in the West was largely destroyed in the barbarian invasions, its model was remembered, and would again be very influential through two particular vehicles: Roman law and the Christian Church.
In the Ottoman empire, all Pashas (generals) administered a province of the Great Sultan's vast empire, with specific titles (such as Mutessaryf; Vali = Wali was often maintained or even revived in oriental successor states; cfr. Reichskommissar (rendered as Commissionary of the Empire or as Reich - or Imperial Commissioner) in German history, was an official gubernatorial Pasha or pacha, formerly bashaw, (paşa پاشا ( Persian: پاشا ( Armenian: Փաշա was a high rank in the Ottoman Empire Wali (Arabic ولي, plural Awliya ' أولياء) is an Arabic word meaning trusted one or friend generally denoting Succession of states is a theory in International relations regarding the recognition and acceptance of a newly created State by other states based on Beilerbei (rendered as Governor-general, as he is appointed above several provinces under individual governors) and Dey)
In the British Empire a governor was originally an official appointed by the British monarch (or in fact the cabinet) to oversee one of his colonies and was the (sometimes notional) head of the colonial administration. Dey (Arabic داي from Turkish Dayı) was the title given to the rulers of the Regency of Algiers ( Algeria) and Tunis ( Tunisia) under Heligoland (Helgoland Heligolandic: deät Lun) is a small German Archipelago in the North Sea. The British Empire was the largest empire in history and for over a century was the foremost global power. The British Overseas Territories are fourteen territories that are under the Sovereignty of the United Kingdom, but which do not form part of the United Kingdom A governor's power could diminish as the colony gained more responsible government vested in such institutions as an Executive Council to help with the colony's administration, and in a further stage of self-government, a Legislative Councils and/or Assemblies, in which the Governor often had a role. A Legislative Council is the name given to the legislatures or one of the chambers of the legislature of many nations and colonies Legislative Assembly is the name given in some countries to either a Legislature, or to one of its chambers.
Today crown colonies of the United Kingdom continue to be administered by a governor, who holds varying degrees of power. Because of the different constitutional histories of the former colonies of the United Kingdom, the term "Governor" now refers to officials with differing amounts of power. A constitution is a system for government often Codified as a written document that establishes the rules and principles of an autonomous political entity The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located
Administrators, Commissioners and High Commissioners exercise similar powers to Governors. An Administrator ( Administrator of the Government, Officer Administering the Government) in the constitutional practice of some countries in the Commonwealth Commissioner is a designation that may be used for a variety of official positions especially referring to a high-ranked public (administrative or Police) official or an analogous High Commissioner is the title of various high-ranking special executive positions held by a commission of appointment (Note: such High Commissioners are not to be confused with the High Commissioners who are the equivalent of Ambassadors between Commonwealth states). An ambassador is the highest ranking Diplomat who represents their country
Frequently the name 'Government House' is given to Governors' residences. Government House is the name given to some of the residences of Governors-General, Governors and Lieutenant-Governors in the Commonwealth and the
In the United Kingdom's remaining overseas territories the governor is normally a direct appointee of the British Government and plays an active role in governing and lawmaking (though usually with the advice of elected local representatives). The British Overseas Territories are fourteen territories that are under the Sovereignty of the United Kingdom, but which do not form part of the United Kingdom The Governor's chief responsibility is for the Defence and External Affairs of the colony.
In some minor overseas territories, instead of a Governor, there is an Administrator or Commissioner, or the job is ex officio done by a High Commissioner. An Administrator ( Administrator of the Government, Officer Administering the Government) in the constitutional practice of some countries in the Commonwealth Commissioner is a designation that may be used for a variety of official positions especially referring to a high-ranked public (administrative or Police) official or an analogous High Commissioner is the title of various high-ranking special executive positions held by a commission of appointment
In Australia, each state has the governor as its formal representative of the Queen as head of the state government. The Governors of the Australian states are the representatives in the six states of Australia of Australia's monarch Queen Elizabeth II. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. It is not a political office but a ceremonial office. Each state governor is appointed by the Queen of Australia on the advice of the Premier who is the political chief executive of the state government (until 1986, they were appointed by the Queen of the United Kingdom on the advice of the British Government). TalkCommonewalth realm.-->The monarchy A premier is a title for the Head of government in some countries TalkCommonewalth realm.--> The monarchy State Governors have emergency reserve powers but these are rarely used. The Territories of Australia other than the ACT have Administrators instead of governors, who are appointed formally by the Governor-General. The Commonwealth of Australia is made up of 8 states and territories controlled under a federal system of government The title Administrator of the Government ( Administrator) has several uses in Australia. The Governor-General is the representative of and appointed by the Queen of Australia at a federal level on the advice of the Prime Minister of Australia. TalkCommonewalth realm.-->The monarchy The Prime Minister of Australia is the Head of government of the Commonwealth of Australia, holding office on commission from the Governor-General.
As with the Governors-General of Australia and other Commonwealth Realms, State Governors usually exercise their power only on the advice of a government minister.
The Governor-General of New Zealand is always Governor of the Ross Dependency, an Antarctic sector which is claimed by the Realm of New Zealand. The Governor-General of New Zealand (Te Kawana Tianara o Aotearoa is the representative of the Sovereign in right of New Zealand (currently Queen The Ross Dependency comprises an area of Antarctica (and other land masses in the Southern Ocean) claimed by New Zealand. The Realm of New Zealand is the territory in which the Queen in right of New Zealand is head of state
There was a position of Governor of Northern Ireland from 1922 until the suspension of Stormont in 1973. The Governor of Northern Ireland was the principal officer and representative in Northern Ireland of the British monarch. The Parliament of Northern Ireland was the home rule Legislature of Northern Ireland, created under the Government of Ireland Act 1920,
In India each state has a ceremonial Governor appointed by the President of India. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country These Governors are different from the Governors who controlled the British-controlled portions of the Indian Empire (as opposed to the princely states) prior to 1949. See Governors of India for more information. The Governors and Lieutenant-Governors of the States and territories of India have similar powers and functions at the state level as that of the President of
In Malaysia the four non-monarchical states -Penang, Malacca, and the two on Borneo: Sabah and Sarawak- each have a ceremonial Governor styled Yang di-Pertua Negeri, appointed by the federal King Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaysia, with a seat but no vote in the federal majlis Raja-raja (council of rulers). For the biogeographical region see Malesia Malaysia (məˈleɪʒə or /məˈleɪziə/ is a country that consists of thirteen states and Penang (pəˈnæŋ Malay: Pulau Pinang) is a state in Malaysia, located on the northwest coast of Peninsular Malaysia Sabah is a Malaysian state located on the northern portion of the island of Borneo. Sarawak is one of two Malaysian states on the Island of Borneo. Yang di-Pertua Negeri, literally the "head of state" in Malay, is the official title of the (largely symbolic State Governors of the Malaysian The Yang di-Pertuan Agong is the highest ranking office created by the constitution of the federation of Malaysia These states have a separate head of government who is the Chief Minister or Ketua Menteri. A Chief Minister is the elected Head of government of a sub-national (e
All other states have royalty as head of state, no governor: a raja in Perlis, a Yang di-pertuan besar (elected from local rulers) in Negeri Sembilan, or a Sultan in the states of Selangor, Pahang, Johore, Perak, Kelantan, Terengganu and Kedah. For other uses see Raja (disambiguation and Rajah (disambiguation. In Malay Yang di-Pertuan Besar, literally "He Who Is Made Great " or "Great Ruler", is a royal Title. Sultan (سلطان is an Islamic title with several historical meanings
In Nigeria (once a colony governed by a single British Governor before independence), the leaders of the regions, which in 1967 were divided into states, have been known as governors since 1954. Nigeria, officially named the Federal Republic of Nigeria, is a federal Constitutional republic comprising thirty-six states and one Federal Following a military coup in November 1993, President Sani Abacha suspended all the governors, and appointed administrators. General Sani Abacha ( Kano, 20 September 1943 &ndash Abuja, 8 June 1998) was a Nigerian military leader and politician When democracy was restored in 1999, the office of governor was revived and new governors were elected. The president of Nigeria can suspend state governors in a state of emergency and replace them with administrators. They are elected by popular vote.
In Papua New Guinea, the leaders of the provinces have been known as governors since August 1995. Pakistan () officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country located in South Asia, Southwest Asia, Middle East and The Prime Minister of Pakistan, in Urdu وزیر اعظم Wazir-e- Azam meaning "Grand Minister", is the Head of Government Papua New Guinea (or ˈpæpjuːə in Tok Pisin: Papua Niugini) officially the Independent State of Papua New Guinea, is a country in Oceania Previously they had been known as premiers.
The provinces of Sri Lanka (formerly Ceylon, a colony governed by a single British Governor before independence) are led by governors, as representatives of the President. Sri Lanka, officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka ( Sinhalese:, இலங்கை known as Ceylon before 1972 is an Island The President of Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka is the elected Head of state and the Head of government. These Governors are different from the Governor of Ceylon who controlled the British Ceylon prior to 1948. British Ceylon refers to the British rule in the island territory known as Sri Lanka since 1798
A special case was the Chinese Eastern Railroad Zone, which was governed as a concession granted by Imperial China to the Russian 'Chinese Eastern Railroad Society' (in Russian Obshchestvo Kitayskoy Vostochnoy Zheleznoy Dorogi; established in 17 December 1896 in St. Petersburg, later moved to Vladivostok), which built 1,481 km of tracks (Tarskaya - Hilar - Harbin - Nikolsk-Ussuriski; 3 November 1901 traffic opened) and established on 16 May 1898 the new capital city, Harbin; in August 1898, the defense for Chinese Eastern Railroad (CER) across Manchuria was assumed by Russia (first under Priamur governor). In International law, a concession is a territory within a Country that is administered by another entity than the State which holds Sovereignty Chinese civilization originated in various city-states along the Yellow River ( valley in the Neolithic era Events 546 - Gothic War (535–554: The Ostrogoths of King Totila Year 1896 ( MDCCCXCVI) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap year Saint Petersburg ( tr: Sankt-Peterburg,) is a city and a federal subject of Russia located on the Neva River Vladivostok ( is Russia 's largest port city on the Pacific Ocean and the administrative center of Primorsky Krai. Events 644 - Umar ibn al-Khattab, the second Muslim Caliph, is killed by a Persian slave in Medina. Year 1901 ( MCMI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting Events 1204 - Baldwin IX Count of Flanders is crowned as the first Emperor of the Latin Empire. Year 1898 ( MDCCCXCVIII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common ( Russian Kharbin) is a Sub-provincial city and the Capital of the Heilongjiang Province in Northeast China. Manchuria ( Romanized Manchu: Manju,, Маньчжурия Mongolian: Манж is a historical name given to a vast geographic region in northeast
On 1 July 1903, the Chinese Eastern Railroad was opened and given authority of its own CER Administration (Russian: Upravleniye KVZhD), vested in the Directors of the Chinese Eastern Railroad, with the additional quality of Governors of the Chinese Eastern Railroad Zone (in Harbin; as such being 12 August 1903 - 1 July 1905 subordinated to the imperial Viceroyalty of the Far East, see Lüshunkou). "July 1st" redirects here For the Ayumi Hamasaki song see H (song. Year 1903 ( MCMIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display calendar of the Gregorian calendar or a Common year starting Events 1099 - First Crusade: Battle of Ascalon - Crusaders under the command of Godfrey of Bouillon defeat Fatimid Year 1903 ( MCMIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display calendar of the Gregorian calendar or a Common year starting "July 1st" redirects here For the Ayumi Hamasaki song see H (song. Year 1905 ( MCMV) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting Lüshun city or Lüshunkou or (literally Lüshun Port ( formerly known as both Port Arthur and Ryojun, is a town located at the extreme southern The post continued to function despite various political changes until after World War II. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including
Currently, some of the administrative divisions of Russia are headed by governors, while others are headed by Presidents or heads of administration. Being the largest country in the world spanning a large percentage of Eurasia, and one of the most populated Russia is divided into several types and levels of From 1991 to 2005 they were elected by popular vote, but since 2005 they have been appointed by the federal president and confirmed by the province's legislature.
The same goes for the Empire of Japan and the USA. The Italian colonial empire was created after the Kingdom of Italy joined other European powers in establishing colonies overseas during the " Scramble for Africa The Portuguese Empire was the earliest and longest lived of the modern European colonial empires spanning almost six centuries from the capture of Ceuta The Spanish Empire (Imperio Español was one of the largest Empires in history and one of the first Global empires In the 15th and 16th centuries Sweden possessed overseas colonies from 1638 to 1663 and from 1784 to 1878.
In Japan, the title "Governor" (知事 chiji?) refers to the highest ranking executive of a Prefectural Government. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. For subsequent types of praefectura, see Prefect. Prefecture (from the Latin Praefectura) indicates the office The Governor is elected by a direct vote from the people and had a fixed term of four years. He / she can be subjected to a recall referendum. In case of death, disability, or resignation, a government official known as Vice Governor would stand in as Governor or acting Governor.
See List of governors of Japan for a list of the current governors. This is a list of the current (as of October 2007 Governors of Japan
In the People's Republic of China, the title "Governor" (省长) refers to the highest ranking executive of a Provincial Government. Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES A province, in the context of China, is a translation of sheng ( which is an administrative division The Governor is usually placed second in the provincial power hierarchy, below the Secretary of the provincial Communist Party of China (CPC) committee (省委书记), who serves as the highest ranking Party official in the Province. In Politics, a party secretary is a senior official within a Political party with responsibility for the organizational and daily political work The Communist Party of China ( CPC) ( also known as the Chinese Communist Party ( CCP) is the founding and ruling political party of the A Governor can be also used when referring to a County Governor (县长). In the context of Political divisions of China, county is the standard English translation of 县 ( xiàn)
In the Republic of the Philippines, the title "Governor" refers to the highest ranking executive of a Provincial Government. The Philippines ( Filipino: Pilipinas, officially known as the Republic of the Philippines (fil ''Republika ng Pilipinas'' RP The provinces of the Philippines are the primary administrative divisions of the Philippines. The Governor is elected by a direct vote from the people and had a fixed term of three years. An incumbent Governor can only serve only up to three consecutive terms. He may however be suspended by either the Ombudsman or President (through the Secretary of Interior and Local Government). He may be removed by the President if he was found guilty of an administrative case or a criminal act during his incumbency. He can be subjected by a recall vote, but unlike a referendum, people would elect the governor of their choice. If in case of death, disability, resignation, forced removal or suspension, a government official known as Vice Governor would replace as Governor or acting Governor.
In the Autonomous Region on Muslim Mindanao, a Regional Governor and Regional Vice Governor is elected by a block vote similar to the United States President. Geography The region is divided into two geographical areas &ndash the Mindanao mainland and the Sulu Archipelago.
In the United States, the title governor refers to the chief executive of each state, not directly subordinate to the federal authorities, but the political and ceremonial head of the state. The following is a list of incumbent United States Governors. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the A chief executive officer ( CEO) or chief executive is typically the highest-ranking corporate officer ( executive) or administrator A US state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of the United States of America that share Sovereignty with the federal government
The United States Constitution preserves the notion that the country is a federation of sovereign states, and that powers not specifically granted to the federal government are retained by the states - states are therefore not merely provinces or subdivisions of federal administration. The Constitution of the United States of America is the supreme Law of the United States. State governments in the U. S. are therefore relatively powerful; each state has its own independent criminal and civil law codes, and each state manages its internal government.
The governor thus heads the executive branch in each state and, depending on the state, may have considerable control over government budgeting, the power of appointment of many officials (including many judges) and a considerable role in legislation. The governor may also have additional roles, such as that of Commander-in-Chief of the state's National Guard (when not federalized), and in many states the governor has partial or absolute power to commute or pardon a criminal sentence. A commander-in-chief is the Commander of a nation's Military forces or significant element of those forces For the National Guard of a State and other countries' National Guard see National Guard. Commutation of sentence involves the reduction of legal penalties, especially in terms of imprisonment. A pardon is the forgiveness of a crime and the penalty associated with it The term criminal law, sometimes called penal law, refers to any of various bodies of rules in different Jurisdictions whose common characteristic is the potential In Law, a sentence forms the final act of a Judge -ruled process and also the symbolic principal act connected to his function U. S. Governors serve four-year terms except those in New Hampshire and Vermont, who serve two-year terms. New Hampshire ( is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States of America. Vermont ( is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States of America.
In all states, the governor is directly elected, and in most cases has considerable practical powers, though this may be moderated by the state legislature and in some cases by other elected executive officials. In the United States of America, a state legislature is a generic term referring to the legislative body of any of the country's 50 states. They can veto state bills. A veto, Latin for "I forbid" is used to Denote that a certain party has the right to stop unilaterally a certain piece of Legislation. In some cases legislatures can override a gubernatorial veto by a two-thirds vote, in others by three-fifths. In Tennessee and Kentucky, the governor's veto can be overridden by a simple majority vote, making it virtually useless, though they both have a line-item veto. Tennessee ( is a state located in the Southern United States. The Commonwealth of Kentucky ( is a state located in the East Central United States of America. In Government, the line-item veto is the power of an executive to nullify or "cancel" specific provisions of a bill usually budget appropriations without The Governor of North Carolina had no veto power until a 1996 referendum. The Governor of North Carolina is the top executive of the government of the U In most states, whenever there is a sudden vacancy of one of the state's U.S. Senate seats, that state's governor appoints someone to fill the vacancy until a special election is held, although the governors of Oregon, Massachusetts and Alaska no longer have this power. The United States Senate is the Upper house of the bicameral United States Congress, the Lower house being the House of Representatives A by-election or bye-election (called special election in the United States) is an Election held to fill a political office that has become vacant Oregon ( is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. The Commonwealth of Massachusetts ( is a state located in the New England region of the northeastern United States. Alaska ( Аляска Alyaska) is a state in the United States of America, in the northwest of the North American continent
A state governor may give an annual State of the State Address in order to satisfy a constitutional stipulation that a governor must report annually, or in older constitutions described as being "from time to time," on the state or condition of a U. The State of the State Address is a speech customarily given once each Year by the Governors of most states of the United States. S. state. Governors of states may also perform ceremonial roles, such as greeting dignitaries, conferring state decorations, issuing symbolic proclamations or attending the state fair. A state fair is a competitive and recreational gathering of a U The governor may also have an official residence. An official residence is the residence at which Heads of state, Heads of government, gubernatorial or other senior figures officially
In colonial America, when the governor was the representative of the monarch who exercised executive power, many colonies originally indirectly elected their governors (that is, through assemblies and legislatures), but in the years leading up to the American Revolutionary War, the Crown began to appoint them directly. In this article the inhabitants of the thirteen colonies that supported the American Revolution are primarily referred to as "Americans" with occasional references to "Patriots" During the American Revolution, all royal governors were expelled (except one, see Jonathan Trumbull), but the name was retained to denote the new elected official. Jonathan Trumbull Sr ( 12 October 1710 17 August 1785) (Originally spelled Jonathan Trumble was changed for an unknown reason was
Many of the fifty states were, before achieving statehood, territories. Territories of the United States are one type of political division of the United States, administered by the U Administrated by the federal government, they had governors who were appointed by Washington, D.C., rather than elected by the resident population. Washington DC ( formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D
In the United Mexican States, governor refers to the elected chief and head of each of the the nation's thirty one Free and Sovereign States, and their official title in Spanish is Gobernador. The United Mexican States ( or commonly Mexico (ˈmɛksɪkoʊ () is a federal constitutional Republic in North America. The United Mexican States ( or commonly Mexico (ˈmɛksɪkoʊ () is a federal constitutional Republic in North America. The United Mexican States (or Mexico) is a union of 31 thirty one States and one Federal District (the Mexican Federal District, or Distrito Mexican governors are directly elected by the citizens of each state for six-year terms.
Many of the South American republics (such as Chile and Argentina) have provinces or states run by elected governors, with offices similar in nature to U. The United Mexican States (or Mexico) is a union of 31 thirty one States and one Federal District (the Mexican Federal District, or Distrito South America is a Continent of the Americas, situated entirely in the Western Hemisphere and mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a Chile, officially the Republic of Chile ( Spanish:) is a country in South America occupying a long and narrow Coastal strip wedged between the For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Argentina topics. S. state governors.
Until the 1930 Revolution, the heads of the Brazilian Provinces then States were styled Presidents (presidentes), later governors (governadores) and intervators (interventores, appointed by the federal government) and finally in 1945 only governors. Depression coffee oligarchs and the Revolution of 1930 The Great Depression The ''tenente'' rebellion did not mark the revolutionary breakthrough of Brazil's A province is a territorial unit almost always an Administrative division. The Federative Republic of Brazil is a union of twenty-six estados ("states" singular estado) and formed by the states and one district the Distrito
During the Ancien Régime in France, the representative of the king in his provinces and cities was the "gouverneur". The Ancien Régime, a French term rendered in English as “Old Rule” “Old Kingdom” or simply “Old Regime” refers primarily to the aristocratic The Kingdom of France was organised into Provinces until March 4, 1790, when the establishment of the département Royal officers chosen from the highest nobility, provincial and city governors (oversight of provinces and cities was frequently combined) were predominantly military positions in charge of defense and policing. The Nobility (la noblesse in France, in the Middle Ages and the Early Modern period had specific legal and financial rights and Provincial governors — also called "lieutenants généraux" — also had the ability of convoking provincial parlements, provincial estates and municipal bodies. This article is for the Ancien Régime institution For the post-Revolutionary and present-day institution see French Parliament. The title "gouverneur" first appeared under Charles VI. Charles VI (3 December 1368 &ndash 21 October 1422 called the Well-loved (le Bien-Aimé and the Mad (French le Fol or le Fou) was the The ordinance of Blois of 1579 reduced their number to 12, but an ordinance of 1779 increased their number to 39 (18 first-class governors, 21 second-class governors). Although in principle they were the king's representatives and their charges could be revoked at the king's will, some governors had installed themselves and their heirs as a provincial dynasty. The governors were at the height of their power from the middle of the 16th to the middle of the 17th century, but their role in provincial unrest during the civil wars led Cardinal Richelieu to create the more tractable positions of intendants of finance, policing and justice, and in the 18th century the role of provincial governors was greatly curtailed. This article is about a cardinal For information on the Russian also called The Red Eminence, see Mikhail Andreyevich Suslov. The title of intendant (intendant Spanish intendente) has been used in a number of countries through history
As a GENERIC term, Governor is used for various 'equivalent' officers governing part of a state or empire, rendering other official titles such as:
And this also applies to non-western and/or antique cultures
The word governor can also refer to an administrator and/or supervisor (individually or collectively, see Board of Governors) in the socio-economic spheres of life; the single Governor of a national emission bank often holds ministerial rank. High Commissioner is the title of various high-ranking special executive positions held by a commission of appointment