|Gir Forest National Park|
|IUCN Category II (National Park)|
|Location||Junagadh District, Gujarat, India|
|Visitors||60,000 (in 2004)|
|Governing body||Forest Department of Gujarat|
The Gir Forest National Park and Wildlife Sanctuary (also known as Sasan-Gir and गिर वन) is the sole home of the pure Asiatic Lions (Panthera leo persica). A national park is a reserve of land usually declared and owned by a national Government, protected from most Human development and pollution Junagadh District is located on the Kathiawar peninsula in western Gujarat, with the city of Junagadh as its administrative headquarters Gujarat (ગુજરાત Gujǎrāt, pronounced) is a state in western India. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country See Junagarh for disambiguation Junagadh is a city and a Municipal corporation, the headquarters of Junagadh district A national park is a reserve of land usually declared and owned by a national Government, protected from most Human development and pollution Wildlife includes all non-domesticated plants animals and other organisms Sanctuary has multiple meanings A sanctuary is the consecrated area of a church or temple around its tabernacle or altar The Asiatic Lion ( Panthera leo persica) is a subspecies of the Lion which survives today only in India where it is also known as the Indian lion The Hindi name is "गिर वन". Hindi ( Devanāgarī: hi [[wiktहिन्दी हिन्दी]] or hi [[wiktहिंदी हिंदी]] IAST:, IPA:) is Measuring about 258 km² for the fully protected area (the National Park) and 1153 km² for the Sanctuary, the area is considered to be one of the most important protected areas in Asia due to its supported species. Protected areas are locations which receive protection because of their environmental cultural or similar value In Biology, a species is one of the basic units of Biological classification and a Taxonomic rank.
Established in 1965, the total area of 1412 km² is located about 65 km to the south-east of Junagadh city of the Junagadh district in the kathiawar peninsula of Gujarat state, India. Year 1965 ( MCMLXV) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. See Junagarh for disambiguation Junagadh is a city and a Municipal corporation, the headquarters of Junagadh district Junagadh District is located on the Kathiawar peninsula in western Gujarat, with the city of Junagadh as its administrative headquarters Kathiawar or Kathiawad ( Gujarati: કાઠીયાવાડ; kaʈʰijaʋaɽ is a Peninsula in western India. A peninsula is a piece of land that is nearly surrounded by Water but connected to Mainland via an Isthmus. Gujarat (ગુજરાત Gujǎrāt, pronounced) is a state in western India. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country
The ecosystem of Gir, with its diverse flora and fauna, is a result of the efforts of the Government forest department, wildlife activists and NGOs. An ecosystem is a natural unit consisting of all plants animals and micro-organisms( Biotic factors in an area functioning together with all of the non-living physical ( In Botany, flora ( Plural: floras or florae has two meanings The first meaning flora of an area or of time period, refers to all Fauna is all of the Animal life of any particular region or time Activism, in a general sense can be described as intentional action to bring about social or political change The forest area of Gir and its lions were declared as "protected" in the early 1900's by the then Nawab of the princely state of Junagadh. Year 1900 ( MCM) was an exceptional Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar A Nawab or Nawaab ( Urdu: نواب Hindi: नवाब was originally the Subedar (provincial governor or viceroy of a For other uses see Principality, Other princely states A Princely State (also called Native State or Indian State) was a See Junagarh for disambiguation Junagadh is a city and a Municipal corporation, the headquarters of Junagadh district This initiative assisted in the conservation of the lions whose population had plummeted to only 15 through slaughter for trophy hunting. Trophy hunting is the selective Hunting of Wild game animals While parts of the slain animal may be kept as a hunting trophy or memorial (usually the skin
The April 2005 census recorded the lion-count in Gir at 359, an increase of 32 compared to 2001. A census is the procedure of acquiring information about every member of a given population Year 2001 ( MMI) was a Common year starting on Monday according to the Gregorian calendar. The lion breeding programme covering the park and surrounding area has bred about 180 lions in captivity since its inception.
In addition to the two seasons of summer and winter, Gir has a tropical monsoon climate. Summer is one of the four Temperate Seasons Summer marks the warmest time of year with the longest days Winter is one of the four Seasons of Temperate zones Calculated astronomically, it begins on the Solstice and ends on the Equinox The Tropics are centered on the Equator and limited in Latitude by the Tropic of Cancer in the northern hemisphere at approximately 23°26' (23 A monsoon is a seasonal prevailing wind which lasts for several months It can become very hot during the summer, with noon temperature reaching 43 °C or 109 °F, and humid during the monsoon in June. Humidity is the amount of water vapor in the air In daily language the term "humidity" is normally taken to mean Relative humidity. In winter the temperature drops to about 10 °C or 50 °F. The normal monsoon starts from mid-June and lasts till September, with the annual rainfall ranging between 600 mm and 1000 mm. Rain is Liquid precipitation. On Earth it is the condensation of atmospheric Water vapor into drops heavy enough to fall often making it to However, because of the irregular monsoon and uneven distribution of rainfall across the peninsula, drought years are common. A drought is an extended period of months or years when a region notes a deficiency in its water supply
The park and the sanctuary remain open all year but the cool and dry weather between late-November and early-March is the recommended visiting period. During this period it is easier to sight the wildlife in the open.
The seven major perennial rivers of the Gir region are Hiran, Saraswati, Datardi, Shingoda, Machhundri, Ghodavari and Raval. A perennial stream or perennial river is a Stream or River (channel that has continuous flow in parts of its bed all year round during years of normal The four reservoirs of the area are at four dams, one each on Hiran, Machhundri, Raval and Shingoda rivers, including the biggest reservoir in the area, the Kamleshwar Dam, dubbed 'the lifeline of Gir'.
During peak summer, surface water for wild animals is available at about 300 water points. When drought hits the area following a poor rainfall, surface water is not available at a majority of these points, and water scarcity becomes a serious problem (mainly in the eastern part of the sanctuary). Ensuring the availability of water during peak summer is one of the major tasks of the Forest Department staff.
More than 400 flora species have been recorded by the survey of Gir forest by Samtapau & Raizada in 1955. In Botany, flora ( Plural: floras or florae has two meanings The first meaning flora of an area or of time period, refers to all Year 1955 ( MCMLV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar) The Botany department of M.S. University of Baroda has revised the count to 507 during their survey. Botany, plant science(s, phytology, or plant biology is a branch of Biology and is the scientific study of plant Life The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, named after Maharaja Sayajirao Gaekwad III, the former ruler of Baroda, is one of the premier universities of India According to the 1964 forest type classification by Champion & Sheth, the Gir forest falls under "5A/C-1a—very dry teak forest" classification. Year 1964 ( MCMLXIV) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the 1964 Gregorian calendar. Teak occurs mixed with dry deciduous species. Teak ( Tectona) is a genus of tropical Hardwood Trees in the family Verbenaceae, native to the south and southeast of Asia Botany Autumn leaf color. See --> In Botany and Horticulture, deciduous Plants, including The degradation stages (DS) sub-types are thus derived as: 1) 5/DS1-Dry deciduous scrub forest and 2) 5/DS1-Dry savannah forests (Locally known as "vidis"). Scrubland is a Plant community characterized by scrub Vegetation. A savanna or savannah is a Tropical or Subtropical Grassland or Woodland Ecosystem. It is the largest dry deciduous forest in western India. The tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forest Biome, also known as tropical dry forest, is located at tropical and subtropical latitudes
Teak bearing areas are mainly in the eastern portion of the forest, which constitutes nearly half of the total area.
The forest is an important biological research area with considerable scientific, educational, aesthetic and recreational values. Foundations of modern biology There are five unifying principles Research is defined as Human activity based on Intellectual application in the investigation of Matter. Science (from the Latin scientia, meaning " Knowledge " or "knowing" is the effort to discover, and increase human understanding Education encompasses both the Teaching and Learning of Knowledge, proper conduct, and technical competency Aesthetics or esthetics ( also spelled æsthetics) is commonly known as the study of sensory or sensori-emotional values sometimes called Recreation or fun is the expenditure of time in a manner designed for therapeutic refreshment of one's Body or Mind. It provides nearly 5 million kilograms of green grass by annual harvesting, which is valued approximately at Rs. Grass is the common word that generally describes Monocotyledonous green Plants The family Gramineae ( Poaceae) are the "true grasses" and include In Agriculture, the harvest is the process of Gathering mature crops from the fields Reaping is the cutting of Grain 50 crores (Rs. A crore is a unit in the Indian numbering system and was formerly a unit in the Persian numbering system still widely used in Bangladesh, India, Maldives 500,000,000) (US$ 10 million). The forest provides nearly 15,000 metric tons worth of fuel wood annually. This article is about the tonne or metric ton For other tons see Ton. Wood is hard fibrous lignified structural tissue produced as secondary Xylem in the stems of Woody plants notably trees but also shrubs
The count of 2,375 distinct fauna species of Gir includes about 38 species of mammals, around 300 species of birds, 37 species of reptiles and more than 2,000 species of insects. Mammals ( class Mammalia) are a class of Vertebrate Animals characterized by the presence of Sweat glands, including sweat glands Birds ( class Aves) are bipedal endothermic ( Warm-blooded) Vertebrate animals that lay eggs. Reptiles, or members of the class Reptilia are air-breathing Cold-blooded Vertebrates that have skin covered in scales as opposed to hair or feathers Insects ( Class Insecta) are a major group of Arthropods and the most diverse group of Animals on the Earth with over a million described
The carnivores group mainly comprises Asiatic lions, Leopards, Jungle cat, Hyenas, Jackals, Mongoose, Civet cats, and Ratels. A carnivore (ˈkɑrnɪvɔər meaning 'meat eater' ( Latin carne meaning 'flesh' and vorare meaning 'to devour' is any animal with a diet consisting The Asiatic Lion ( Panthera leo persica) is a subspecies of the Lion which survives today only in India where it is also known as the Indian lion The Indian leopard ( Panthera pardus fusca) is a Leopard subspecies native to the Indian subcontinent. The jungle cat ( Felis chaus) also called the swamp lynx (although not closely related to the Lynxes, is a medium-small cat but is now considered the largest The Striped Hyena ( Hyaena hyaena) Al Dabea' الضبع Taras तरस is an omnivorous Mammal of the family The Golden Jackal ( Canis aureus) also called the Asiatic, Oriental or Common Jackal is a carnivorous Mammal of the The Small Asian Mongoose ( Herpestes javanicus) also known as the Indian Mongoose, Small Indian Mongoose, or the Javan Mongoose, is a species Desert cats and Rusty-spotted cats exist but are rarely seen. The Asiatic Wildcat ( Felis silvestris ornata) also known as the Asian Steppe Wildcat or Indian Desert Cat, is a subspecies of Wildcat that The Rusty-spotted Cat ( Prionailurus rubiginosus) is a very small wild cat of southern India and Sri Lanka.
The main herbivores of Gir are Chital, Nilgai (or Bluebull), Sambar, Four-horned Antelope, Chinkara and Wild boar. Herbivory is a form of Predation in which an Organism, known as a herbivore, consumes principally Autotrophs ref name=Campbell>Campbell The chital or cheetal ( Axis axis) also known as chital deer, spotted deer or axis deer is a Deer which commonly inhabits Blue bull redirects here For the South African Rugby union team see Blue Bulls. The Four-horned Antelope ( Tetracerus quadricornis) also known as the chousingha is an Antelope found in open forest in South Asia. The Chinkara ( Gazella bennettii) or Jabeer Gazelle is a species of Gazelle found in South Asia. The boar or wild boar ( Sus scrofa) is an Omnivorous, gregarious Mammal of the biological family Suidae. Blackbucks from the surrounding area are sometimes seen in the sanctuary. Blackbuck ( Antilope cervicapra) is a species of Antelope found mainly in India, but also in parts of Pakistan and Nepal.
Among the smaller mammals, Porcupine and Hare are common but the Pangolin is rare. Porcupines are Rodents with a coat of sharp spines or quills that defend them from predators Hares and jackrabbits are Leporids belonging to the Genus Lepus. The reptilians are represented by the mugger Marsh crocodile (highest population among all protected areas in India), the Indian Star Tortoise and the Monitor Lizard in the water areas of the sanctuary. Reptilian humanoids are a common motif in Mythology, Folklore, Science fiction, Ufology, and contemporary Conspiracy theories The mugger crocodile ( Crocodylus palustris) (literally "crocodile of the Marsh " also called the Iranian, marsh, muggar The Indian Star Tortoise ( Geochelone elegans) is a Species of Tortoise found in dry areas and scrub forest in India and Sri Lanka Monitor lizards are the family Varanidae, a group of carnivorous lizards which includes the largest living lizard the Komodo dragon. Snakes are found in the bushes and forest. A snake is an elongate Reptile of the suborder Serpentes Like all reptiles snakes are covered in scales. Pythons are sighted at times along the stream banks. Common names pythons The Pythonidae are a family of non- Venomous Snakes found in Africa, Asia Gir has been used by the Gujarat State Forest Department which adopted the Indian Crocodile Conservation Project in 1977 and released close to 1000 Marsh crocodile reared in Gir rearing centre into the Kamaleshwar lake and other reservoirs and small water bodies in and around Gir.
The plentiful avifauna population has more than 300 species of birds, most of which are resident. Birds ( class Aves) are bipedal endothermic ( Warm-blooded) Vertebrate animals that lay eggs. The scavenger group of birds has 6 recorded species of Vultures. Scavenging, or necrophagy, is a Carnivorous Feeding behaviour in which a predator consumes Corpses or Carrion that were killed Vultures are scavenging Birds feeding mostly on the carcasses of dead Animals Vultures are found on every continent except Antarctica and Some of the typical species of Gir include Crested Serpent Eagle, endangered Bonelli's Eagle, Crested Hawk-eagle, Brown Fish Owl, Great Horned Owl, Bush Quail (or Quailbush), Pygmy Woodpecker, Black-headed Oriole, Crested Treeswift and Indian Pitta. The Crested Serpent Eagle, Spilornis cheela or is a Bird of prey. An endangered species is a population of an organism which is at risk of becoming Extinct because it is either few in numbers or threatened by changing environmental or predation The Bonelli's Eagle ( Aquila fasciata) is a large Bird of prey. The Changeable Hawk-eagle, (Nisaetus cirrhatus, is a Bird of prey of the family Accipitridae. The Brown Fish Owl, Bubo zeylonensis or Ketupa zeylonensis, is an Owl. The Great Horned Owl, Bubo virginianus, is a large owl native to North and South America Perdicula is a Genus of Quail. Species list Jungle Bush-quail, ( Perdicula asiatica) The Pygmy Woodpecker Dendrocopos kizuki is a species of Woodpecker found in Russia, China, Korea and Japan. The Black-headed Oriole ( Oriolus larvatus) is an African Passerine. The Crested Treeswift ( Hemiprocne coronata) is a kind of Tree swift. The Indian Pitta, Pitta brachyura, is a medium-sized Passerine Bird. The Indian Grey Hornbill was not found in the last census of 2001. The Indian Grey Hornbill ( Ocyceros birostris) is a common Hornbill on the Indian subcontinent. Year 2001 ( MMI) was a Common year starting on Monday according to the Gregorian calendar.
The Asiatic Lions habitat is dry scrubland and open deciduous forest. These lions were once found across northern Africa, south west Asia and northern Greece. Now there are only around 350 left in the wild and all of them are in the Gir Forest National Park.
Even though the Gir Forest is well protected, there are instances of Asiatic Lions being poached. They have also been poisoned for attacking livestock. Some of the other threats include floods, fires and the possibility of epidemics and natural calamities. Gir nonetheless remains the most promising long term preserve for the lions as they are thriving in the park.
The Lion Breeding Programme creates and maintains breeding centres. It also carries out studies of the behaviour of the Asiatic lions and also practices artificial insemination. AIH redirects here For the indie rock band abbreviated AIH see Architecture in Helsinki Artificial insemination (AI is the process by which One such centre has been established in the Sakkarbaug Zoo at the district headquarters of Junagadh, which has successfully bred about 180 lions. See Junagarh for disambiguation Junagadh is a city and a Municipal corporation, the headquarters of Junagadh district 126 pure Asiatic lions have been given to zoos in India and abroad.
The census of lions takes place every five years. A census is the procedure of acquiring information about every member of a given population Previously indirect methods like using pugmarks of the lion were adopted for the count. Pugmark is the term used to refer to the Footprint of most animals (especially Megafauna) However, during the census of April 2005 (which originally was scheduled for 2006, but was advanced following the reports and controversy over vanishing tigers in India), "Block-Direct-Total Count" method was employed with the help of around 1,000 forest officials, experts and volunteers. A census is the procedure of acquiring information about every member of a given population Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. It means that only those lions were counted that were "spotted" visually. Use of "live bait" (a prey that is alive and used as a bait) for the exercise, though thought to be a traditional practice, was not used this time. Bait is any substance used to attract Prey, eg in a Mousetrap. The reason believed to be behind this is the Gujarat High Court ruling of 2000 against such a use of animals. The Gujarat High Court (गुजरात उच्च न्यायालय is the High Court of the state of Gujarat. 2000 ( MM) was a Leap year that started on Saturday of the Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar.
Gir National Park and Sanctuary does not have a designated area for tourists. However, to reduce the tourism hazard to the wildlife and to promote nature education, an Interpretation Zone has been created at Devalia within the sanctuary. Within its chained fences, it covers all habitat types and wildlife of Gir with its feeding-cum-living cages for the carnivores and a double-gate entry system. Typically the inside population of the zone includes about 100 spotted deer, about 100 Nilgai (or Bluebull), about 15 wild boars, about half a dozen sambars and blackbucks, and other mammal and reptilian species along with birds. The chital or cheetal ( Axis axis) also known as chital deer, spotted deer or axis deer is a Deer which commonly inhabits In addition limited number of tourists are allowed into the sanctuary on designated routes. The best time to visit the area is outside the monsoon season.
Work has been going on over the past decade to establish the world's second completely removed population of the wild free ranging Asiatic Lions. The Asiatic Lion Reintroduction Project is an effort to save the last Asiatic lions from Extinction in the wild Kuno Wildlife Sanctuary or Palpur-Kuno Wildlife Sanctuary (between latitudes of 25°30’- 25°53’N & longitude of 77°07’-77°26’E lies in the Sheopur district Wildlife Institute of India researchers confirmed that the Palpur-Kuno Wildlife Sanctuary is the most promising location to re-establish a free ranging population of the Asiatic lions and certified it ready to receive its first batch of translocated lions from Gir Wildlife Sanctuary where they are highly overpopulated. Kuno Wildlife Sanctuary or Palpur-Kuno Wildlife Sanctuary (between latitudes of 25°30’- 25°53’N & longitude of 77°07’-77°26’E lies in the Sheopur district The Gir Forest National Park and Wildlife Sanctuary (also known as Sasan-Gir and गिर वन) is the sole home Kuno Wildlife Sanctuary was selected as the reintroduction site for critically endangered Asiatic lion because it is in the former range of the lions before it was hunted into extinction in about 1873. Reintroduction is the deliberate release of species into the wild from captivity or relocated from other areas where the species survives Organisms with a conservation status of critically endangered have an extremely high risk of becoming extinct .
Photographs of Gir National Forest: http://picasaweb.google.co.in/chandrahas.dabke/GirForestGirnarMountain2023032008
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