Classification and external resources
|a woman with a goiter|
A goitre (BrE), or goiter (AmE) (Latin struma), also called a bronchocele, is a swelling in the neck (just below the Adam's apple or larynx) due to an enlarged thyroid gland. The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify Diseases The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision ( ICD -10) is a coding of diseases and signs symptoms abnormal findings E00-E35 - Endocrine diseases (E00-E07 Thyroid gland / Thyroid hormone ( Congenital iodine-deficiency syndrome ( E00-E35 - Endocrine diseases (E00-E07 Thyroid gland / Thyroid hormone ( Congenital iodine-deficiency syndrome ( The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify Diseases The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. The Diseases Database is a free Website that provides information about the relationships between medical conditions Symptoms, and Medications. MedlinePlus, with the MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia, is a website network containing Health information from the world's largest medical Library Medical Subject Headings ( MeSH) is a huge Controlled vocabulary (or metadata system for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books British English or UK English ( BrE, BE, en-GB) is the broad term used to distinguish the forms of the English language used in the Phonology North American English regional phonology In many ways compared to English English, North American English is conservative in its Phonology. Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. The larynx (plural larynges) colloquially known as the voicebox, is an organ in the Neck of Mammals involved in protection of the The thyroid is one of the largest Endocrine glands in the body
They are classified in different ways:
Other type of classification:
Other causes are:
Iodine is necessary for the synthesis of the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). Thyroid cancer refers to any of four kinds of malignant Tumors of the Thyroid gland papillary, follicular, medullary or Iodine is an essential Trace element; the Thyroid hormones Thyroxine and Triiodotyronine contain iodine Hormones (from Greek ὁρμή - "impetus" are chemicals released by cells that affect cells in other parts of the body Thyroxine, or 353'5'-tetraiodothyronine (often abbreviated as T4) a form of Thyroid hormones is the major Hormone secreted by the Triiodothyronine, C15[[hydrogen H12]] I3[[nitrogen N]] O4, also known as T3, is a Thyroid In endemic goitre, iodine deficiency leaves the thyroid gland unable to produce its hormones because the hormones are made out of iodine. When levels of thyroid hormones fall, thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) is produced by the hypothalamus. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone ( TRH) also called thyrotropin-releasing factor ( TRF) thyroliberin or protirelin, is a tropic TRH then prompts the pituitary gland to make thyrotropin or thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), which stimulates the thyroid gland’s production of T4 and T3. It also causes the thyroid gland to grow in size by increasing cell division.
Goitre is more common among women, but this includes the many types of goitre caused by autoimmune problems, and not only those caused by simple lack of iodine.
Treatment may not be necessary if the goitre is small. Goitre may be related to hyper- and hypothyroidism (especially Graves' disease) and may be reversed by treatment of hyper- and hypothyroidism. Hypothyroidism is the disease state in humans and animals caused by insufficient production of Thyroid hormone by the Thyroid gland. Grave's disease can be corrected with antithyroid drugs (such as propylthiouracil and methimazole), thyroidectomy (surgical removal of the thyroid gland), and iodine-131 (a radioactive isotope of iodine that is absorbed by the thyroid gland and destroys it). Propylthiouracil ( PTU) or 6-N-Propylthiouracil (PROP is a Thioamide drug used to treat Hyperthyroidism by decreasing the amount of Methimazole (also known as Tapazole) is an antithyroid drug similar in action to Propylthiouracil, and part of the Thioamide A thyroidectomy involves the surgical removal of all or part of the Thyroid gland. Iodine-131 (131I, also called radioiodine, is a Radioisotope of Iodine which has medical and pharmaceutical uses Hypothyroidism may raise the risk of goitre because it usually increases the production of TRH and TSH. Levothyroxine, used to treat hypothyroidism, can also be used in euthyroid patients for the treatment of goitre. Levothyroxine suppressive therapy decreases the production of TRH and TSH and may reduce goitre, thyroid nodules, and thyroid cancer. Blood tests are needed to ensure that TSH is still in range and the patient has not become subclinically hyperthyroid. If TSH levels are not carefully monitored, levothyroxine may increase the risk of osteoporosis.
Thyroidectomy or 131I may be necessary in euthyroid goitrous patients who do not respond to levothyroxine treatment, especially if the patients have difficulty breathing or swallowing. 131I, with or without the pre-injection of synthetic TSH, can relieve obstruction and reduce the size of the goitre by thirty to sixty-five percent. Depending on how large the goitre is and how much of the thyroid gland must be removed or destroyed, thyroidectomy or 131I may produce hypothyroidism requiring life-long treatment.
Paracelsus (1493–1541) was the first person to propose a relationship between goitre and minerals (particularly lead) in drinking water. Paracelsus (11 November or 17 December 1493 in Einsiedeln Switzerland – 24 September 1541 in Salzburg, Austria) was an alchemist, 
Iodine was discovered by Bernard Courtois in 1811 from seaweed ash. Bernard Courtois, also spelled Barnard Courtois, ( 12 February 1777 &ndash 27 September 1838) was a French Chemist
Goitre was previously common in many areas that were deficient in iodine in the soil. Soil, often typeset as SOiL, is a four piece rock band from Chicago Illinois United States founded by Shaun Glass Tom Schofield Tim King and Adam Zadel For example, in the English Midlands, the condition was known as Derbyshire Neck. This article is mainly about the English Midlands For other uses see Midlands (disambiguation. In the United States, goitre was found in the Great Lakes, Midwest, and Intermountain regions. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The Laurentian Great Lakes are a chain of freshwater lakes located in eastern North America, on the Canada–United States border. The condition now is practically absent in affluent nations, where table salt is supplemented with iodine. For sodium chloride in the diet see Salt. Sodium chloride, also known as common salt, table salt, or Halite, is a However, it is still prevalent in India, Central Asia and Central Africa. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country Central Asia is a region of Asia from the Caspian Sea in the west to central China in the east and from southern Russia in the north to northern Pakistan in the south Central Africa is a core Region of the African Continent often considered to include Burundi, the Central African Republic, Chad
Some health workers fear that a resurgence of goitre might occur because of the trend to use rock salt and/or sea salt, which has not been fortified with iodine. Halite is the Mineral form of Sodium chloride, Na[[chlorine Cl]] commonly known as rock salt. Sea salt, obtained by evaporating Seawater, is used in Cooking and Cosmetics. Iodine (ˈaɪədaɪn ˈaɪədɪn or /ˈaɪədiːn/ from ιώδης iodes "violet" is a Chemical element that has the symbol I and Atomic
New research indicates that there may in fact be a tendency to inherit an increased vulnerability to goitre.
This episode pokes fun at research showing that goitre is more prevalent in the elderly. Andrea True (born July 26, 1943, Nashville, Tennessee) is a former Adult film star who was also a Singer Jose Arabe Fadul is a multi-awarded Filipino science education specialist educational psychologist academic teacher historian and author known for his works in psychology Kim Il-sung ( 15 April 1912 – 8 July 1994) was the leader of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea from its founding in early George Walton Lucas Jr (born May 14, 1944) is an Academy Award -winning American Film director, producer, Screenwriter Seinfeld is an American Situation comedy, or sitcom that originally aired on NBC from July 5 1989 to May 14 1998 lasting nine seasons "The Old Man" is the fifty-eighth episode of the American television sitcom Seinfeld.