Giovanni Gabrieli (c. 1554/1557 – August 12, 1612) was an Italian composer and organist. Events 1099 - First Crusade: Battle of Ascalon - Crusaders under the command of Godfrey of Bouillon defeat Fatimid A composer (literally meaning 'one who puts together' is a person who creates Music, usually in the medium of notation, for Interpretation and Performance The organ (from Greek όργανον – organon "organ instrument tool" is a Keyboard instrument of one or more divisions each He was one of the most influential musicians of his time, and represents the culmination of the style of the Venetian School, at the time of the shift from Renaissance to Baroque idioms. In music history the Venetian School is a term used to describe the Composers working in Venice from about 1550 to around 1610; it also describes Renaissance music is European music written during the Renaissance, approximately 1400 - 1600 Baroque music describes an era and a set of styles of European classical music which were in widespread use between approximately 1600 and 1750.
Gabrieli was most likely born in Venice. Venice ( Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venesia or Venexia) is a city in Northern Italy, the capital of the He was one of five children, and his father came from the town of Carnia to Venice shortly before Giovanni's birth. Carnia ( Cjargne in standard Friulian, Cjargna / Cjargno in local variants of Friulian Karnien in German) is a historical-geographic While not much is known about Giovanni's early life, he probably studied with his uncle, the composer Andrea Gabrieli; he may indeed have been brought up by him, as is implied in some of his later writing. Andrea Gabrieli (1532/1533? – August 30, 1585) was an Italian Composer and Organist of the late Renaissance. He also went to Munich to study with the renowned Orlando de Lassus at the court of Duke Albrecht V; most likely he stayed there until about 1579. Munich (München; Minga is the capital city of Bavaria, Germany. Orlande de Lassus (also Orlandus Lassus, Orlando di Lasso, Roland de Lassus, or Roland Delattre) (1532 (possibly 1530 &ndash June Albert V Duke of Bavaria (German Albrecht V Herzog von Bayern) ( 29 February 1528 &ndash 24 October 1579) was Duke of Bavaria
By 1584 he had returned to Venice, where he became principal organist at Saint Mark's Basilica in 1585, after Claudio Merulo left the post; following his uncle's death the following year he took the post of principal composer as well. The organ (from Greek όργανον – organon "organ instrument tool" is a Keyboard instrument of one or more divisions each Saint Mark's Basilica ( Italian: Basilica di San Marco a Venezia) the Cathedral of Venice, is the most famous of Claudio Merulo (also spelled Merlotti Merulus also Claudio da Correggio 8 April 1533 – 4 May 1604) was an Italian Composer Also after his uncle's death he began editing much of the older man's music, which would otherwise have been lost; Andrea evidently had had little inclination to publish his own music, but Giovanni's opinion of it was sufficiently high that he devoted much of his own time to compiling and editing it for publication.
Gabrieli's career rose further when he took the additional post of organist at the Scuola Grande di San Rocco, another post he retained for his entire life. The Chiesa di San Rocco (Church of St Roch) in Venice was built between 1489 and 1508 by Bartolomeo Bon the Younger, but was substantially San Rocco was the most prestigious and wealthy of all the Venetian confraternities, and second only to San Marco itself in splendor of its musical establishment. Some of the most renowned singers and instrumentalists in Italy performed there and a vivid description of its musical activity survives in the travel memoirs of the English writer Thomas Coryat. Thomas Coryat (also Coryate) (c 1577 &ndash 1617 was an English traveller and writer of the late Elizabethan and early Jacobean age Much of his music was written specifically for that location, although he probably composed even more for San Marco.
San Marco had a long tradition of musical excellence and Gabrieli's work there made him one of the most noted composers in Europe. The vogue that began with his influential volume Sacrae symphoniae (1597) was such that composers from all over Europe, especially from Germany, came to Venice to study. Evidently he also made his new pupils study the madrigals being written in Italy, so not only did they carry back the grand Venetian polychoral style to their home countries, but also the more intimate style of madrigals; Heinrich Schütz and others helped transport the transitional early Baroque music north to Germany, a trend that decisively affected subsequent music history. A madrigal is a type of Secular vocal music composition written during the Renaissance and early Baroque eras The Venetian polychoral style was a type of music of the late Renaissance and early Baroque eras which involved spatially separate Choirs singing in alternation Heinrich Schütz (October 8 ( JC) 1585 Köstritz - November 6 1672 Dresden) was a German Composer and organist, generally regarded The productions of the German Baroque, culminating in the music of J.S. Bach, were founded on this strong tradition, which had its roots in Venice. WikipediaWikiProject Composers#Lead section.2 This article is written in British English including maximised use of "-ise"
Gabrieli was increasingly ill after about 1606, at which time church authorities began to appoint deputies to take over duties he could no longer perform. He died in 1612, of complications from a kidney stone. Kidney stones, also called renal calculi, are solid concretions (crystal aggregations of dissolved minerals in Urine; calculi typically form
Though Gabrieli composed in many of the forms current at the time, he clearly preferred sacred vocal and instrumental music. All of his secular vocal music is relatively early; late in his career he concentrated on sacred vocal and instrumental music that exploited sonority for maximum effect.
Like composers before and after him, he would use the unusual layout of the San Marco church, with its two choir lofts facing each other, to create striking spatial effects. Most of his pieces are written so that a choir or instrumental group will first be heard from the left, followed by a response from the musicians to the right (antiphon). For the musical composition see Chorale. A choir, chorale, or chorus is a Musical ensemble of Singers This article is about the musical term See Antiphon (person the orator of ancient Greece While this polychoral style had been extant for decades— Adrian Willaert may have made use of it first, at least in Venice—Gabrieli pioneered the use of carefully specified groups of instruments and singers, with precise directions for instrumentation, and in more than two groups. This article is about the musical term See Antiphon (person the orator of ancient Greece Adrian Willaert (c 1490 &ndash 7 December 1562 was a Flemish Composer of the Renaissance and founder of the Venetian School. The acoustics were such in the church—and they have changed little in four hundred years—that instruments, correctly positioned, could be heard with perfect clarity at distant points. Thus instrumentation which looks strange on paper, for instance a single string player set against a large group of brass instruments, can be made to sound, in San Marco, in perfect balance.
In particular, one of his best-known pieces, In Ecclesiis, is a showcase of such polychoral techniques, making use of four separate groups of instrumental and singing performers, underpinned by the omnipresent organ and continuo. In Ecclesiis is arguably Giovanni Gabrieli 's most famous single work Figured bass, or thoroughbass, is a kind of integer Musical notation used to indicate intervals, chords and Nonchord tones in relation