Gothic architecture is a style of architecture which flourished during the high and late medieval period. The term architecture (from Greek αρχιτεκτονικήarchitektoniki) can be used to mean a process a profession or documentation It evolved from Romanesque architecture and was succeeded by Renaissance architecture. Regional characteristics of Romanesque architecture|Romanesque art Romanesque architecture is the term that is used to describe the architecture of Middle Ages Europe which Renaissance architecture is the architecture of the period between the early 15th and early 17th centuries in different regions of Europe in which there was a
Originating in 12th-century France and lasting into the 16th century, Gothic architecture was known during the period as "the French Style" (Opus Francigenum), with the term Gothic first appearing during the latter part of the Renaissance as a stylistic insult. The Renaissance (from French Renaissance, meaning "rebirth" Italian: Rinascimento, from re- "again" and nascere Its characteristic features include the pointed arch, the ribbed vault and the flying buttress. An ogive ("Oh-jive" is a curved shape figure or feature The intersection of two or three Barrel vaults produces a rib-vault or ribbed vault when they are edged with piped masonry often carved in decorative patterns A flying buttress, or arc-boutant, is a specific type of Buttress usually found on a religious building such as a Cathedral.
Gothic architecture is most familiar as the architecture of many of the great cathedrals, abbeys and parish churches of Europe. This article is about the history and organisation of the cathedral An abbey (from Latin abbatia derived from Syriac abba "father" is a Christian Monastery or It is also the architecture of many castles, palaces, town halls, guild halls, universities, and to a less prominent extent, private dwellings. A castle is a defensive structure seen as one of the main symbols of the Middle Ages. A palace is a grand residence especially the home of a Head of state or some other high-ranking Public figure. A city hall or town hall is the chief administrative building of a City or Town 's administration and usually houses the city or A guild is an association of craftsmen in a particular trade The earliest guilds were formed as confraternities of workers A university is an institution of Higher education and Research, which grants Academic degrees in a variety of subjects House generally refers to a Shelter or Building that is a Dwelling or place for Habitation by Human beings.
It is in the great churches and cathedrals and in a number of civic buildings that the Gothic style was expressed most powerfully, its characteristics lending themselves to appeal to the emotions. A great number of ecclesiastical buildings remain from this period, of which even the smallest are often structures of architectural distinction while many of the larger churches are considered priceless works of art and are listed with UNESCO as World Heritage Sites. United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization ( UNESCO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established on November 16 A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a site (such as a Forest, Mountain, Lake, Desert, Monument, Building, complex For this reason a study of Gothic architecture is largely a study of cathedrals and churches.
A series of Gothic revivals began in mid-18th century England, spread through 19th-century Europe and continued, largely for ecclesiastical and university structures, into the 20th century. The Gothic Revival is an architectural movement which began England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland
The term "Gothic", when applied to architecture, has nothing to do with the historical Goths. The Goths ( Gothic: Gothic usvg|14px|u]]Gothic asvg|14px|a]]Gothic s It was a pejorative term that came to be used as early as the 1530s by Giorgio Vasari to describe culture that was considered rude and barbaric. Words and phrases are pejorative if they imply disapproval or contempt Giorgio Vasari ( 30 July 1511 – 27 June 1574) was an Italian painter and Architect, who is today famous  At the time in which Vasari was writing, Italy had experienced a century of building in the Classical architectural vocabulary revived in the Renaissance and seen as the finite evidence of a new Golden Age of learning and refinement. Renaissance architecture is the architecture of the period between the early 15th and early 17th centuries in different regions of Europe in which there was a The term Golden age is best known from Greek mythology and legend but can also be found in other ancient cultures (see below
The Renaissance had then overtaken Europe, overturning a system of culture that, prior to the advent of printing, was almost entirely focused on the Church and was perceived, in retrospect, as a period of ignorance and superstition. The Renaissance (from French Renaissance, meaning "rebirth" Italian: Rinascimento, from re- "again" and nascere Hence, François Rabelais, also of the 16th century, imagines an inscription over the door of his Utopian Abbey of Thélème, "Here enter no hypocrites, bigots. Utopia is a name for an ideal community taken from the title of a book written in 1516 by Sir Thomas More describing a fictional Island in the . . " slipping in a slighting reference to "Gotz" and "Ostrogotz. "
In English 17th-century usage, "Goth" was an equivalent of "vandal", a savage despoiler with a Germanic heritage and so came to be applied to the architectural styles of northern Europe from before the revival of classical types of architecture.
According to a 19th-century correspondent in the London Journal Notes and Queries:
There can be no doubt that the term 'Gothic' as applied to pointed styles of ecclesiastical architecture was used at first contemptuously, and in derision, by those who were ambitious to imitate and revive the Grecian orders of architecture, after the revival of classical literature. Notes and Queries (originally subtitled "a medium of inter-communication for literary men artists antiquaries, Genealogists etc") Authorities such as Christopher Wren lent their aid in deprecating the old mediæval style, which they termed Gothic, as synonymous with every thing that was barbarous and rude. Sir Christopher Wren ( 20 October 1632 &ndash 25 February 1723) was a 17th century English Designer, Astronomer 
On 21 July 1710, the Académie d'Architecture met in Paris, and among the subjects they discussed, the assembled company noted the new fashions of bowed and cusped arches on chimneypieces being employed "to finish the top of their openings. Events 356 BC - Herostratus sets fire to the Temple of Artemis in Ephesus, one of the Seven Wonders of the World Year 1710 ( MDCCX) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar or a Common year The Company disapproved of several of these new manners, which are defective and which belong for the most part to the Gothic. "
At the end of the 12th century Europe was divided into a multitude of city-states and kingdoms. The area encompassing modern Germany, The Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, Switzerland, Austria, eastern France and much of northern Italy, excluding Venice, was nominally under the authority of the Holy Roman Empire, but local rulers exercised considerable autonomy. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands The Kingdom of Belgium is a Country in northwest Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts its headquarters as well as those Luxembourg (Groussherzogtum Lëtzebuerg Grand-Duché de Luxembourg Großherzogtum Luxemburg is a small Landlocked country in Western Europe, bordered by Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation Austria (Österreich ( officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Venice ( Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venesia or Venexia) is a city in Northern Italy, the capital of the The Holy Roman Empire ( HRE; German Heiliges Römisches Reich (HRR, Latin Sacrum Romanum Imperium (SRI was a union of territories in France, Spain and Sicily were independent kingdoms, as was England, whose Plantagenet kings ruled large domains in France. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Sicily ( Italian and Sicilian: Sicilia) is an autonomous region of Italy. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland The term Angevin Empire describes a collection of states ruled by the Angevin Plantagenet dynasty  Norway came under the influence of England, while the other Scandinavian countries and Poland were influenced by Germany. Norway ( Norwegian: Norge ( Bokmål) or Noreg ( Nynorsk) officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Constitutional Terminology and usage As a cultural term "Scandinavia" has no official definition and is subject to usage by those who identify with the culture in question as well Poland (Polska officially the Republic of Poland
Throughout Europe at this time there was a rapid growth in trade and an associated growth in towns.  Germany and the Lowlands had large flourishing towns that grew in comparative peace, in trade and competition with each other, or united for mutual weal, as in the Hanseatic League. Civic building was of great importance to these towns as a sign of wealth and pride. England and France remained largely feudal and produced grand domestic architecture for their dukes, rather than grand town halls for their burghers. Feudalism, a term first used in the early modern period (17th century in its most classic sense refers to a Medieval Europe Political system composed
A further regional influence was the availability of materials. In France, limestone was readily available in several grades, the very fine white limestone of Caen being favoured for sculptural decoration. Limestone is a Sedimentary rock composed largely of the Mineral Calcite ( Calcium carbonate: CaCO3 Caen (kɑ̃ is a commune in northwestern France. It is the Prefecture of the Calvados department and the capital of the England had coarse limestone, red sandstone as well as dark green Purbeck marble which was often used for architectural features. Sandstone is a Sedimentary rock composed mainly of Sand -size Mineral or rock grains. Purbeck Marble is a Fossiliferous Limestone quarried in the Isle of Purbeck, a Peninsula in south-east Dorset, England
In Northern Germany, Netherlands, Scandinavia, Baltic countries and northern Poland local building stone was unavailable but there was a strong tradition of building in brick. The resultant style, Brick Gothic, is called "Backsteingotik" in Germany and Scandinavia. Brick Gothic (Backsteingotik is a reduced style of Gothic architecture common in Northern Europe, especially in Northern Germany and the regions around
In Italy, stone was used for fortifications, but brick was preferred for other buildings. Because of the extensive and varied deposits of marble, many buildings were faced in marble, or were left with undecorated facades so that this might be achieved at a later date.
The availability of timber also influenced the style of architecture. It is thought that the magnificent hammer-beam roofs of England were devised as a direct response to the lack of long straight seasoned timber by the end of the Medieval period, when forests had been decimated not only for the construction of vast roofs but also for ship building. Hammerbeam roof, in Architecture, the name given to a Gothic open Timber Roof, of which the finest example is that over Westminster 
The early Medieval periods had seen a rapid growth in monasticism, with several different orders being prevalent and spreading their influence widely. Regional characteristics of Romanesque architecture|Romanesque art Romanesque architecture is the term that is used to describe the architecture of Middle Ages Europe which The Abbey of Cluny (or Cluni, or Clugny, pronunciation klyˈni is an abbey in France. Foremost were the Benedictines whose great abbey churches vastly outnumbered any others in England. Benedictine refers to the Spirituality and Consecrated life in accordance with the Rule of St Benedict, written by Benedict of Nursia in Part of their influence was that they tended to build within towns, unlike the Cistercians whose ruined abbeys are seen in the remote countryside. The Cluniac and Cistercian Orders were prevalent in France, the great monastery at Cluny having established a formula for a well planned monastic site which was then to influence all subsequent monastic building for many centuries. The Cluniac (Clunian Reform was a series of changes within medieval monasticism, focused on restoring the traditional Monastic life encouraging art and caring for The town and commune of Cluny or Clugny lies in the modern-day département of Saône-et-Loire in the région
In the 13th century St. Francis of Assisi established the Franciscans, or so-called "Grey Friars", a mendicant order. For the opera by Olivier Messiaen see Saint-François d'Assise. The term Franciscan is commonly used to refer to members of Catholic Its off-shoot, the Dominicans, founded by St. Dominic in Toulouse and Bologna, were particularly influential in the building of Italy's Gothic churches. The Order of Preachers ( Latin: Ordo Praedicatorum) after the 15th century more commonly known as the Dominican Order or Dominicans, is The Basilica of San Domenico is one of the major churches in Bologna, Italy Toulouse ( pronounced in standard French, and in the local accent ( Occitan: Tolosa, pronounced) is a city in southwest Bologna (boloɲa from Latin Bononia, Bulåggna in Bolognese dialect is the capital city of Emilia-Romagna in northern Italy 
Gothic architecture grew out of the previous architectural genre, Romanesque. Regional characteristics of Romanesque architecture|Romanesque art Romanesque architecture is the term that is used to describe the architecture of Middle Ages Europe which For the most part, there was not a clean break, as there was later to be in Renaissance Florence with the sudden revival of the Classical style by Brunelleschi in the early 15th century. The Renaissance (from French Renaissance, meaning "rebirth" Italian: Rinascimento, from re- "again" and nascere Florence ( Italian: Firenze Florentia and Fiorenza) is the Capital City of the Italian region of Tuscany The term Classical architecture has a specific Archaeological meaning relating to the architecture of Classical Greece Filippo Brunelleschi (1377 – April 15, 1446) was one of the foremost architects and engineers of the Italian Renaissance.
Romanesque architecture, or Norman architecture as it is generally termed in England because of its association with the Norman invasion, had already established the basic architectural forms and units that were to remain in slow evolution throughout the Medieval period. Regional characteristics of Romanesque architecture|Romanesque art Romanesque architecture is the term that is used to describe the architecture of Middle Ages Europe which For other buildings in Normandy see Architecture of Normandy. The basic structure of the cathedral church, the parish church, the monastery, the castle, the palace, the great hall and the gatehouse were all established. This article is about the history and organisation of the cathedral This article concerns the buildings occupied by monastics. For the life inside monasteries and its historical roots see Monasticism. A castle is a defensive structure seen as one of the main symbols of the Middle Ages. A palace is a grand residence especially the home of a Head of state or some other high-ranking Public figure. A great hall was the main room of a royal Palace, a Nobleman 's Castle or a large Manor house in the Middle Ages, and A gatehouse is a feature of European Castles Manor houses and Mansions Originally a gatehouse was a fortified structure built over the gateway Ribbed vaults, buttresses, clustered columns, ambulatories, wheel windows, spires and richly carved door tympanums were already features of ecclesiastical architecture. A Vault (French voute Italian volta German Gewölbe Polish sklepienie, Spanish A Rose window (or Catherine window) is often used as a generic term applied to a circular Window, but is especially used for those found in churches 
The widespread introduction of a single feature was to bring about the stylistic change that separates Gothic from Romanesque, and broke the tradition of massive masonry and solid walls penetrated by small openings, replacing it with a style where light appears to triumph over substance. The feature that brought the change is the pointed arch. With its use came the development of many other architectural devices, previously put to the test in scattered buildings and then called into service to meet the structural, aesthetic and ideological needs of the new style. These include the flying buttresses, pinnacles and traceried windows which typify Gothic ecclesiastical architecture. 
The pointed arch had its origins in ancient Assyrian architecture where it occurs in a number of structures as early as 720 BC. See also History of architecture Assyria flourished from the Old Assyrian period in the Middle Bronze Age until the Neo-Assyrian Empire It passed into Sassanian-Persian architecture and from the conquest of Persia in 641 AD, became a standard feature of Islamic architecture. The Persian Empire was a series of Iranian empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the original Persian homeland and beyond in Western Asia Islamic architecture has encompassed a wide range of both secular and religious styles from the foundation of Islam to the present day influencing the design and construction 
The Norman conquest of Islamic Sicily in 1090, the Crusades which began in 1096 and the Islamic presence in Spain all brought about a knowledge of this significant structural device. The Norman conquest of Southern Italy spanned most of the eleventh century involving many battles and many independent players conquering territories of their own The Islamic conquest and rule of Sicily, Malta, and parts of Southern Italy was a process whose origin can be traced back through the general The Crusades were a series of military campaigns of a religious character waged by much of Christian Europe against external and internal opponents Al-Andalus (الأندلس was the Arabic name given to those parts of the Iberian Peninsula governed by Muslims or It is probable also that decorative carved stone screens and window openings filled with pierced stone also influenced Gothic tracery. In Spain in particular individual decorative motifs occur which are common to both Islamic and Christian architectural mouldings and sculpture. 
Concurrent with its introduction and early use as a stylistic feature in French churches, it is believed that the pointed arch evolved naturally in Western Europe as a structural solution to a purely technical problem. (See below: Pointed arch, Origins)
Abbot Suger, friend and confidante of the French Kings, Louis VI and Louis VII, decided in about 1137, to rebuild the great Church of Saint-Denis, attached to an abbey which was also a royal residence. Suger (c 1081 &ndash 13 January 1151) was one of the last French abbot-statesmen a historian and the influential first patron of Gothic architecture Louis VI may refer to Louis VI of France, "the Fat" (1081–1137 Louis VII may refer to Louis VII of France "the Younger" (1120–1180 The Basilica of Saint Denis ( French: Basilique de Saint-Denis, or simply Basilique Saint-Denis) is the burial site of almost all the French
Suger began with the West front, reconstructing the original Carolingian facade with its single door. He designed the façade of Saint-Denis to be an echo of the Roman Arch of Constantine with its three-part division and three large portals to ease the problem of congestion. The Arch of Constantine (Italian Arco di Costantino is a Triumphal arch in Rome, situated between the Colosseum and the Palatine Hill. The rose window is the earliest-known example above the West portal in France. A Rose window (or Catherine window) is often used as a generic term applied to a circular Window, but is especially used for those found in churches
At the completion of the west front in 1140, Abbot Suger moved on to the reconstruction of the eastern end, leaving the Carolingian nave in use. He designed a choir (chancel) that would be suffused with light.  To achieve his aims his architects drew on the several new features which evolved or been introduced to Romanesque architecture, the pointed arch, the ribbed vault, the ambulatory with radiating chapels, the clustered columns supporting ribs springing in different directions and the flying buttresses which enabled the insertion of large clerestory windows. A Vault (French voute Italian volta German Gewölbe Polish sklepienie, Spanish
The new structure was finished and dedicated on June 11, 1144, in the presence of the King. Events 1184 BC - Trojan War: Troy is sacked and burned according to the calculations of Eratosthenes. The Abbey of Saint-Denis thus became the prototype for further building in the royal domain of northern France. It is often cited as the first building in the Gothic style. A hundred years later, the old nave of Saint-Denis was rebuilt in the Gothic style, gaining, in its transepts, two spectacular rose windows. A Rose window (or Catherine window) is often used as a generic term applied to a circular Window, but is especially used for those found in churches 
Through the rule of the Angevin dynasty, the style was introduced to England and spread throughout France, the Low Countries, Germany, Spain and northern of Italy and Sicily. Angevin (ˈændʒəvɪn ( French, from Old French, from Medieval Latin Andegavinus from Andegavia Anjou, France) is the name applied The Low Countries, the historical region of de Nederlanden, are the countries on low-lying land around the delta of the Rhine, Scheldt Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Sicily ( Italian and Sicilian: Sicilia) is an autonomous region of Italy. 
In Gothic architecture, a unique combination of existing technologies established the emergence of a new building style. Those technologies were the ogival or pointed arch, the ribbed vault, and the flying buttress
The Gothic style, when applied to an ecclesiastical building, emphasizes verticality and light. An ogive ("Oh-jive" is a curved shape figure or feature An arch is a structure that spans a space while supporting weight (e This appearance was achieved by the development of certain architectural features, which together provided an engineerical solution. The structural parts of the building ceased to be its solid walls, and became a stone skeleton comprised of clustered columns, pointed ribbed vaults and flying buttresses. A column in Structural engineering is a vertical structural element that transmits through compression, the weight of the structure above to other structural A Vault (French voute Italian volta German Gewölbe Polish sklepienie, Spanish A flying buttress, or arc-boutant, is a specific type of Buttress usually found on a religious building such as a Cathedral. (See below: Light)
A Gothic cathedral or abbey was, prior to the 20th century, generally the landmark building in its town, rising high above all the domestic structures and often surmounted by one or more towers and pinnacles and perhaps tall spires. This article is about the history and organisation of the cathedral An abbey (from Latin abbatia derived from Syriac abba "father" is a Christian Monastery or Towers are tall human-made Structures that are always taller than they are wide usually by a significant Margin. A spire is a tapering conical or pyramidal structure on the top of a building particularly a church Tower. 
Most Gothic churches, unless they are entitled chapels, are of the Latin cross (or "cruciform") plan, with a long nave making the body of the church, a transverse arm called the transept and beyond it, an extension which may be called the choir, chancel or presbytery. A chapel is a holy place or area of Worship for Christians, which may be attached to an institution such as a large church, a College, a The Christian cross is the best-known Religious symbol of Christianity. Full descriptions of the elements of a Gothic floorplan are found at the entry Cathedral diagram. There are several regional variations on this plan.
The nave is generally flanked on either side by aisles, usually singly, but sometimes double. The nave is generally considerably taller than the aisles, having clerestorey windows which light the central space. Gothic churches of the Germanic tradition, like St. Stephen of Vienna, often have nave and aisles of similar height and are called Hallenkirche. St Stephen's Cathedral (Stephansdom is the Mother church of the Archdiocese of Vienna and the seat of the Archbishop of Vienna, Christoph Cardinal A hall church is a church with Nave and side Aisles of approximately equal height often united under a single immense roof In the South of France there is often a single wide nave and no aisles, as at Sainte-Marie in Saint-Bertrand-de-Comminges. Saint-Bertrand-de-Comminges is a commune in the Haute-Garonne department in southwestern France.
In some churches with double aisles, like Notre Dame, Paris, the transept does not project beyond the aisles. NotreDameFlyingButtressjpg|right|thumb|250px|Notre Dame de Paris Flying Buttress]] Notre Dame de Paris is a Gothic Cathedral on the eastern half of the In English cathedrals transepts tend to project boldly and there may be two of them, as at Salisbury Cathedral, though this is not the case with lesser churches. Salisbury Cathedral is an Anglican Cathedral in Salisbury, England, considered one of the leading examples of Early English architecture
The eastern arm shows considerable diversity. In England it is generally long and may have two distinct sections, both choir and presbytery. It is often square ended or has a projecting Lady Chapel, dedicated to the Virgin Mary. In France the eastern end is often polygonal and surrounded by a walkway called an ambulatory and sometimes a ring of chapels called a chevette. While German churches are often similar to those of France, in Italy, the eastern projection beyond the transept is usually just a shallow apsidal chapel containing the sanctuary, as at Florence Cathedral. The Basilica di Santa Maria del Fiore is the Cathedral church ( Duomo) of Florence, Italy. 
The defining characteristic of Gothic architecture is the pointed or ogival arch. An ogive ("Oh-jive" is a curved shape figure or feature Arches of this type were used in Islamic architecture before they were used structurally in European architecture, and are thought to have been the inspiration for their use in France, as at Autun Cathedral, which is otherwise stylistically Romanesque. Islamic architecture has encompassed a wide range of both secular and religious styles from the foundation of Islam to the present day influencing the design and construction Autun Cathedral ( Cathédrale Saint-Lazare d'Autun) is a Roman Catholic cathedral and a national monument of France, in Autun. 
However, it appears that there was probably simultaneously a structural evolution towards the pointed arch, for the purpose of vaulting spaces of irregular plan, or to bring transverse vaults to the same height as diagonal vaults. A Vault (French voute Italian volta German Gewölbe Polish sklepienie, Spanish This latter occurs at Durham Cathedral in the nave aisles in 1093. The Cathedral Church of Christ Blessed Mary the Virgin and St Cuthbert of Durham, commonly referred to as Durham Cathedral, in the city of Durham, England Pointed arches also occur extensively in Romanesque decorative blind arcading, where semi-circular arches overlap each other in a simple decorative pattern, and the points are accidental to the design.
The Gothic vault, unlike the semi-circular vault of Roman and Romanesque buildings, can be used to roof rectangular and irregularly shaped plans such as trapezoids. A Vault (French voute Italian volta German Gewölbe Polish sklepienie, Spanish A trapezoid (in North America or a trapezium (in Britain and elsewhere is a Quadrilateral (a closed plane shape with four linear sides that has at least one The other structural advantage is that the pointed arch channels the weight onto the bearing piers or columns at a steep angle. This enabled architects to raise vaults much higher than was possible in Romanesque architecture. 
While, structurally, use of the pointed arch gave a greater flexibility to architectural form, it also gave Gothic architecture a very different visual character to Romanesque, the verticality suggesting an aspiration to Heaven.
In Gothic Architecture the pointed arch is used in every location where a vaulted shape is called for, both structural and decorative. Gothic openings such as doorways, windows, arcades and galleries have pointed arches. Gothic vaulting above spaces both large and small is usually supported by richly molded ribs. A Vault (French voute Italian volta German Gewölbe Polish sklepienie, Spanish
Rows of pointed arches upon delicate shafts form a typical wall decoration known as blind arcading. Niches with pointed arches and containing statuary are a major external feature. The pointed arch leant itself to elaborate intersecting shapes which developed within window spaces into complex Gothic tracery forming the structural support of the large windows that are characteristic of the style. 
A characteristic of Gothic church architecture is its height, both real and proportional. A section of the main body of a Gothic church usually shows the nave as considerably taller than it is wide. In England the proportion is sometimes greater than 2:1, while the extreme is reached at Cologne Cathedral with a ratio of 3. Cologne Cathedral (Kölner Dom officially de Hohe Domkirche St 6:1. The extreme of actual internal height was achieved at Beauvais Cathedral at 157' 6" (48 m). 
Externally, towers and spires are characteristic of Gothic churches both great and small, the number and positioning being one of the greatest variables in Gothic architecture. Towers are tall human-made Structures that are always taller than they are wide usually by a significant Margin. A spire is a tapering conical or pyramidal structure on the top of a building particularly a church Tower. In Italy, the tower, if present, is almost always detached from the building, as at Florence Cathedral, and is often from an earlier structure. The Basilica di Santa Maria del Fiore is the Cathedral church ( Duomo) of Florence, Italy. In France and Spain, two towers on the front is the norm. In England, Germany and Scandinavia this is often the arrangement, but an English cathedral may also be surmounted by an enormous tower at the crossing. Smaller churches usually have just one tower, but this may also be the case at larger buildings, such as Salisbury cathedral or Ulm Minster, which has the tallest spire in the world, slightly exceeding that of Lincoln Cathedral, the tallest which was actually completed during the medieval period, at 527 feet (160 m). Salisbury Cathedral is an Anglican Cathedral in Salisbury, England, considered one of the leading examples of Early English architecture Lincoln Cathedral (in full The Cathedral Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Lincoln, or sometimes St
The pointed arch lends itself to a suggestion of height. This appearance is characteristically further enhanced by both the architectural features and the decoration of the building. 
On the exterior, the verticality is emphasised in a major way by the towers and spires and in a lesser way by strongly projecting vertical buttresses, by narrow half-columns called attached shafts which often pass through several storeys of the building, by long narrow windows, vertical mouldings around doors and figurative sculpture which emphasises the vertical and is often attenuated. The roofline, gable ends, buttresses and other parts of the building are often terminated by small pinnacles, Milan Cathedral being an extreme example in the use of this form of decoration. Milan Cathedral (Italian Duomo di Milano; Milanese: Domm de Milan) is the Cathedral
On the interior of the building attached shafts often sweep unbroken from floor to ceiling and meet the ribs of the vault, like a tall tree spreading into branches. The verticals are generally repeated in the treatment of the windows and wall surfaces. In many Gothic churches, particularly in France, and in the Perpendicular period of English Gothic architecture, the treatment of vertical elements in gallery and window tracery creates a strongly unifying feature that counteracts the horizontal divisions of the interior structure. English Gothic is the name of the Architectural style that flourished in England from about 1180 until about 1520 
One of the most distinctive characteristics of Gothic architecture is the expansive area of the windows as at Sainte Chapelle and the very large size of many individual windows, as at Gloucester Cathedral and Milan Cathedral. La Sainte-Chapelle (The Holy Chapel is a Gothic Chapel on the Île de la Cité in the heart of Paris, France. La Sainte-Chapelle (The Holy Chapel is a Gothic Chapel on the Île de la Cité in the heart of Paris, France. Gloucester Cathedral, or the Cathedral Church of St Peter and the Holy and Undivided Trinity, in Gloucester, England, stands in the north of the city Milan Cathedral (Italian Duomo di Milano; Milanese: Domm de Milan) is the Cathedral The increase in size between windows of the Romanesque and Gothic periods is related to the use of the ribbed vault, and in particular, the pointed ribbed vault which channeled the weight to a supporting shaft with less outward thrust than a semicircular vault. Walls did not need to be so weighty. 
A further development was the flying buttress which arched externally from the springing of the vault across the roof of the aisle to a large buttress pier projecting well beyond the line of the external wall. These piers were often surmounted by a pinnacle or statue, further adding to the downward weight, and counteracting the outward thrust of the vault and buttress arch. A pinnacle (from Latin pinnaculum, a little feather pinna compare Panache) is an architectural ornament originally forming the cap A statue is a Sculpture in the round representing a person or persons an animal or an event normally full-length as opposed to a bust, and at least close to life-size
The internal columns of the arcade with their attached shafts, the ribs of the vault and the flying buttresses, with their associated vertical buttresses jutting at right-angles to the building, created a stone skeleton. Between these parts, the walls and the infill of the vaults could be of lighter construction. Between the narrow buttresses, the walls could be opened up into large windows. 
Through the Gothic period, due to the versatility of the pointed arch, the structure of Gothic windows developed from simple openings to immensely rich and decorative sculptural designs. The windows were very often filled with stained glass which added a dimension of colour to the light within the building, as well as providing a medium for figurative and narrative art. For the Blackford Oakes novel see Stained Glass (novel The term stained glass refers either to the material of coloured Glass or to the art 
The facade of a large church or cathedral, often referred to as the West Front, is generally designed to create a powerful impression on the approaching worshipper, demonstrating both the might of God, and the might of the institution that it represents. One of the best known and most typical of such facades is that of Notre Dame de Paris. NotreDameFlyingButtressjpg|right|thumb|250px|Notre Dame de Paris Flying Buttress]] Notre Dame de Paris is a Gothic Cathedral on the eastern half of the
Central to the facade is the main portal, often flanked by additional doors. In the arch of the door, the tympanum, is often a significant piece of sculpture, most frequently Christ in Majesty and Judgement Day. A tympanum (plural tympana is the semi-circular or triangular decorative wall surface over an entrance bounded by a Lintel and Arch. If there is a central door jamb or a tremeu, then it frequently bears a statue of the Madonna and Child. There may be much other carving, often of figures in niches set into the mouldings around the portals, or in sculptural screens extending across the facade.
In the centre of the middle level of the facade, there is a large window, which in countries other than England and Belgium, is generally a rose window like that at Reims Cathedral. The Kingdom of Belgium is a Country in northwest Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts its headquarters as well as those A Rose window (or Catherine window) is often used as a generic term applied to a circular Window, but is especially used for those found in churches Notre-Dame de Reims ( Our Lady of Rheims) is the Cathedral of Reims, where the kings of France were once crowned The gable above this is usually richly decorated with arcading or sculpture, or in the case of Italy, may be decorated, with the rest of the facade, with polychrome marble and mosaic, as at Orvieto Cathedral
The West Front of a French cathedral and many English, Spanish and German cathedrals generally has two towers, which, particularly in France, express an enormous diversity of form and decoration. The Duomo di Orvieto is a large 14th century Roman Catholic Cathedral situated in the town of Orvieto in Umbria, central Italy.  However, some German cathedrals have only one tower located in the middle of the facade (such as Freiburg Münster). The Freiburg Minster ( German: Freiburger Münster) is the cathedral of Freiburg, southwest Germany.
The way in which the pointed arch was drafted and utilised developed throughout the Gothic period. There were fairly clear stages of development, which did not, however, progress at the same rate, or in the same way in every country. Moreover, the names used to define various periods or styles within the Gothic differs from country to country.
The simplest shape is the long opening with a pointed arch known in England as the lancet. Lancet openings are often grouped, usually as a cluster of three or five. Lancet openings may be very narrow and steeply pointed.
Salisbury Cathedral is famous for the beauty and simplicity of its Lancet Gothic, known in England as the Early English Style. Salisbury Cathedral is an Anglican Cathedral in Salisbury, England, considered one of the leading examples of Early English architecture York Cathedral has a group of lancet windows each fifty feet high and still containing ancient glass. York Minster is a Gothic Cathedral in York, England and is the second largest of its kind in Northern Europe (largest is the They are known as the Five Sisters. These simple undecorated grouped windows are found at Chartres and Laon Cathedrals and are used extensively in Italy. The cathedral of Notre-Dame of Laon is one of the most important examples of the Gothic architecture of the 12th and 13th centuries ranking with the cathedrals of Saint-Étienne The Gothic architecture appeared in Italy in the 12th century 
Many Gothic openings are based upon the equilateral form. Properties The area of an equilateral triangle with sides of length a\\! In other words, when the arch is drafted, the radius is exactly the width of the opening and the centre of each arch coincides with the point from which the opposite arch springs. Remote Authentication Dial In User Service ( RADIUS) is a networking protocol that provides centralized access authorization and accounting management for people or computers This makes the arch higher in relation to its width than a semi-circular arch which is exactly half as high as it is wide. 
The Equilateral Arch gives a wide opening of satisfying proportion useful for doorways, decorative arcades and big windows.
The structural beauty of the Gothic arch means, however, that no set proportion had to be rigidly maintained. The Equilateral Arch was employed as a useful tool, not as a Principle of Design. This meant that narrower or wider arches were introduced into a building plan wherever necessity dictated. In the architecture of some Italian cities, notably Venice, semi-circular arches are interspersed with pointed ones. Venice ( Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venesia or Venexia) is a city in Northern Italy, the capital of the 
The Equilateral Arch lends itself to filling with tracery of simple equilateral, circular and semi-circular forms. The type of tracery that evolved to fill these spaces is known in England as Geometric Decorated Gothic and can be seen to splendid effect at many English and French Cathedrals, notably Lincoln and Notre Dame in Paris. Windows of complex design and of three or more lights or vertical sections, are often designed by overlapping two or more equilateral arches. 
The Flamboyant Arch is one that is drafted from four points, the upper part of each main arc turning upwards into a smaller arc and meeting at a sharp, flame-like point. Flamboyant is the name given to a florid style of late Gothic Architecture in vogue in France, Spain and Portugal during Limoges Cathedral ( Cathédrale Saint-Étienne de Limoges) is a Roman Catholic cathedral and a national monument of France, situated in Limoges Flamboyant is the name given to a florid style of late Gothic Architecture in vogue in France, Spain and Portugal during These arches create a rich and lively effect when used for window tracery and surface decoration. The form is structurally weak and has very rarely been used for large openings except when contained within a larger and more stable arch. It is not employed at all for vaulting. A Vault (French voute Italian volta German Gewölbe Polish sklepienie, Spanish 
Some of the most beautiful and famous traceried windows of Europe employ this type of tracery. It can be seen at St Stephen's Vienna, Sainte Chapelle in Paris, at the Cathedrals of Limoges and Rouen in France, and at Milan Cathedral in Italy. St Stephen's Cathedral (Stephansdom is the Mother church of the Archdiocese of Vienna and the seat of the Archbishop of Vienna, Christoph Cardinal La Sainte-Chapelle (The Holy Chapel is a Gothic Chapel on the Île de la Cité in the heart of Paris, France. Limoges Cathedral ( Cathédrale Saint-Étienne de Limoges) is a Roman Catholic cathedral and a national monument of France, situated in Limoges Rouen Cathedral (Cathédrale Notre-Dame de Rouen is a Gothic Cathedral in Rouen, in northwestern France. Milan Cathedral (Italian Duomo di Milano; Milanese: Domm de Milan) is the Cathedral In England the most famous examples are the West Window of York Minster with its design based on the Sacred Heart, the extraordinarily rich seven-light East Window at Carlisle Cathedral and the exquisite East window of Selby Abbey. York Minster is a Gothic Cathedral in York, England and is the second largest of its kind in Northern Europe (largest is the The Sacred Heart is a religious devotion to Jesus ' physical heart as the representation of the divine love for humanity Carlisle Cathedral is a Church of England cathedral in the city of Carlisle, in Cumbria, in England. Selby Abbey is an Anglican parish church in the town of Selby, North Yorkshire. 
Doorways surmounted by Flamboyant mouldings are very common in both ecclesiastical and domestic architecture in France. They are much rarer in England. A notable example is the doorway to the Chapter Room at Rochester Cathedral. Rochester Cathedral, or the Cathedral Church of Christ and the Blessed Virgin Mary, is a Norman church in Rochester Kent. 
The style was much used in England for wall arcading and niches. Prime examples in are in the Lady Chapel at Ely, the Screen at Lincoln and externally on the facade of Exeter Cathedral. Ely Cathedral (in full The Cathedral Church of the Holy and Undivided Trinity of Ely) is the principal church of the Diocese of Ely Lincoln Cathedral (in full The Cathedral Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Lincoln, or sometimes St Exeter Cathedral is an Anglican Cathedral in the city of Exeter, Devon, in the southwest of England and In German and Spanish Gothic architecture it often appears as openwork screens on the exterior of buildings. The style was used to rich and sometimes extraordinary effect in both these countries, notably on the famous pulpit in Vienna Cathedral. St Stephen's Cathedral (Stephansdom is the Mother church of the Archdiocese of Vienna and the seat of the Archbishop of Vienna, Christoph Cardinal 
The Depressed or four-centred arch is much wider than its height and gives the visual effect of having been flattened under pressure. Its structure is achieved by drafting two arcs which rise steeply from each springing point on a small radius and then turn into two arches with a wide radius and much lower springing point. 
This type of arch, when employed as a window opening, lends itself to very wide spaces, provided it is adequately supported by many narrow vertical shafts. These are often further braced by horizontal transoms. The overall effect produces a grid-like appearance of regular, delicate, rectangular forms with an emphasis on the perpendicular. It is also employed as a wall decoration in which arcade and window openings form part of the whole decorative surface.
The style, known as Perpendicular, that evolved from this treatment is specific to England, although very similar to contemporary Spanish style in particular, and was employed to great effect through the 15th century and first half of the 16th as Renaissance styles were much slower to arrive in England than in Italy and France. English Gothic is the name of the Architectural style that flourished in England from about 1180 until about 1520 
It can be seen notably at the East End of Gloucester Cathedral where the East Window is said to be as large as a tennis court. Gloucester Cathedral, or the Cathedral Church of St Peter and the Holy and Undivided Trinity, in Gloucester, England, stands in the north of the city There are three very famous royal chapels and one chapel-like Abbey which show the style at its most elaborate- King's College Chapel, Cambridge; St George's Chapel, Windsor; Henry VII's Chapel at Westminster Abbey and Bath Abbey. King's College Chapel is the chapel to King's College of the University of Cambridge, and is one of the finest examples of late English Gothic The city of Cambridge (ˈkeɪmbrɪdʒ is a university town and the administrative centre of the county of Cambridgeshire, England The Henry VII Lady Chapel, now more often known just as the Henry VII Chapel is a large Lady chapel at the far eastern end of Westminster Abbey built The Collegiate Church of St Peter at Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a large mainly Gothic church The Abbey Church of Saint Peter Bath, commonly known as Bath Abbey, is an Anglican Parish church and a former Benedictine Monastery  However very many simpler buildings, especially churches built during the wool boom in East Anglia, are fine examples of the style. East Anglia is often used as a shorthand for the Kingdom of the East Angles.
The Gothic cathedral represented the universe in microcosm and each architectural concept, including the loftiness and huge dimensions of the structure, were intended to convey a theological message: the great glory of God. A Cathedral is a church, usually Roman Catholic, Anglican, or Eastern Orthodox, housing the seat of a Bishop. The term Poor Man's Bible has come into use in modern times to describe works of art within churches and cathedrals which either individually or collectively have been created God is the principal or sole Deity in Religions and other belief systems that worship one deity. The building becomes a microcosm in two ways. Firstly, the mathematical and geometrical nature of the construction is an image of the orderly universe, in which an underlying rationality and logic can be perceived.
Secondly, the statues, sculptural decoration, stained glass and murals incorporate the essence of creation in depictions of the Labours of the Months and the Zodiac and sacred history from the Old and New Testaments and Lives of the Saints, as well as reference to the eternal in the Last Judgment and Coronation of the Virgin. A statue is a Sculpture in the round representing a person or persons an animal or an event normally full-length as opposed to a bust, and at least close to life-size For the Blackford Oakes novel see Stained Glass (novel The term stained glass refers either to the material of coloured Glass or to the art A mural is a Painting on a wall ceiling or other large permanent surface The term Labours of the Months refers to cycles seen in Medieval and early Renaissance art depicting in twelve scenes the rural activities that commonly took place Zodiac denotes an annual cycle of twelve stations along the Ecliptic, the apparent path of the sun across the heavens through the Constellations that divide the ecliptic In Christian eschatology, the Last Judgment or Day of the Lord is the judgment by God of every human who ever lived
The decorative schemes usually incorporated Biblical stories, emphasizing visual typological allegories between Old Testament prophecy and the New Testament. Etymology According to the Online Etymology Dictionary, the word bible is from Latin biblia, traced from the same word through Medieval Latin and Late Latin Allegory in the Middle Ages was a vital element in the Synthesis of Biblical and Classical traditions into what would become recognizable as Medieval culture In Western Christianity, the Old Testament refers to the books that form the first of the two-part Christian Biblical canon. 
Many churches were very richly decorated, both inside and out. Sculpture and architectural details were often bright with coloured paint of which traces remain at Chartres cathedral. Wooden ceilings and panelling were usually brightly coloured. Sometimes the stone columns of the nave were painted, and the panels in decorative wall arcading contained narratives or figures of saints. These have rarely remained intact, but may be seen at the Chapterhouse of Westminster Abbey. The Collegiate Church of St Peter at Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a large mainly Gothic church 
Some important Gothic churches could be severely simple such as the Basilica of Mary Magdalene in Saint-Maximin, Provence where the local traditions of the sober, massive, Romanesque architecture were still strong. The Latin word basilica (derived from Greek, Basiliké Stoà, Royal Stoa) was originally used to describe a Roman Saint Mary Magdalen or Mary Magdalene is described both in the canonical New Testament and in the New Testament apocrypha, as a devoted Saint-Maximin-la-Sainte-Baume is a commune of southeastern France, 40 km east of Aix-en-Provence, in the westernmost point of Var département Provence ( Provençal Occitan: Provença in classical norm or Prouvènço in Mistralian norm is a region of southeastern France
Wherever Gothic architecture is found, it is subject to local influences, and frequently the influence of itinerant stonemasons and artisans, carrying ideas between cities and sometimes between countries. A Cathedral is a church, usually Roman Catholic, Anglican, or Eastern Orthodox, housing the seat of a Bishop. Certain characteristics are typical of particular regions and often override the style itself, appearing in buildings hundreds of years apart.
The distinctive characteristic of French cathedrals, and those in Germany and Belgium that were strongly influenced by them, is their height and their impression of verticality. French Gothic architecture is the style of architecture that was prevalent in France from 1140 until about 1500. Each French cathedral tends to be stylistically unified in appearance when compared with an English cathedral where there is great diversity in almost every building. They are compact, with slight or no projection of the transepts and subsidiary chapels. The west fronts are highly consistent, having three portals surmounted by a rose window, and two large towers. Sometimes there are additional towers on the transept ends. The east end is polygonal with ambulatory and sometimes a chevette of radiating chapels. In the south of France, many of the major churches are without transepts and some are without aisles. 
The distinctive characteristic of English cathedrals is their extreme length and their internal emphasis upon the horizontal, which may be emphasised visually as much or more than the vertical lines. English Gothic is the name of the Architectural style that flourished in England from about 1180 until about 1520 Each English cathedral (with the exception of Salisbury) has an extraordinary degree of stylistic diversity, when compared with most French, German and Italian cathedrals. It is not unusual for every part of the building to have been built in a different century and in a different style, with no attempt at creating a stylistic unity. Unlike French cathedrals, English cathedrals sprawl across their sites, with double transepts projecting strongly and Lady Chapels tacked on at a later date. In the west front, the doors are not as significant as in France, the usual congregational entrance being through a side porch. The West window is very large and never a rose, which are reserved for the transept gables. The west front may have two towers like a French Cathedral, or none. There is nearly always a tower at the crossing and it may be very large and surmounted by a spire. The distinctive English east end is square, but it may take a completely different form. 
Romanesque architecture in Germany is characterised by its massive and modular nature. Regional characteristics of Romanesque architecture|Romanesque art Romanesque architecture is the term that is used to describe the architecture of Middle Ages Europe which This is expressed in the Gothic architecture of the Holy Roman Empire in the huge size of the towers and spires, often proposed, but not always completed. The Holy Roman Empire ( HRE; German Heiliges Römisches Reich (HRR, Latin Sacrum Romanum Imperium (SRI was a union of territories in  The west front generally follows the French formula, but the towers are very much taller, and if complete, are surmounted by enormous openwork spires that are a regional feature. Because of the size of the towers, the section of the facade that is between them may appear narrow and compressed. The eastern end follows the French form. The distinctive character of the interior of German Gothic cathedrals is their breadth and openness. This is the case even when, as at Cologne, they have been modelled upon a French cathedral. German cathedrals, like the French, tend not to have strongly projecting transepts. There are also many hallenkirke without clerestorey windows. 
The distinctive characteristic of Spanish Gothic cathedrals is their spacial complexity, with many areas of different shapes leading from each other. Spanish Gothic architecture is the style of architecture prevalent in Spain in the Late Medieval period They are comparatively short and wide, and are often completely surrounded by chapels. Like English Cathedrals, Spanish Cathedrals are stylistically diverse. This expresses itself in the addition of chapels and in the application of decorative details drawn from different sources. Among the influences on both decoration and form are Islamic architecture, and towards the end of the period, Renaissance details combined with the Gothic in a distinctive manner. The West front, as at Leon Cathedral typically resembles a French west front, but wider in proportion to height and often with greater diversity of detail and a combination of intricate ornament with broad plain surfaces. Santa María de León Cathedral, also called The House of Light or the Pulchra Leonina is situated in the city of León in north-west At Burgos Cathedral there are spires of German style. The Burgos Cathedral (Catedral de Burgos is a Gothic-style cathedral in Burgos, Spain The roofline often has pierced parapets with comparatively few pinnacles. There are often towers and domes of a great variety of shapes and structural invention rising above the roof. 
The distinctive characteristic of Italian Gothic is the use of polychrome decoration, both externally as marble veneer on the brick facade and also internally where the arches are often made of alternating black and white segments, and where the columns may be painted red, the walls decorated with frescoes and the apse with mosaic. The Gothic architecture appeared in Italy in the 12th century The plan is usually regular and symmetrical. With the exception of Milan Cathedral which is Germanic in style, Italian cathedrals have few and widely spaced columns. The proportions are generally mathematically simple, based on the square, and except in Venice where they loved flamboyant arches, the arches are almost always equilateral. Colours and moldings define the architectural units rather than blending them. Italian cathedral facades are often polychrome and may include mosaics in the lunettes over the doors. The facades have projecting open porches and occular or wheel windows rather than roses, and do not usually have a tower. The crossing is usually surmounted by a dome. There is often a free-standing tower and baptistry. The eastern end usually has an apse of comparatively low projection. The windows are not as large as in northern Europe and, although stained glass windows are often found, the favourite narrative medium for the interior is the fresco. Fresco (plural either frescos or frescoes) is any of several related Painting types done on Plaster on walls or 
Synagogues, commonly built in the prevailing architectural style of the period and country where they are constructed, were built in the Gothic style in Europe during the Medieval period. The Palais des Papes is a historical palace in Avignon, southern France, one of the largest and most important Medieval Gothic buildings in A surviving example is the Old New Synagogue in Prague, built in the 13th century. The Old New Synagogue (Altneuschule Altneusynagoge Staronová Synagoga situated in Josefov, Prague, is Europe's oldest active Synagogue. Prague (ˈprɑːg Praha (ˈpraɦa see also other names) is the Capital and Largest city of the Czech Republic.
Many examples of secular, non-military structures in Gothic style survive in fairly original condition. The Palais des Papes in Avignon is the best complete large royal palace, with partial survivals in the great hall at the Palace of Westminster, London, an 11th-century hall renovated in the late 1300s with gothic windows and a wooden hammerbeam roof, and the famous Conciergerie, former palace of the kings of France, in Paris. The Palais des Papes is a historical palace in Avignon, southern France, one of the largest and most important Medieval Gothic buildings in Hammerbeam roof, in Architecture, the name given to a Gothic open Timber Roof, of which the finest example is that over Westminster The Conciergerie ( French: La Conciergerie) is a former royal palace and prison in Paris, located on the west of the Île de la Cité, near the In addition to monumental secular architecture, examples of the Gothic style, can be seen in surviving medieval portions of cities across Europe, above all the distinctive Venetian Gothic. Ca' d'Oro (correctly Palazzo Santa Sofia) is regarded as one of the most beautiful palazzos on the Grand Canal in Venice. The house of the wealthy early 15th century merchant Jacques Coeur in Bourges, is the classic Gothic bourgeois mansion, full of the asymmetry and complicated detail beloved of the Gothic Revival. Jacques Cœur (c 1395 &ndash November 25, 1456, Chios) was a French merchant Bourges is a commune in central France on the Yèvre river It is the capital of the department of Cher and also was the capital  Other cities with a concentration of secular Gothic include Bruges and Sienna. Bruges (Brugge is the capital and largest city of the province of West Flanders in the Flemish Region of Belgium. For the Italian city see Siena. Sienna is a form of Limonite Clay most famous in the production of oil paint Most surviving small secular buildings are relatively plain and straightforward; most windows are flat-topped with mullions, with pointed arches and vaulted ceilings often only found at a few focal points. A mullion is a structural element which divides adjacent Window units The country-houses of the nobility were slow to abandon the appearance of being a castle, even in parts of Europe, like England, where defence had ceased to be a real concern. The living and working parts of many monastic buildings survive, for example at Mont Saint-Michel. Mont Saint-Michel ( English: St Michael's Mount) is a rocky Tidal island in Normandy, France.
There are many excellent examples of secular Gothic buildings in brick, notably Malbork, a castle of the Teutonic Knights in Poland. Malbork Castle (Ordensburg Marienburg was built by the Teutonic Order as an Ordensburg and named Marienburg (literally "Mary's Castle" The Teutonic Order is a German Roman Catholic religious order. Brick Gothic buildings were associated with the Hanseatic League and the Teutonic Knights. The Hanseatic League (also known as the Hansa) was an alliance of trading cities and their Guilds that established and maintained trade The Teutonic Order is a German Roman Catholic religious order. There are over one hundred brick Gothic castles in northern Poland, Baltic states, and western Russia, and many smaller buildings.
In 1663 at the Archbishop of Canterbury's residence, Lambeth Palace, a Gothic hammerbeam roof was built to replace that destroyed when the building was sacked during the English Civil War. Antoine Thomson d'Abbadie d'Arrast ( January 3, 1810 &ndash March 19, 1897) was a French Geographer, notable for his travels Eugène Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc ( January 27 1814 &ndash September 17, 1879) was a French Architect and theorist famous for his "restorations" The Gothic Revival is an architectural movement which began The Archbishop of Canterbury is the chief bishop and principal leader of the Church of England, the symbolic head of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the Lambeth Palace is the official London residence of the Archbishop of Canterbury. Hammerbeam roof, in Architecture, the name given to a Gothic open Timber Roof, of which the finest example is that over Westminster The English Civil War (1642-1651 was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians and Royalists. Also in the late 17th century, some discrete Gothic details appeared on new construction at Oxford and Cambridge, notably on Tom Tower at Christ Church, Oxford, by Christopher Wren. Oxford is currently bidding for the 2010 Wikimania Conference Oxford () is a city, and the County town of Oxfordshire, The city of Cambridge (ˈkeɪmbrɪdʒ is a university town and the administrative centre of the county of Cambridgeshire, England Tom Tower is a Bell tower in Oxford, England, named for its bell Great Tom Not to be confused with Christchurch, a city in New Zealand. Christ Church (Ædes Christi the temple or house of Christ and thus sometimes known as Sir Christopher Wren ( 20 October 1632 &ndash 25 February 1723) was a 17th century English Designer, Astronomer It is not easy to decide whether these instances were Gothic survival or early appearances of Gothic revival.
In England in the mid-18th century, the Gothic style was more widely revived, first as a decorative, whimsical alternative to Rococo that is still conventionally termed 'Gothick', of which Horace Walpole's Twickenham villa "Strawberry Hill" is the familiar example. Rococo is a style of 18th century French art and Interior design. Horace Walpole 4th Earl of Orford ( 24 September, 1717 &ndash 2 March, 1797) more commonly known as Horace Walpole, was a politician Strawberry Hill is an affluent area of the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames near Twickenham.
Partly in response to a philosophy propounded by the Oxford Movement and others in England, from about 1830 Gothic became the preferred style for ecclesiastical, civic and institutional architecture, resulting in a Gothic revival, sometimes termed Victorian Gothic or Neo-Gothic. The Gothic Revival is an architectural movement which began The Oxford Movement or Tractarianism was an affiliation of High Church Anglicans, most of whom were members of the University of Oxford, who sought The Gothic Revival is an architectural movement which began Also known as Victorian High Gothic, Victorian Gothic is a style of Architecture popular in the middle and late 19th century The Houses of Parliament in London are an example of this Gothic revival style, designed by Sir Charles Barry with interiors by a major exponent of the early Gothic Revival, Augustus Welby Pugin. London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. Sir Charles Barry FRS ( 23 May 1795 &ndash 12 May 1860) was an English Architect, best known for his role Augustus Welby Northmore Pugin ( 1 March 1812 – 14 September 1852) was an English Architect, designer and theorist of design now Neo-Gothic was often applied to university buildings such as the main building of the University of Glasgow designed by Sir George Gilbert Scott. The University of Glasgow (Oilthigh Ghlaschu was founded in 1451 in Glasgow, Scotland and along with its contemporary institutions the University of St Andrews Sir George Gilbert Scott ( 13 July 1811 &ndash 27 March, 1878) was an English Architect of the Victorian Age Gothic was also widely used in upper and middle-class housing, and Gothic details often appear even in working-class housing, especially if subsidised by philanthropy. Philanthropy is the act of donating money goods services time and/or effort to support a socially beneficial cause with a defined objective and with no financial or material
In France, simultaneously, the towering figure of the Gothic Revival was Eugène Viollet-le-Duc, who outdid historical Gothic constructions to create a Gothic as it ought to have been, notably at the fortified city of Carcassonne in the south of France and in some richly fortified keeps for industrial magnates. Eugène Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc ( January 27 1814 &ndash September 17, 1879) was a French Architect and theorist famous for his "restorations" Carcassonne (Carcassona is a fortified French town in the Aude département, of which it is the Prefecture, Viollet-le-Duc compiled and coordinated an Encyclopédie médiévale that was a rich repertory his contemporaries mined for architectural details. He effected vigorous restoration of crumbling detail of French cathedrals, including the Abbey of Saint-Denis and famously at Notre Dame, where many of whose most "Gothic" gargoyles are Viollet-le-Duc's. The Basilica of Saint Denis ( French: Basilique de Saint-Denis, or simply Basilique Saint-Denis) is the burial site of almost all the French NotreDameFlyingButtressjpg|right|thumb|250px|Notre Dame de Paris Flying Buttress]] Notre Dame de Paris is a Gothic Cathedral on the eastern half of the He taught a generation of reform-Gothic designers and showed how to apply Gothic style to modern structural materials, especially cast iron. Cast iron usually refers to grey cast iron, but identifies a large group of Ferrous Alloys which solidify with a Eutectic.
In Germany, the great cathedrals of Cologne and Ulm, left unfinished for 600 years, were brought to completion, while in Italy, Florence Cathedral finally received its polychrome Gothic facade. Cologne Cathedral (Kölner Dom officially de Hohe Domkirche St The Basilica di Santa Maria del Fiore is the Cathedral church ( Duomo) of Florence, Italy. New churches in the Gothic style were created all over the world, including Japan, Thailand, India, Australia, New Zealand, Hawaii and South Africa.
As in Europe, the United States, Canada, Australia and New Zealand utilised Neo-Gothic for the building of universities, a fine example being Sydney University by Edmund Blacket. The University of Sydney (informally Sydney Uni or USyd) is the oldest university in Australia Edmund Thomas Blacket (25 August 1817 – 9 February 1883 was an Australian Architect, best known for his designs for the University of Sydney, St In Canada, the Canadian Parliament Buildings in Ottawa designed by Thomas Fuller and Chilion Jones with its huge centrally-placed tower draws influence from Flemish Gothic buildings. Parliament Hill (colloquially The Hill, French Colline du Parlement) is a scenic location on the southern banks of the Ottawa River in downtown Ottawa (ˈɒtəwə or sometimes /ˈɒtəwɑː/ is the Capital of Canada and the country's fourth largest municipality. Thomas Fuller ( March 8, 1823 &ndash September 28, 1898) was a Canadian Architect. Chilion Jones was the business partner of architect Thomas Fuller in nineteenth-century Canada.
Although falling out of favour for domestic and civic use, Gothic for churches and universities continued into the 20th century with buildings such as Liverpool Cathedral and the Cathedral of Saint John the Divine, New York. Liverpool Cathedral is the Anglican Cathedral of Liverpool England, built on St The Cathedral of St John the Divine, officially the Cathedral Church of Saint John the Divine in the City and Diocese of New York, is the Cathedral of the Episcopal Diocese The Gothic style was also applied to iron-framed city skyscapers such as Cass Gilbert's Woolworth Building and Raymond Hood's Tribune Tower. Cass Gilbert ( November 29, 1859 &ndash May 17, 1934) was a pioneering American Architect. The Woolworth Building, at 57 stories is one of the oldest—and one of the most famous— Skyscrapers in New York City. Raymond M Hood ( March 29, 1881 &ndash August 14, 1934) was an early-mid twentieth century Architect who worked in the Art The Tribune Tower is a Gothic building located at 435 North Michigan Avenue in Chicago, Illinois.
Post-Modernism in the late 20th and early 21st centuries has seen some revival of Gothic forms in individual buildings, such as the Gare do Oriente in Lisbon, Portugal. Postmodernism literally means 'after the modernist movement' While " Modern " itself refers to something "related to the present" the movement of modernism Gare do Oriente ( pron. gaɾ(ɨ du oɾi'ẽt(ɨ is one of the main transport hubs in Lisbon, Portugal.
Clermont-Ferrand Cathedral towers above the city roofs
Roskilde Dom Denmark
I. French Gothic architecture is the style of architecture that was prevalent in France from 1140 until about 1500. English Gothic is the name of the Architectural style that flourished in England from about 1180 until about 1520 The Gothic architecture appeared in Italy in the 12th century Spanish Gothic architecture is the style of architecture prevalent in Spain in the Late Medieval period Portuguese Gothic architecture is the architectural style prevalent in Portugal in the Late Middle Ages. The Gothic style arrived in Poland in the 13th century In the north and west of the country there are some scarce Romanesque predecessors (see here) Medieval architecture is a term used to represent various forms of Architecture popular in Medieval Europe. The Middle Ages in history is an overview of how previous periods have both romanticised and disparaged the Middle Ages. The Renaissance of the 12th century was a period of many changes during the High Middle Ages. The History of architecture traces the changes in the History of Architecture through various countries and dates Architectural styles classify Architecture in terms of Form, techniques, Materials, time period region etc The Gothic Revival is an architectural movement which began Sondergotik ( German for "special Gothic" is the style of Late Gothic architecture prevalent in Austria, Bavaria, and Bohemia A European project GOTHICmed is a European Union project carried out within the Culture 2000 programme and spearheaded by the Ministry of Culture of the regional Clermont-Ferrand Cathedral ( Cathédrale Notre-Dame-de-l'Assomption de Clermont-Ferrand) is a Gothic Cathedral, and French national monument A Rose window (or Catherine window) is often used as a generic term applied to a circular Window, but is especially used for those found in churches Milan Cathedral (Italian Duomo di Milano; Milanese: Domm de Milan) is the Cathedral Rickmann
Flying buttresses of Amiens Cathedral. A flying buttress, or arc-boutant, is a specific type of Buttress usually found on a religious building such as a Cathedral. The Cathedral of Our Lady of Amiens (French Cathédrale Notre-Dame d'Amiens) or simply Amiens Cathedral, is the tallest complete Cathedral in
Evangelical Cathedral of Sibiu - 14th century. Police ("poh-LEE-tze" (Pölitz Kashubian / Pomeranian: Pòlice) is a town in Pomerania, northwestern Poland Sibiu (si'biw Hermannstadt Nagyszeben Сибињ/Sibinj הערמאנשטאדט ( Hermanshtadt) or סזעבען ( Szeben)) is one of the largest cities in 73,6m high, with a clock tower.
Evangelical Cathedral of Sibiu with its interior arches. Sibiu (si'biw Hermannstadt Nagyszeben Сибињ/Sibinj הערמאנשטאדט ( Hermanshtadt) or סזעבען ( Szeben)) is one of the largest cities in
Milan Cathedral, the east end. St Anne's Church (Šv Onos bažnyčia is a Roman Catholic church in Vilnius ' Old Town, on the right bank of the Vilnia River.
The Gothic castle and Tournament Bridge at Eglinton, Irvine, Scotland in 1884. The Eglinton Tournament Bridge is a Bridge located within Eglinton Country Park near Kilwinning, North Ayrshire, Scotland. Eglinton Country Park is a Park located in the grounds of the old Eglinton Castle estate Irvine, on the outskirts of Kilwinning, North Ayrshire
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