|Gold Diggers of Broadway (1929)|
|Directed by||Roy Del Ruth|
|Written by||Robert Lord|
based on the 1923 play by Avery Hopwood
|Music by||Joseph Burke|
|Editing by||William Holmes|
|Distributed by||Warner Bros.|
|Release date(s)||October 5, 1929|
|Running time||101 min (copyrighted as 11 reels - Overture disc included)|
alternate silent version also produced
Gold Diggers of Broadway (1929) is a Warner Bros. comedy/musical film which is historically important as the second talkie (a term used early in the sound-film era to describe a film with synchronized speech) photographed entirely in Technicolor. Roy Del Ruth ( October 18, 1893 &ndash April 27, 1961) was a Hollywood film director Robert Lord ( 1 May, 1900 &ndash 5 April, 1976) was an American Screenwriter and Film producer. Avery Hopwood ( May 28, 1882 - July 1, 1928) who was born in Cleveland and graduated from the University of Michigan, was Winnie Lightner ( September 17, 1899 – March 5, 1971) was an American Motion picture Actress. Nick Lucas ( August 22, 1897 &mdash July 28, 1982) was an American singer and pioneer jazz guitarist remembered as "the grandfather Joseph A Burke ( March 18, 1884 &ndash June 9, 1950) was an American actor composer and pianist Ray Rennahan, ASC (b May 1, 1896 in Las Vegas Nevada – d May 19, 1980 in Tarzana, California) was a Technicolor is the trademark for a series of color film processes pioneered by Technicolor Motion Picture Corporation William Holmes may refer to William Holmes (academic, Vice-Chancellor of Oxford University 1732&ndash1735 William Holmes (1779-1851 Warner Bros Entertainment Inc (or Warner Bros, Warner Bros Pictures) is one of the world's largest producers of Film and Events 869 - The Fourth Council of Constantinople is convened to decide about what to do about Patriarch Photius of Constantinople Year 1929 ( MCMXXIX) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States Events The days of the Silent film were numbered A mad scramble to provide synchronized sound was on Warner Bros Entertainment Inc (or Warner Bros, Warner Bros Pictures) is one of the world's largest producers of Film and A sound film is a motion picture with synchronized sound, or sound technologically coupled to image as opposed to a Silent film. Technicolor is the trademark for a series of color film processes pioneered by Technicolor Motion Picture Corporation It became a box office sensation, making Winnie Lightner a worldwide star and boosting guitarist crooner Nick Lucas to further fame as he sang two songs that became 20th century standards: 'Tiptoe Through the Tulips' and 'Painting the Clouds with Sunshine'. A box office is a place where tickets are sold to the public for Admission to a venue Winnie Lightner ( September 17, 1899 – March 5, 1971) was an American Motion picture Actress. Nick Lucas ( August 22, 1897 &mdash July 28, 1982) was an American singer and pioneer jazz guitarist remembered as "the grandfather A song is a Musical composition. Songs contain vocal parts that are performed 'sung' and generally feature Words ( Lyrics) commonly followed " Tiptoe Through the Tulips " is a popular song originally published in 1926. " Painting the Clouds with Sunshine " is a popular Song. This film is now considered a lost film. A lost film is a Feature film or Short film that no longer exists in either studio archives or private collections
It earned a domestic gross of $3. 5 Million, extending to over $5 Million worldwide (adjusted for inflation in 2007 this would be a gross of around $60 Million). The original production cost was approximately $500,000. This film was so popular that it quickly became the top grossing film of all time in 1929 and held this record until 1939. It was chosen as one of the ten best films of 1929 by Film Daily. The Film Daily was a daily publication that existed from 1915 to 1970 As with many early Technicolor films, no complete print survives, although the last twenty minutes do, but are missing a bridging sequence and the last minute of the film. Technicolor is the trademark for a series of color film processes pioneered by Technicolor Motion Picture Corporation Contemporary reviews, the soundtrack and the surviving footage suggest that the film was a fast-moving comedy which was enhanced by Technicolor and a set of lively and popular songs. Technicolor is the trademark for a series of color film processes pioneered by Technicolor Motion Picture Corporation Pop music as a genre features a noticeable rhythmic element catchy melodies and hooks, a mainstream style and conventional structure It encapsulates the spirit of the flapper era, giving us a glimpse of a world about to be changed by the Great Depression. The term flapper in the 1920s referred to a "new breed" of young Women who wore short skirts bobbed their hair listened to the new Jazz music
Because the film is lost, the partial remake, Gold Diggers of 1933, is the most frequently seen version of the story. Gold Diggers of 1933 is a Warner Bros Musical film directed by Mervyn LeRoy with songs by Harry Warren (music and Al Dubin
The story is set in the contemporary New York City of 1929, and is about a group of 'gold digging' Broadway showgirls who are all looking for love and money but not sure which is the most important. The City of New York Broadway theater, commonly called simply Broadway, refers to theatrical performances presented in one of the 39 large professional theaters with 500 seats or more located
The film opens on an audience watching a lavish Broadway show, featuring a giant gold mine production number ('Song of the Gold Diggers'). Broadway theater, commonly called simply Broadway, refers to theatrical performances presented in one of the 39 large professional theaters with 500 seats or more located This is followed by famous guitarist Nick Lucas who sings the song 'Painting the Clouds with Sunshine' which climaxes on stage with a huge art deco revolving sun. Nick Lucas ( August 22, 1897 &mdash July 28, 1982) was an American singer and pioneer jazz guitarist remembered as "the grandfather " Painting the Clouds with Sunshine " is a popular Song.
Backstage, the star of the show (Ann Pennington) is fighting over Nick with another girl. This article is about Ann Pennington the stage actress For the Playboy model of the same name go to Ann Pennington (model. We are also introduced to a group of chorus girls who are all 'man hungry'. They are visited by a faded star who is reduced to selling cosmetic soap. They gossip about how they all want a man with plenty of money so they don't end up selling soap. We then discover that a stuffy businessman called Stephen Lee (Conway Tearle) angrily forbids his nephew Wally (William Bakewell), to marry one of the showgirls (Violet). Conway Tearle ( 17 May, 1878 &ndash 1 October, 1939) was an American actor of the silent era. William Bakewell also known as Billy Bakewell, ( May 2, 1908 - April 15, 1993) was an American actor who achieved his greatest
A corpulent lawyer friend Blake (Albert Gran) advises him to befriend the showgirl first before making a decision. Albert Gran ( 4 August, 1862 &ndash 16 December, 1932) was an Norwegian - American actor However the showgirls are a group of friends who stick together and the most raucous girl called Mabel (Winnie Lightner) takes a fancy to Blake calling him 'sweetie' and shows her appreciation by singing him a song ('Mechanical Man'). Winnie Lightner ( September 17, 1899 – March 5, 1971) was an American Motion picture Actress. That evening, they all visit a huge night club. Mabel ends up on a table singing another song to Blake 'Wolf from the door' before jumping into his lap. Showgirl Jerry (Nancy Welford) extends the party to her apartment. Nancy Welford ( &ndash) was an American silent film actress and in early talkie era Everyone gets drunk and after seeing Ann Pennington dance on the kitchen table, Lee decides he is 'getting to like these showgirls'. Blake says he is 'losing his mind or just plain mad'.
Keeping the fun going, Nick Lucas sings 'Tiptoe Through the Tulips'. Nick Lucas ( August 22, 1897 &mdash July 28, 1982) was an American singer and pioneer jazz guitarist remembered as "the grandfather Complications come thick and fast after a balloon game with both Blake and Lee falling under the spell of Mabel and Jerry. Blake gets fed drinks from Mabel. The party ends with Lucas singing 'Go to bed' and Jerry contrives to get Lee back after everyone has left. She gets him more drunk whilst tipping her own drinks away when he isn't looking. Her aim is to get Lee to agree to allow Wally to marry. To do this she lies and is shown up by her own mother who accidentally finds both of them together.
Next morning Jerry is feeling disgraced. Mabel has been given an extra line for the show 'I am the spirit of the ages and the progress of civilisation', but cannot get the words right. Nick Lucas is told off for singing poor songs and sings another 'What will I do without you'. Nick Lucas ( August 22, 1897 &mdash July 28, 1982) was an American singer and pioneer jazz guitarist remembered as "the grandfather Ann Pennington fights with another showgirl and hurts her eye. Jerry is asked to take her place as the star of the evening performance. Mabel receives a proposal of marriage from Blake, but worries about her extra line.
The show starts with Nick Lucas reprising 'Tip Toe Thru the Tulips' with full orchestra in a huge stage set that shows girl tulips in a huge greenhouse. Backstage, Uncle Steve comes back to give his consent to his nephew and tell Jerry he wants to marry her.
The finale starts with Jerry leading the 'Song of the Gold Diggers' against a huge art deco backdrop of Paris at night. Various acrobats and girls litter the stage as all the songs are reprised in a fast moving, lavish production number. This ends with Jerry sweeping through the middle as the music reaches a climax. Mabel then says her line, but forgets the end!
Based on the 1919 play The Gold Diggers (which was also turned into a silent film of the same name in 1923, now lost), Gold Diggers of Broadway utilized Technicolor, showgirls and sound as its main selling points. The Gold Diggers ( 1923) is a Warner Bros silent film directed by Harry Beaumont with screenplay by Grant Carpenter based on the Events April 15 - Lee De Forest demonstrates the Phonofilm sound-on-film system at the Rivoli Theater in New York Technicolor is the trademark for a series of color film processes pioneered by Technicolor Motion Picture Corporation
The Technicolor process used for this film could not reproduce a full range of color. Technicolor is the trademark for a series of color film processes pioneered by Technicolor Motion Picture Corporation Normally, color in movies and photographs is created by recording the image using filter material sensitive to red, green and blue light values. An optical filter is a device which selectively transmits light having certain properties (often a particular range of Wavelengths that is range of Colours This early Technicolor was a simplified compromise that kept the red, but used a blue/green combination with the emphasis on the green. Hence, it is known as 'two-color Technicolor', as opposed to later, 'three-color Technicolor'.
The resulting prints reproduced a rich 'sepia like' browns, 'reds' that varied from a muddied brick red to a coral pink and 'greens' that were slightly muted and at their most pale, struggling to look like blue. No pure blue, yellow or purples were possible.
The Technicolor camera was specially constructed for the purpose of color photography, but used standard black-and-white panchromatic negative film. Panchromatic film is a type of Black-and-white Photographic film that is sensitive to all Wavelengths of Visible light. In photography a negative may refer to three different things although they are all related The gate of the camera contained a prism which split the incoming light into an image pair of film frames instead of the usual single image frame. A gate is a point of entry to a space enclosed by Walls or an opening in a Fence. In Optics, a prism is a transparent optical element with flat polished surfaces that refract Light. Each image pair consisted of two back to back images, one exposed through a red filter and the other through green. The effect on the black-and-white negative was to have a record of the different color values from each filter recorded in shades of gray. This meant the negative was double the length of a conventional black-and-white negative.
This camera negative was cut and reprinted to form a complete reel, but this was done twice, once for each colour, using a special printer to strip off the images. A reel is an object around which lengths of another material (usually long and flexible are wound for storage The negative was then printed to a special print called a matrix. This was developed to convert the image into a gelatin relief which acted like a printing plate. To create Technicolor prints, a clear 35mm film reel was run into a special dye transfer machine. Technicolor is the trademark for a series of color film processes pioneered by Technicolor Motion Picture Corporation 35 mm film is the basic Film gauge most commonly used for both still Photography and Motion pictures, and remains relatively unchanged since its A dye can generally be described as a Colored substance that has an affinity to the substrate to which it is being applied Underwater, the red exposed matrix was dyed green and brought into contact with the blank through a heated pressure roller. The dye in the matrix was stronger or weaker according to the thickness of the gelatin, which varied according to the values of the photographic image derived from the negative. The green dye transferred an image based on the original photographic values. This is known as imbibition printing (it has also been used for professional still photography). Imbibition is defined as the displacement of one fluid by another Immiscible fluid The complete reel was then fed through a second pass using the green exposed matrix and this was dyed red. When the red-dyed image was stamped over the green, a complete color image was formed (the process was later refined for full color to add a third pass (known as 3 strip Technicolor) and a silver or sometimes dye image to sharpen the print). Technicolor is the trademark for a series of color film processes pioneered by Technicolor Motion Picture Corporation Silver (ˈsɪlvɚ is a Chemical element with the symbol " Ag " (argentum from the Ancient Greek: ἀργήντος - argēntos gen
The prints were expensive (compared to black and white). The prints were never as well defined as a black-and-white print and this was due to unavoidable dye spread. The speed of the camera was around 4 ISO/ASA. The studio lighting was therefore very intense. Pure white was forbidden on costumes because of the glare and the resulting 'white out' on the matrix, which lead to transfer problems.
Original advertisements for the film promised:
"VITAPHONE recreates The Gold Diggers of Broadway in 100% natural color in Technicolor"
"One hundred percent Color, an additional feature of Vitaphone all talking pictures, doubles the 'life-likeness' of this most vivid and enjoyable of all talking pictures. "
"Look for the thrill of a lifetime the day you see Gold Diggers of Broadway. . . . . And look for the Vitaphone sign when you want talking picture entertainment-always!"
"Picture a profuse procession of revue spectacle scenes in amazing settings. . . . superbly staged chorus dancing numbers. . . . . . the flashing wit of Winnie Lightner. . . . the charm of Nancy Welford. . . . . the astounding dancing of Ann Pennington. . . . . the crooning of Nick Lucas. . . . . love scenes as only Conway Tearle can play them. . . . . . a story that had New York gasping and giggling for one solid year. . . . and you only begun to imagine the treat that is in store for you"
Mabel: "I don't care what kind of a man he is as long as he has pants and an income"
Topsy: "And you're not so particular about the pants, are you"
Steve Lee to Blake: "I'm living Jim, just living. We've been letting ourselves get old. These young people are dancing the kinks out of our knees and our hearts. The spirit of youth. You ought to welcome it. "
Topsy: "I've got a very sore"
Stage manager: "Sore what?"
Eleanor: "Tell him the truth darling. One can't shock him. He's been married. . . . . . . frequently"
Blake "A Gold Digger, generally a woman, who extracts money and other valuables from the gentlemen of her acquaintance, generally without making any adequate return".
The film was shot using Vitaphone sound on disc combined with full aperture nitrate Technicolor two-component prints. Vitaphone was a Sound film process used on features and nearly 2000 Short subjects produced by Warner Bros Nitrocellulose (also cellulose nitrate, flash paper) is a highly flammable compound formed by Nitrating Cellulose through exposure to Technicolor is the trademark for a series of color film processes pioneered by Technicolor Motion Picture Corporation The discs (including the overture) have survived, but until around 1986, nothing was thought to have survived from the film. It was at this time, that the last reel, minus the final minute was donated to the British Film Institute as a silent, 35mm, Technicolor print on nitrate stock. The British Film Institute ( BFI) is a charitable organisation established by Royal Charter to encourage the development of the arts of film television This was faithfully copied and thus restored. The film preservation, or film restoration, movement is an ongoing project among film historians archivists Museums and Non-profit organizations to rescue Nearly ten years later another reel was discovered in Australia (the end of the distribution line) and this turned out to be the penultimate reel featuring the 'Tip-toe thru the Tulips' production number. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. A reel is an object around which lengths of another material (usually long and flexible are wound for storage It was also missing a short bridging sequence. Footage from the start of the film also survives in a 1937, black and white trailer for Gold Diggers of 1937 and also in a 35mm, nitrate fragment lasting approx twenty seconds and purchased on ebay, found with a toy projector. Gold Diggers of 1937 is a Warner Bros movie musical directed by Lloyd Bacon with musical numbers created and directed by Busby Berkeley
Although the film had copyright renewed in the late 1950s, it does not appear to have been shown on Television (16mm black-and-white prints were made of other early Warner Bros. talkies). Warner Bros Entertainment Inc (or Warner Bros, Warner Bros Pictures) is one of the world's largest producers of Film and It is currently unclear why the film wasn't reprinted but as with many titles with no optical soundtrack, conjecture might suggest that the Vitaphone discs may have been lost at that particular time.
Two excerpts from the film were released as a bonus feature on the 80th Anniversary 3-Disc Deluxe Edition DVD of The Jazz Singer. The Jazz Singer is a 1927 American Musical film. The first feature-length motion picture with synchronized Dialogue 
The song 'Painting the Clouds With Sunshine' was originally the main theme for the film. After Nick Lucas signed up for the film (he was hired by Darryl Zanuck) it was spotted as a potential hit and 'Tip-toe thru the Tulips' was written to enlarge the film and proved, against expectations to be just as popular. Nick Lucas ( August 22, 1897 &mdash July 28, 1982) was an American singer and pioneer jazz guitarist remembered as "the grandfather Darryl Francis Zanuck ( September 5, 1902 &ndash December 22, 1979) was an Academy Award -winning producer, Writer Zanuck provided an extra production number for the tune. It became his theme song, yet ended up being emulated in a much different version by the 1960s singer Tiny Tim who recorded it as a novelty, and eventually attached a campy stigma to the tune that would remain, seemingly forever after. Herbert Khaury ( April 12 1932 &ndash November 30 1996) better known by the Stage name Tiny Tim, was an American Lucas was a favorite of Tiny Tim's, however, and even appeared as a guest at Tim's infamous wedding ceremony on The Tonight Show in 1969, singing both of their trademark number. The Tonight Show with Jay Leno as appropriate --> The Tonight Show is a long-running
The basic storyline was modified and reused in later Warner Bros. films such as Gold Diggers of 1933 (1933) and Painting the Clouds With Sunshine (1951). Gold Diggers of 1933 is a Warner Bros Musical film directed by Mervyn LeRoy with songs by Harry Warren (music and Al Dubin
Director Roy Del Ruth married star Winnie Lightner in 1940. Roy Del Ruth ( October 18, 1893 &ndash April 27, 1961) was a Hollywood film director Winnie Lightner ( September 17, 1899 – March 5, 1971) was an American Motion picture Actress.
The two production numbers for "Painting the Clouds with Sunshine" and "Tiptoe Through the Tulips" both start on a smaller set and move to a larger one. " Tiptoe Through the Tulips " is a popular song originally published in 1926. To change between sets while the song was sung and create a seamless transition, instead of using a curtain, a shot of a stagehand was shown, throwing a sparking electric lighting switch which darkens one scene out and fades in another.
The two only actors in the 1929 film to have also appeared in the 1923 silent version, The Gold Diggers, were Gertrude Short and Louise Beavers. The Gold Diggers ( 1923) is a Warner Bros silent film directed by Harry Beaumont with screenplay by Grant Carpenter based on the Louise Beavers ( March 8, 1902 - October 26, 1962) was an American Film Actress. Largely forgotten today, Short is perhaps best known to film buffs as the aggressive reporter who hounds Robert Armstrong in the opening reel of Son of Kong (1933). Son of Kong is a 1933 adventure movie and a Sequel to the successful film King Kong. Louise Beavers, who made her (uncredited) film debut in the silent The Gold Diggers would eventually make 156 film appearances, many of them as scene-stealing maids, and played "Beulah" for a season on the TV series of that name. Louise Beavers ( March 8, 1902 - October 26, 1962) was an American Film Actress. For other uses see Beulah. The Beulah Show is an American situation-comedy series that ran in radio on CBS  She also starred with Claudette Colbert in the original 1934 version of Imitation of Life, largely considered her greatest role. Claudette Colbert ( IPA: /koʊlˈbɛɹ/ ( September 13, 1903 – July 30, 1996) was a French -born American stage Imitation of Life is a popular 1933 novel by Fannie Hurst, which was adapted into two successful Films for Universal Pictures: a Black-and-white
Winnie Lightner became one of Warner Bros. biggest stars in 1930. She starred in two lavish Technicolor features in that year: Hold Everything and The Life of the Party. Technicolor is the trademark for a series of color film processes pioneered by Technicolor Motion Picture Corporation Hold Everything ( 1930) is an All-Talking musical comedy that was photographed entirely in Technicolor. The Life of the Party is a 1930 musical comedy film photographed entirely in Technicolor. Winnie Lightner's first appearance as the title character in the 1931 Olsen & Johnson comedy Gold Dust Gertie pays homage to her success in Gold Diggers of Broadway by utliizing "Song of the Gold Diggers" as the musical underscoring during this sequence. Gold Dust Gertie ( 1931) is an All-Talking musical comedy It was originally completed as a full musical Her flapperish care-free demeanor became decidedly dated as the conservatism of the 1930s took it course and this probably explains why she retired from films in 1934.
In a late 1960s audiotaped interview with Winnie Lightner, she speculated that her extremely poor eyesight (which began to fail unusually early) was due to her frequent exposure to the brilliant lighting required for the string of early Technicolor films she appeared in between 1929 and 1930.
Majestic Pictures attempted to cash in on the "Gold Diggers" concept by naming a feature Gold Diggers of Paris, however Warner Bros. prevented this via legal action. Warners released a film called Gold Diggers in Paris in 1938. Gold Diggers in Paris is a Warner Bros movie musical directed by Ray Enright with musical numbers created and directed by Busby Berkeley The year 1938 in film involved some significant events Events January &mdash MGM announces that Judy Garland