—— Tannaitic ——
The Gemara (also Gemora) ('גמרא' - from gamar: Aramaic "[to] study" or "learning by tradition") is the part of the Talmud that contains rabbinical commentaries and analysis of the Mishnah. Rabbinic literature, in its broadest sense can mean the entire spectrum of Rabbinic writings throughout Jewish history The Mishnah or Mishna (he משנה "repetition" from the verb shanah he שנה or "to study and review" is a major work of Rabbinic Judaism The Tosefta ( Aramaic: תוספתא is a secondary compilation of the Jewish oral law from the period of the Mishnah. The Jerusalem Talmud or Talmud Yerushalmi (תַּלְמוּד יְרוּשָׁלְמִי often the Yerushalmi for short is a collection The Talmud ( Hebrew: he תַּלְמוּד is a record of Rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs and history The minor tractates (Hebrew מסכתות קטנות masechtot qetanot) are essays from the Tannaitic period or later dealing with topics about which no formal The Midrashim are mostly derived from and based upon the teachings of the Tannaim: Mekhilta or Mekilta ( Hebrew: מכילתא) is the Halakic midrash to the Book of Exodus. The Mekhilta de-Rabbi Shimon ( Hebrew: מכילתא דרבי שמעון בר יוחאי) is a Halakic midrash on Exodus from the school of Sifra ( Aramaic: סִפְרָא) is the Halakic midrash to Leviticus. Sifre ( סִפְרֵי siphrēy, Sifre Sifrei, also Sifre debe Rab or Sifre Rabbah) refers to either of two Sifre Zutta ( Hebrew: ספרי זוטא) is a Midrash on the Book of Numbers. The Mekhilta le-Sefer Devarim ( Hebrew: מכילתא לספר דברים) is a Halakic midrash to Deuteronomy from the school of Rabbi Ishmael The Baraita of Rabbi Ishmael ( Hebrew: ברייתא דרבי ישמאל) is a Baraita which explains the 13 rules of R Aggadah ( Aramaic אגדה tales lore pl Aggadot or (Ashkenazi Aggados) refers to the homiletic and non-legalistic exegetical Seder Olam Rabbah ( Hebrew: סדר עולם רבה) is the earliest post-exilic chronicle preserved in the Hebrew language. Alphabet of Akiba ben Joseph, or Otiot (Midrash Aggadah de-Rabbi Akiba ( Hebrew: אותיות דרבי עקיבא) is the title of a Midrash The Baraita of the Forty-nine Rules ( Hebrew: ברייתא מ"ט מדות) is a work of Rabbinical literature which is no longer in existence except The Baraita on the Thirty-two Rules or Baraita of R Eliezer ben Jose ha-Gelili is a Baraita giving the 32 hermeneutic rules according to which the Bible is interpreted Baraita on the Erection of the Tabernacle is a Baraita cited several times by Hai Gaon, by Nathan ben Jehiel in the Aruk, as well as in Genesis Rabba ( Bereshit Rabba in Hebrew: בראשית רבה) is a religious text from Judaism 's classical period The Midrash on Lamentations or Eichah (Lamentations Rabbah ( Hebrew: מדרש איכה רבה) like Bereshit Rabbah and the Pesikta de-Rab Kahana ( Hebrew: פסיקתא דרב כהנא) is a collection of Aggadic midrash which exists in two editions those of Solomon Buber Esther Rabbah ( Hebrew: אסתר רבה) is the Midrash to the Book of Esther in the current Midrash editions Midrash Iyyob ( Hebrew: מדרש איוב) or Midrash to Job is an Aggadic midrash that is no longer extent Leviticus Rabbah, Vayikrah Rabbah, or Wayikra Rabbah is a homiletic Midrash to the Biblical book of Leviticus ( Vayikrah in Hebrew Seder Olam Zutta ( Hebrew: סדר עולם זוטא) is an anonymous chronicle called "Zuṭa" (= "smaller" or "younger" to distinguish Midrash Tanhuma ( Hebrew: מדרש תנחומא) is the name given to three different collections of Pentateuch Haggadot; two are extant while Megillat Antiochus (מגילת אנטיוכוס - "The Scroll of Antiochus " also "Megillat HaHashmonaim" or "Megillat Hanukkah" is a work recounting Avot de-Rabbi Nathan (אבות דרבי נתן) usually printed together with the Minor tractates of the Talmud, is a Jewish Aggadic work probably Pirke De-Rabbi Eliezer ( Aramaic: פרקי דרבי אליעזר) is a Aggadic-midrashic work on Genesis, part of Exodus, and a few Tanna Devei Eliyahu ( Hebrew: תנא דבי אליהו; alternate Transliterations include Tana D'vei Eliyahu and Tana D'vei Eliahu The Alphabet of Ben-Sira ( Alphabetum Siracidis, Othijoth ben Sira) is an anonymous Medieval text attributed to Ben Sira (Sirach the author Ecclesiastes Rabbah or Kohelet Rabbah ( קהלת רבה) is an Haggadic commentary on Ecclesiastes, included in the collection of the Midrash Shir ha-Shirim Rabbah ( Hebrew: שיר השירים רבה) is a Haggadic midrash on Canticles, quoted by Rashi under the title "Midrash Deuteronomy Rabbah ( Hebrew: דברים רבה) is an Aggadic midrash or homiletic commentary on the Book of Deuteronomy. Pesikta Rabbati ( Hebrew: פסיקתא רבתי) is a collection of Aggadic Midrash (homilies on the Pentateuchal and prophetic lessons Midrash Samuel ( Hebrew: מדרש שמואל) a Haggadic midrash on the Books of Samuel, is quoted for the first time by Rashi in Midrash Proverbs ( Hebrew: מדרש משלי) is the Haggadic midrash to Book of Proverbs, first mentioned under the title "Midrash Ruth Rabbah ( Hebrew: רות רבה) is an Haggadic and homiletic interpretation of the Book of Ruth, which like that of the four other scrolls A Baraita of Samuel ( Hebrew: בריתא דרבי שמואל) was known to Jewish scholars from Shabbethai Donolo in the 10th century to The Targum Sheni ( "Second Targum") is an Aramaic translation ( Targum) and elaboration of the Book of Esther, that embellishes Midrash Tehillim ( Hebrew: מדרש תהלים) or Midrash to Psalms is a Haggadic midrash known since the 11th century when it was quoted by Midrash Hashkem, also known as Midrash ve-Hizhir is a purely Haggadic midrash on the Pentateuch. Exodus Rabbah ( Hebrew: שמות רבה) is the Midrash to Exodus, containing in the printed editions 52 parashiyyot Shir ha-Shirim Zutta ( Hebrew: שיר השירים זוטא) is a Midrash, or rather homiletic commentary on Canticles; referred to in Midrash Tadshe ( Hebrew: מדרש תדשא) is a Small midrash which begins with an interpretation of Gen Sefer haYashar (midrash, a Hebrew Midrash known in English translation mostly as The Book of Jasher. The Yalkut Shimoni ( Hebrew: ילקוט שמעוני) or simply Yalkut is an Aggadic compilation on the books of the Old Testament Machir ben Abba Mari ( Hebrew: מכיר בן אבא מרי) was the author of a work entitled Yalkut ha-Makiri (ילקוט המכירי but about whom Midrash Jonah is the Midrash to the Book of Jonah, read on the Day of Atonement as Hafṭarah during the Minḥah prayer and containing Ein Yaakov (עין יעקב is a compilation of all the Aggadic material in the Talmud together with commentaries Midrash ha-Gadol or The Great Midrash ( Hebrew: מדרש הגדול) is an anonymous late (14th century compilation of Aggadic midrashim on the Numbers Rabbah (or Bamidbar Rabbah in Hebrew) is a religious text holy to classical Judaism. A number of Midrashim exist which are smaller in size and generally later in date than those dealt with in the articles Midrash Haggadah and Midrash Halakah. A targum ( Hebrew: תרגום plural targumim, lit "translation interpretation" is an Aramaic Translation of the Hebrew term " Torah " ( Hebrew: תּוֹרָה "teaching" or "instruction" sometimes translated as "Law" most commonly refers to Targum Onkelos (or Unkelus) is the official eastern ( Babylonian) Targum to the Torah. Targum Pseudo-Jonathan is a western Targum (translation of the Torah (Pentateuch from the Land of Israel. Nevi'im (נְבִיאִים "Prophets" is the second of the three major sections in the Hebrew Bible, the Tanakh, between the Targum Jonathan (תרגום יונתן בן עוזיאל - otherwise referred to as Targum Yonasan/Yonatan is the official eastern ( Babylonian) Targum Ketuvim (כְּתוּבִים "writings" is the third and final section of the Tanakh ( Hebrew Bible) after Torah and Nevi'im The Targum Sheni ( "Second Targum") is an Aramaic translation ( Targum) and elaboration of the Book of Esther, that embellishes Aramaic is a Semitic language with The Talmud ( Hebrew: he תַּלְמוּד is a record of Rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs and history The Mishnah or Mishna (he משנה "repetition" from the verb shanah he שנה or "to study and review" is a major work of Rabbinic Judaism After the Mishnah was published by Rabbi Judah the Prince (c. 200 CE), the work was studied exhaustively by generation after generation of rabbis in Babylonia and the Land of Israel. Events By Place World Human population reaches about 257 million Babylonia was an Amorite state in lower Mesopotamia (modern southern Iraq) with Babylon as its capital For other uses see Israel (disambiguation The Land of Israel ( Hebrew: אֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל Eretz Yisrael) is Their discussions were written down in a series of books that became the Gemara, which when combined with the Mishnah constituted the Talmud.
There are two versions of the Gemara. One version was compiled by scholars of Israel, primarily of the academies of Tiberias and Caesarea, which was published between about 350-400 CE. Tiberias ( British English: /taɪˈbɪəriæs -əs/ American English: /taɪˈbɪriəs/ טְבֶרְיָה Tverya; طبرية Ṭabariyyah Caesarea Maritima (Greek παράλιος Καισάρεια called Caesarea Palaestina from 133 CE onwards was a city and Harbor built by Herod the Great Events By Place Roman Empire January 18 — Magnentius is proclaimed emperor by the army in Autun. Events By Place Western Roman Empire Italy is first invaded by Alaric (probable date The other version by scholars of Babylonia, primarily of the academies of Sura, Pumbedita, and Mata Mehasia, which was published about 500 CE. Sura was a city in the southern part of ancient Babylonia, located west of the Euphrates River. Pumbedita (sometimes Pumbeditha, Pumpedita, or Pumbedisa) was the name of a city in ancient Babylonia that was a major center of Talmud Sura was a city in the southern part of ancient Babylonia, located west of the Euphrates River. Events By Place Europe Possible date for the Battle of Mons Badonicus: Romano-British and Celts defeat an Anglo-Saxon By convention, a reference to the "Gemara" or "Talmud," without further qualification, refers to the Babylonian version.
The Gemara and the Mishnah together make up the Talmud. The Talmud ( Hebrew: he תַּלְמוּד is a record of Rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs and history The Talmud thus comprises two components: the Mishnah - the core text; and the Gemara - analysis and commentary which “completes” the Talmud (see Structure of the Talmud). The Talmud ( Hebrew: he תַּלְמוּד is a record of Rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs and history
In a narrower sense, the word Gemara refers to the mastery and transmission of existing tradition, as opposed to sevara, which means the deriving of new results by logic. Both activities are represented in the "Gemara" as a literary work. The term "gemara" for the activity of study is far older than its use as a description of any text: thus Pirke Avot, a work long preceding the recording of the Talmud, recommends starting "Mishnah" at the age of 10 and "Gemara" at the age of 15. Pirkei Avot / Ovos (Ethics of the Fathers פרקי אבות is a tractate of the Mishna composed of ethical maxims of the Rabbis of the Mishnaic period
The analysis of the Amoraim is generally focused on clarifying the positions, words and views of the Tannaim. These debates and exchanges form the "building-blocks" of the gemara; the name for a passage of gemara is a sugya (סוגיא; plural sugyot). A sugya will typically comprise a detailed proof-based elaboration of the Mishna. In Logic, an argument is a Set of one or more Declarative sentences (or "propositions") known as the Premises along Every aspect of the Mishnaic text is treated as a subject of close investigation. This analysis is aimed at an exhaustive understanding of the Mishna's full meaning.
In the Talmud, a sugya is presented as a series of responsive hypotheses and questions - with the Talmudic text as a record of each step in the process of reasoning and derivation. A hypothesis (from Greek) consists either of a suggested explanation for a phenomenon (an event that is observable or of a reasoned proposal suggesting a possible The Gemara thus takes the form of a dialectical exchange. In classical Philosophy, dialectic (διαλεκτική is controversy the exchange of arguments and counter-arguments respectively advocating Propositions (By contrast, the Mishnah states concluded legal opinions - and often differences in opinion between the Tannaim. Posek ( Hebrew פוסק po·ˈseq pl Poskim, פוסקים is the term in Jewish law for "decider"—a legal scholar who decides the There is little dialogue. ) The disputants here are termed the makshan (questioner, "one who raises a difficulty") and tartzan (answerer, "one who puts straight").
The gemara records the semantic disagreements between Tannaim and Amoraim. Semantics is the study of meaning in communication The word derives from Greek σημαντικός ( semantikos) "significant" from Some of these debates were actually conducted by the Amoraim, though many of them are hypothetically reconstructed by the Talmud's redactors. (Often imputing a view to an earlier authority as to how he may have answered a question: "This is what Rabbi X could have argued. . . ") Rarely are debates formally closed.
The distinctive character of the gemara derives largely from the intricate use of argumentation and debate, described above. In each sugya, either participant may cite scriptural, Mishnaic and Amoraic proof to build a logical support for their respective opinions. In Logic, an argument is a Set of one or more Declarative sentences (or "propositions") known as the Premises along The process of deduction required to derive a conclusion from a prooftext is often logically complex and indirect. "Confronted with a statement on any subject, the Talmudic student will proceed to raise a series of questions before he satisfies himself of having understood its full meaning. " . This analysis is often described as "mathematical" in approach; Adin Steinsaltz makes the analogy of the Amoraim as scientists investigating the Halakha, where the Tanakh, Mishnah, Tosefta and midrash are the phenomena studied. Rabbi Adin Steinsaltz (Hebrew עדין שטיינזלץ or Adin Even Yisrael (Hebrew עדין אבן ישראל (born 1937 is most commonly known for his popular commentary A scientist, in the broadest sense refers to any person that engages in a systematic activity to acquire Knowledge or an individual that engages in such practices Halakha ( הלכה; alternative transliterations include Halocho and Halacha) is the collective body of Jewish Religious law See also Old testament, Septuagint, Targum, Peshitta The Tanakh (תַּנַ"ךְ (taˈnax or; also Tenakh or Tenak is The Mishnah or Mishna (he משנה "repetition" from the verb shanah he שנה or "to study and review" is a major work of Rabbinic Judaism The Tosefta ( Aramaic: תוספתא is a secondary compilation of the Jewish oral law from the period of the Mishnah. The Midrashim are mostly derived from and based upon the teachings of the Tannaim: A phenomenon (from Greek φαινόμενoν, pl φαινόμενα - phenomena) is any observable occurrence
Prooftexts quoted to corroborate or disprove the respective opinions and theories will include:
The actual debate will usually centre on the following categories:
Why does the Mishna use one word rather than another? If a statement is not clear enough, the Gemara seeks to clarify the Mishna's intention.
Exploring the logical principles underlying the Mishnah's statements, and showing how different understandings of the Mishnah's reasons could lead to differences in their practical application. What underlying principle is entailed in a statement of fact or in a specific instance brought as an illustration? If a statement appears obvious, the Gemara seeks the logical reason for its necessity. It seeks to answer under which circumstances a statement is true, and what qualifications are permissible. All statements are examined for internal consistency.
Resolving contradictions, perceived or actual, between different statements in the Mishnah, or between the Mishnah and other traditions; e. g. , by stating that: two conflicting sources are dealing with differing circumstances; or that they represent the views of different Rabbis. Do certain authorities differ or not? If they do, why do they differ? If a principle is presented as a generalization, the gemara clarifies how much is included; if an exception, how much is excluded.
Demonstrating how the Mishnah's rulings or disputes, derive from interpretations of Biblical texts. The Gemara will often ask where in the Torah the Mishnah derives a particular law. term " Torah " ( Hebrew: תּוֹרָה "teaching" or "instruction" sometimes translated as "Law" most commonly refers to See The thirteen rules by which Jewish law was derived. Halakha ( הלכה; alternative transliterations include Halocho and Halacha) is the collective body of Jewish Religious law