George Buchanan (February, 1506 - September 28, 1582), was a Scottish historian and humanist scholar. Events 48 BC - Pompey the Great is assassinated on orders of King Ptolemy of Egypt after landing in Egypt. Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain. See also History An historian is an individual who studies and writes about History, and is regarded as an Authority on it Renaissance Humanism was a European intellectual movement beginning in Florence in the last decades of the 14th century He was part of the Monarchomach movement. The Monarchomachs (Monarchomaques were originally French Huguenots theorists who opposed Absolute monarchy at the end of the 16th century known
His father, a younger son of an old family, owned the farm of Moss, in the parish of Killearn, Stirling, but he died young, leaving his widow and children in poverty. A parish is a Local church; it is an administrative unit typically found in episcopal or presbyterian churches Killearn ( Scottish Gaelic: Cill Earnain) is a small village of approximately 1700 people in the Stirling Council area of Stirling ( Sruighlea in Gaelic) is one of the 32 unitary local government Council areas of Scotland, and has a population of about George's mother, Agnes Heriot, was of the family of the Heriots of Trabroun, East Lothian, of which George Heriot, founder of Heriot's Hospital, was also a member. East Lothian ( Lodainn an Ear in Gaelic) is one of 32 Unitary council areas in Scotland, and a lieutenancy Area. George Heriot ( 1563 - 12 February 1624) was a Scottish Goldsmith and Philanthropist. George Heriot's School is an independent primary and secondary School on Lauriston Place in Edinburgh, Scotland, with Buchanan is said to have attended Killearn school, but not much is known of his early education. In 1520 he was sent by his uncle, James Heriot, to the University of Paris, where, according to him, he devoted himself to the writing of verses "partly by liking, partly by compulsion (that being then the one task prescribed to youth). The historic University of Paris (Université de Paris first appeared in the second half of the 13th century "
In 1522 his uncle died, and Buchanan was unable to continue longer in Paris; he returned to Scotland. Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city After recovering from a severe illness, he joined the French auxiliaries who had been brought over by John Stewart, Duke of Albany, and took part in an unsuccessful foray into England. John Stewart Duke of Albany (1481 or 1484 &ndash 2 July 1536 in Mirfleur France was Regent of the Kingdom of Scotland, Duke of Albany England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland In the following year he entered the University of St Andrews, where he graduated B. The University of St Andrews is the oldest University in Scotland and third oldest in the English-speaking world, having been founded between A. in 1525. He had gone there chiefly for the purpose of attending the celebrated John Mair's lectures on logic; and when that teacher moved to Paris, Buchanan followed him in 1526. John Mair or John Major (also known in Latin as Joannes Majoris and Haddingtonus Scotus) (1467-1550 was a Scottish Philosopher Logic is the study of the principles of valid demonstration and Inference. In 1527 he graduated B. A. , and in 1528 M. A. at Paris. Next year he was appointed regent, or professor, in the College of Sainte-Barbe, and taught there for over three years. A regent, from the Latin regens "who reigns" is a person selected to act as Head of state (ruling or not because the ruler is a minor The Collège Sainte-Barbe is a former school in the 5th arrondissement of Paris, France. In 1529 he was elected "Procurator of the German Nation" in the University of Paris, and was re-elected four times in four successive months. He resigned his regentship in 1531, and in 1532 became tutor to Gilbert Kennedy, 3rd Earl of Cassilis, with whom he returned to Scotland early in 1537. Gilbert Kennedy 3rd Earl of Cassilis (1515 – 28 November 1558) was a Scottish peer, the son of Gilbert Kennedy 2nd Earl of Cassilis.
At this period Buchanan assumed the same attitude toward the Roman Catholic Church that Erasmus maintained. He did not repudiate its doctrines, but considered himself free to criticise its practice. Though he listened with interest to the arguments of the Reformers, he did not join their ranks until 1553. His first production in Scotland, when he was in Lord Cassilis's household in the west country, was the poem Somnium, a satirical attack on the Franciscan friars and monastic life generally. Satire is often strictly defined as a literary genre or form; although in practice it is also found in the graphic and Performing arts In satire human The term Franciscan is commonly used to refer to members of Catholic Those living the monastic life are known by the generic terms Monks (men and Nuns (women This assault on the monks was not displeasing to James V, who engaged Buchanan as tutor to one of his natural sons, Lord James Stewart (not the son who was afterwards regent), and encouraged him in a more daring effort. James V (10 April 1512 &ndash 14 December 1542 was King of Scots from 9 September 1513 until his death
The poems Palinodia and Franciscanus et Fratres, although they remained unpublished for many years, made the author the object of bitter hatred to the Franciscan order, and put his safety in jeopardy. In 1539 there was bitter persecution of the Lutherans, and Buchanan among others was arrested. Lutheranism is a major branch of Western Christianity that identifies with the teachings of the sixteenth-century German reformer Martin Luther He managed to effect his escape and with considerable difficulty made his way to London and thence to Paris. In Paris, however, he found his enemy, Cardinal David Beaton, who was there as ambassador, and on the invitation of André de Gouveia, proceeded to Bordeaux. David Beaton (c 1494 &ndash 29 May 1546) was Archbishop of St Andrews and the last Scottish Cardinal prior to the ( Gascon: Bordèu) is a port city in southwest France, with one million inhabitants in its metropolitan area at a 2008 estimate Gouveia was then principal of the newly founded College of Guienne at Bordeaux, and by his influence Buchanan was appointed professor of Latin. Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. During his residence here, several of his best works, the translations of Medea and Alcestis, and the two dramas, Jephthes (sive Votum) and Baptistes (sive Calumnia), were completed. Medea (Μήδεια Mēdeia) in Greek mythology was the daughter of King Aeëtes of Colchis, niece of Circe, granddaughter of Alcestis (Ἄλκηστις is a Princess in Greek mythology, known for her love of her husband.
Michel de Montaigne was Buchanan's pupil at Bordeaux and acted in his tragedies. Jacobus Houbraken ( December 25, 1698, Dordrecht &ndash November 14, 1780, Amsterdam) was a Dutch Michel Eyquem de Montaigne (French miʃɛl ekɛm də mɔ̃tɛɲ ( February 28 1533 &ndash September 13 1592) was one of the most influential writers In the essay Of Presumption he classes Buchanan with Aurat, Theodore Beza, Michel de l'Hôpital, Montdore and Turnebus, as one of the foremost Latin poets of his time. Theodore Beza ( Théodore de Bèze or de Besze) ( June 24, 1519 &ndash October 13, 1605) was a French Michel de l'Hôpital (or l'Hospital; 1507 &ndash March 13, 1573) was a French statesman Montdoré is a village and commune in the Haute-Saône département, in the French region of Franche-Comté Adrianus Turnebus (Adrien Turnèbe or Tournèbe ( 1512 - 12 June 1565) was a French classical scholar Here also Buchanan formed a lasting friendship with Julius Caesar Scaliger; in later life he won the admiration of Joseph Scaliger, who wrote an epigram on Buchanan which contains the couplet, famous in its day: "Imperii fuerat Romani Scotia limes; Romani eloquii Scotia limes erit?"
In 1542 or 1543 he returned to Paris, and in 1544 was appointed regent in the college of Cardinal le Moine. Julius Caesar Scaliger or Giulio Cesare della Scala ( April 23, 1484 &ndash October 21, 1558) was an Italian scholar and physician Joseph Justus Scaliger ( August 5 1540 &ndash January 21 1609) was a French religious leader and scholar known for expanding the An epigram is a short Poem, often with a clever twist at the end or a concise and witty statement A couplet is a pair of lines of verse. It usually consists of two lines that rhyme and have the same meter Jean Lemoine (born 1250 at Crécy-en-Ponthieu, died 1313 at Avignon) was a French canon lawyer Cardinal, Bishop of Arras and Papal legate Among his colleagues were the renowned Muretus and Adrianus Turnebus. Muretus is the Latinized name of Marc Antoine Muret ( April 12, 1526 &ndash Rome June 4, 1585) a French Adrianus Turnebus (Adrien Turnèbe or Tournèbe ( 1512 - 12 June 1565) was a French classical scholar
In 1547 Buchanan joined the band of French and Portuguese humanists who had been invited by Gouveia to lecture in the Portuguese University of Coimbra. The Portuguese people (os Portugueses literally the Portuguese) are the Ethnic group or Nation native to the country of Portugal, in the west The University of Coimbra (UC ( Portuguese: Universidade de Coimbra, pron The French mathematician Elie Vinet, and the Portuguese historian, Jerónimo Osório, were among his colleagues; Gouveia, called by Montaigne le plus grand principal de France, was rector of the university, which had reached the summit of its prosperity under the patronage of King John III. Jerónimo Osório ( 1506 - August 20, 1580) was a Portuguese historian a native of Lisbon and son of the Ouvidor Geral of India John III ( Portuguese: João III ʒuˈɐ̃ũ ( June 7, 1502 &ndash June 11, 1557) nicknamed o Piedoso But the rectorship had been coveted by Diogo de Gouveia, uncle of André and formerly head of Sainte-Barbe. It is probable that before André's death at the end of 1547 Diogo had urged the Inquisition to attack him and his staff; up to 1906, when the records of the trial were first published in full, Buchanan's biographers generally attributed the attack to the influence of Cardinal Beaton, the Franciscans, or the Jesuits, and the whole history of Buchanan's residence in Portugal was extremely obscure. The term Inquisition can refer to any one of several institutions charged with trying and convicting heretics within the Roman Catholic Church and The term Franciscan is commonly used to refer to members of Catholic The Society of Jesus ( Latin: Societas Iesu, SJ and SI or SJ, SI) is a Catholic religious order
A commission of inquiry was appointed in October 1549 and reported in June 1550. Buchanan and two Portuguese, Diogo de Teive and João da Costa (who had succeeded to the rectorship), were committed for trial. Teive and Costa were found guilty of various offences against public order, and the evidence shows that there was ample reason for a judicial inquiry. Buchanan was accused of Lutheran and Judaistic practices. Lutheranism is a major branch of Western Christianity that identifies with the teachings of the sixteenth-century German reformer Martin Luther Judaism (from the Greek Ioudaïsmos, derived from the Hebrew יהודה Yehudah, " Judah " in Hebrew יַהֲדוּת Yahedut He defended himself with conspicuous ability, courage and frankness, admitting that some of the charges were true. About June 1551 he was sentenced to abjure his errors, and to be imprisoned in the monastery of São Bento in Lisbon. Abjuration is the solemn repudiation abandonment or renunciation by or upon Oath, often the renunciation of Citizenship or some other Right or Privilege Lisbon (Lisboa liʒˈboɐ is the Capital and largest city of Portugal. Here he was compelled to listen to edifying discourses from the monks, whom he found "not unkind but ignorant. " In his leisure he began to translate the Psalms into Latin verse. Psalms ( Hebrew: Tehilim, תהילים, or "praises" is a book of the Hebrew Bible (the Christian Old Testament) included After seven months he was released, on condition that he remained in Lisbon; and on February 28, 1552 this restriction was lifted. Lisbon (Lisboa liʒˈboɐ is the Capital and largest city of Portugal. Events 202 BC - coronation ceremony of Liu Bang as Emperor Gaozu of Han takes place initiating four centuries of the Han Dynasty 's rule Buchanan at once sailed for England, but soon made his way to Paris, where in 1553 he was appointed regent in the College of Boncourt. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland He remained in that post for two years, and then accepted the office of tutor to the son of the Maréchal de Brissac. It was almost certainly during this last stay in France, where Protestantism was being repressed with great severity by King Francis I, that Buchanan took the side of Calvinism. Protestantism refers to the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated in the 16th century Protestant Reformation. Francis I (September 12 1494 &ndash March 31 1547 was crowned King of France in 1515 in the cathedral at Reims and reigned until 1547 Calvinism (sometimes called the Reformed tradition, the Reformed faith, or Reformed theology) is a theological system and an approach to the
In 1560 or 1561 he returned to Scotland, and by April 1562 was installed as tutor to the young Queen Mary I of Scotland, who read Livy with him daily. Titus Livius (traditionally 59 BC &ndash AD 17 known as Livy in English, was a Roman historian who wrote a monumental history of Rome Buchanan now openly joined the Protestant, or Reformed Church, and in 1566 was appointed by the earl of Murray principal of St Leonard's College, St Andrews. The Reformed churches are a group of Christian Protestant Denominations formally characterized by a similar Calvinist system of doctrine historically James Stewart 1st Earl of Moray (c 1531 &ndash January 23, 1570) was Regent of Scotland from 1567 until his Assassination in 1570 St Andrews (Cill Rìmhinn is a Town and former Royal burgh on the east coast of Fife, Scotland. Two years before he had received from the queen the valuable gift of the revenues of Crossraguel Abbey. The Abbey of Saint Mary of Crossraguel is a ruin of a former Abbey near the town of Maybole, South Ayrshire, Scotland. He was thus in good circumstances, and his fame was steadily increasing. So great, indeed, was his reputation for learning and administrative capacity that, though a layman, he was made Moderator of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland in 1567. The term " layman " originated from the use of the term Laity, but over the centuries changed definition to mean a person who is a non-expert in a given field of The Moderator of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland is an honorary role held for 12 months The Church of Scotland (Eaglais na h-Alba known informally by its Scots language name The Kirk, is the National church of Scotland. He had sat in the assemblies from 1563. He was the last lay person to be elected Moderator until Alison Elliot in 2004, the first female Moderator. In religious organizations the laity comprises all persons who are not Clergy. Alison Elliot OBE is the Associate Director of the Centre for Theology and Public Issues at the University of Edinburgh, Scotland.
Buchanan accompanied the regent Murray into England, and his Detectio (published in 1572) was produced to the commissioners at Westminster. In 1570, after the assassination of Murray, he was appointed one of the preceptors of the young king, and it was through his tuition that James VI acquired his scholarship. AssassiNation is the sixth album by Krisiun, released in 2006 on Century Media. A Preceptor is a teacher responsible to uphold a certain law or tradition a Precept. Tuition means instruction or teaching. In American English, the term tuition is often used to refer to a fee charged for educational instruction James VI and I (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625 was King of Scotland as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James A scholarship is an award of access to an institution or a financial aid award for an individual student scholar for the purpose of furthering their Education While discharging the functions of royal tutor he also held other important offices. He was for a short time director of chancery, and then became Keeper of the Privy Seal of Scotland, a post which entitled him to a seat in the parliament. The office of Keeper of the Privy Seal of Scotland, one of the Great Officers of State, first appears in the reign of David II. This article is about the pre-1707 parliament The article on the devolved legislative body established in 1999 is at Scottish Parliament. He appears to have continued in this office for some years, at least till 1579.
His last years had been occupied with completion and publication of two of his most important works, De Jure Regni apud Scotos (1579) and Rerum Scoticarum Historia (1582). He died in Edinburgh in 1582 and is buried in Greyfriars Kirkyard (rather ironically, considering that his old foes had been the greyfriars). Edinburgh ( ˈɛdɪnb(ərə Dùn Èideann) is the Capital of Scotland and is its second largest city after Glasgow. Greyfriars_signjpg|thumb|right|250px|A sign at the entrance giving a brief history of the Kirkyard and its inhabitants]] Greyfriars Kirkyard is the Graveyard surrounding
For mastery of the Latin language, Buchanan has seldom been surpassed by any modern writer. Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. His style is not rigidly modelled on that of any classical author, but has a freshness and elasticity of its own. He wrote Latin as if it were his mother tongue. A first language (also mother tongue, native language, arterial language, or L1) is the language a human being learns from birth Buchanan also had a rich vein of poetical feeling, and much originality of thought. His translations of the Psalms and of the Greek plays are more than mere versions; his two tragedies, Baptistes and Jephthes, enjoyed a European reputation for academic excellence.
In addition to these works, Buchanan wrote in prose Chamaeleon, a satire in Scots against Maitland of Lethington, first printed in 1711; a Latin translation of Linacre's Grammar (Paris, 1533); Libellus de Prosodia (Edinburgh, 1640); and Vita ab ipso scripta biennio ante mortem (1608), edited by R. Sibbald (1702). Chamaeleon ( Chameleon) is a minor southern Constellation. The constellation was one of twelve constellations created by Pieter Dirkszoon Keyser and Satire is often strictly defined as a literary genre or form; although in practice it is also found in the graphic and Performing arts In satire human Scots ( The Scots leid) refers to Anglic varieties derived from early northern Middle English spoken in parts of Scotland and Northern Sir William Maitland of Lethington (1525 &ndash June 9, 1573) was a Scottish politician and reformer and the eldest son of the poet Richard Maitland Thomas Linacre (or Lynaker) (c 1460 &ndash 20 December 1524) was an English humanist and Physician, after whom Linacre Sir Robert Sibbald ( April 15 1641 &ndashAugust 1722 Scottish Physician and Antiquary, was born in Edinburgh. His other poems are Fratres Fraterrimi, Elegiae, Silvae, two sets of verses entitled Hendecasyllabon Liber and Iambon Liber; three books of Epigrammata; a book of miscellaneous verse; De Sphaera (in five books), suggested by the poem of Joannes de Sacrobosco, and intended as a defence of the Ptolemaic theory against the new Copernican view. An epigram is a short Poem, often with a clever twist at the end or a concise and witty statement Johannes de Sacrobosco or Sacro Bosco ( John of Holywood, c 1195 &ndash c Claudius Ptolemaeus ( Greek: Klaúdios Ptolemaîos; after 83 &ndash ca
There are two early editions of Buchanan's works: (a) Georgii Buchanani Scoti, Poetarum sui seculi facile principis, Opera Omnia, in two vols. fol. edited by Thomas Ruddiman (Edinburgh, Freebairn, folio, 1715): (b) edited by Burman, quarto 1725. Thomas Ruddiman (October 1674 - 19 January 1757) was a Scottish Classical scholar. The Vernacular Writings.
The first of his important late works was the treatise De Jure Regni apud Scotos, published in 1579. In this famous work, composed in the form of a dialogue, and evidently intended to instil sound political principles into the mind of his pupil, Buchanan lays down the doctrine that the source of all political power is the people, that the king is bound by those conditions under which the supreme power was first committed to his hands, and that it is lawful to resist, even to punish, tyrants. A dialogue (sometimes spelled dialog) is a reciprocal Conversation between two or more entities. Politics Politics is the process by which groups of people make decisions In modern usage a tyrant is a single ruler holding absolute power over a State or within an Organization. The importance of the work is proved by the persistent efforts of the legislature to suppress it during the century following its publication. A legislature is a type of representative Deliberative assembly with the power to create amend and change Laws The law created by a legislature is called Legislation It was condemned by act of parliament in 1584, and again in 1664; and in 1683 it was burned by the University of Oxford. An Act of Parliament is a Law enacted as Primary legislation by a national or sub-national Parliament. The University of Oxford (informally "Oxford University" or simply "Oxford" located in the city of Oxford, Oxfordshire, England is the
The second of his larger works is the History of Scotland, Rerum Scoticarum Historia, completed shortly before his death (1579), and published in 1582. The history of Scotland begins around 10000 years ago when Humans first began to inhabit Scotland after the end of the Devensian glaciation, the last It is of great value for the period personally known to the author, which occupies the greater portion of the book. The earlier part is based, to a considerable extent, on the legendary history of Boece. Hector Boece (sometimes spelt Boethius, or Boyce) (1465-1536 was a Scottish Philosopher. Buchanan's purpose was to "purge" the national history "of sum Inglis lyis and Scottis vanite" (Letter to Randolph). He said that it would "content few and displease many".
Polygon Books have published the poet Robert Crawford's selection of Buchanan's verse in Apollos of the North: Selected Poems of George Buchanan and Arthur Johnston (ISBN 1-904598-81-1) in 2006, the 500th anniversary of Buchanan's birth. Birlinn Limited is an independent Publishing house based in Edinburgh, Scotland. This article refers to the footballer Robert Crawford for other Robert Crawfords see Disambiguation Robert Crawford (born 4 July Arthur Johnston (1587&ndash1641 was a Scottish Physician and Poet, and a son of Aberdeenshire laird Johnston of Johnston and Caskieben and
In the lead-up to the anniversary Professor Roger Mason of the University of St Andrews has published A Dialogue on the Law of Kingship among the Scots, a critical edition and translation of George Buchanan's 'De Iure Regni apud Scotos Dialogus (ISBN 1-85928-408-6). The University of St Andrews is the oldest University in Scotland and third oldest in the English-speaking world, having been founded between
The Stirling Smith Museum and Art Gallery is hosting an exhibition and event programme over winter 2006-7 to commemorate the anniversary, including performances of musical settings of Buchanan's psalms, due to be published in 2007. Stirling Smith Art Gallery and Museum is an institution based in Stirling, Central Scotland dedicated to the promotion of cultural and historical heritage and the arts from a local scale
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