Giacomo Matteotti (22 May 1885 – 10 June 1924) was an Italian socialist politician. Events 334 BC - The Greek army of Alexander the Great defeats Darius III of Persia in the Battle of the Granicus. Year 1885 ( MDCCCLXXXV) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Events 1190 - Third Crusade: Frederick I Barbarossa drowns in the Sally River while leading an army to Jerusalem Year 1924 ( MCMXXIV) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Socialism refers to a broad set of economic theories of social organization advocating state or collective ownership and administration of the Means of production and distribution On 30 May 1924, he openly spoke in the Italian Parliament alleging the Fascists commited fraud in the recently held elections. Events 1416 - The Council of Constance, called by the Emperor Sigismund a supporter of Antipope John XXIII burns Jerome of Prague following Year 1924 ( MCMXXIV) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. After two weeks he was kidnapped and killed by Fascists. The National Fascist Party ( Partito Nazionale Fascista; PNF was an Italian party created by Benito Mussolini as the political expression of
Matteotti was born a son of a wealthy family, in Fratta Polesine, Province of Rovigo (Veneto). Fratta Polesine is a Comune (municipality in the Province of Rovigo in the Italian region Veneto, located about 70 km southwest The Province of Rovigo ( Provincia di Rovigo) is a province in the Veneto region of Italy. Veneto or Venetia ( Vèneto) is one of the 20 regions of Italy.
A graduate in law from the University of Bologna and from early on an activist in the socialist movement and the Italian Socialist Party, he opposed Italy's entry into World War I (and was interned in Sicily during the conflict for this reason). The University of Bologna (Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna UNIBO) is one of the oldest continually operating degree-granting universities in the world The Italian Socialist Party ( Partito Socialista Italiano, PSI was a democratic socialist / social democratic political party founded in Genoa World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All Internment is the imprisonment or confinement of people commonly in large groups without trial Sicily ( Italian and Sicilian: Sicilia) is an autonomous region of Italy. As a follower of Filippo Turati, Matteotti became the leader of the United Socialist Party in the Italian Chamber of Deputies. Filippo Turati ( November 26, 1857 &ndash March 29, 1932) was an Italian sociologist, poet and Socialist The Italian Chamber of Deputies ( Camera dei Deputati) is the Lower house of the Parliament of Italy. He openly spoke out against Fascism and Benito Mussolini, and for a time was leader of the opposition to the National Fascist Party (PNF). Fascism is a totalitarian nationalist and corporatist ideology The National Fascist Party ( Partito Nazionale Fascista; PNF was an Italian party created by Benito Mussolini as the political expression of
He was murdered on 10 June 1924, after the publication of his book The Fascisti Exposed: A Year of Fascist Domination and two fierce and lengthy speeches in the Chamber of Deputies denouncing Fascism. Events 1190 - Third Crusade: Frederick I Barbarossa drowns in the Sally River while leading an army to Jerusalem Year 1924 ( MCMXXIV) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
He was bundled into a car and stabbed several times with a carpenter's file as he was struggling to escape. His corpse was found 20 miles from Rome after an extensive search. It was not yet known who committed the murder but the killer was seen as a hero by many zealous fascists.
Five men (Amerigo Dumini - a prominent member of the Fascist Ceka, Giuseppe Viola, Albino Volpi, Augusto Malacria and Amleto Poveromo) were later arrested for the crime. Amerigo Dumini (August 27 1894&mdashDecember 25 1967 was an American-born Italian fascist activist who led the group responsible for the 1924 Assassination The Ceka was the name of a unit of the National Fascist party modeled on the Russian Cheka. Only three were convicted and shortly after released under amnesty by King Victor Emmanuel III; one, Filippo Panzeri, escaped before the arrests of his accomplices. The House of Savoy (Casa Savoia was formed in the early eleventh century in the historical Savoy region Victor Emmanuel III (Vittorio Emanuele III 11 November, 1869 – 28 December, 1947) was a member of the House of Savoy and It is very likely that Mussolini ordered or was somehow involved in the assassination; in fact, a few months later (3 January 1925) he declared addressing the Parliament that he alone took "all political, moral and historical responsibility for all that has happened" (Speech to the Chamber: January 3, 1925). Events 1431 - Joan of Arc is handed over to the Bishop Pierre Cauchon. Year 1925 ( MCMXXV) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
Historians of the time, including Justin Pollard and Denis Mack Smith, thought Mussolini was probably aware of the assassination plot but that it was ordered and organized by someone else. Justin David Pollard (born 1968) MA, BA is a British Historian, Television producer and Writer Denis Mack Smith CBE Grand Official of the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic (born March 3, 1920 in London) is an English However, recent studies by Mauro Canali revealed that Mussolini probably did order the murder, as Matteotti uncovered and wanted to make public incriminating documents proving that Mussolini and his associates sold to an American oil company (Sinclair Oil) exclusive rights to use all Italian oil reserves. Sinclair Oil is an American Petroleum Corporation, founded by Harry F Oil reserves are the estimated quantities of Crude oil that are claimed to be recoverable under existing Economic and operating conditions
The death of Matteotti sparked widespread criticism of the Fascists. A general strike was threatened in retaliation and for a while it seemed that domestic and international pressure would force Victor Emmanuel into action, but as the King was supported so strongly by Mussolini and was worried he would otherwise be replaced by his cousin, he did nothing. A general strike is a Strike action by a critical mass of the labour force in a city region or country The King feared that there would be a civil war or a socialist uprising if he forced Mussolini out of power. He believed that if the socialists were to obtain power in Italy the monarchy would be abolished and of course the king did not want this. Moreover, the King was under pressure from his mother who was a Fascist supporter. Thus, Mussolini was soon able to use his influence over the media combined with a speech taking a complicated stance over who was responsible for the murder to regain the people's confidence. Using political skill Mussolini managed to take credit from his supporters while avoiding much of the blame. Most anti-Fascist parties left the Italian Parliament in protest - an event which came to be known as the Aventine Secession; albeit in a less obvious manner than the previous Acerbo Law, this event arguably served to consolidate the grip of the PNF on Italian society. Anti-fascism is the opposition to fascist ideologies organizations governments and people The Parliament of Italy ( Parlamento Italiano) is the national parliament of Italy. The Aventine Secession is the common reference to an Italian movement reuniting parties in opposition to Fascism and Benito Mussolini The Acerbo Law was a Italian electoral law proposed by Baron Giacomo Acerbo and forced through the Italian Parliament in 1923 As a result, most members of the Italian Parliament converted to the Fascist Party, either by their own will, convenience or by force, while left-wing groups, Communists and Socialists alike, faced harsh persecution and were put under constant surveillance.
Matteotti's son, Matteo Matteotti, became a Social Democratic parliamentary deputy after World War II, serving as Italy's minister of tourism in 1970-72 and minister of foreign trade in 1972–1974, and died in 2000.