A gazetteer is a geographical dictionary or directory, an important reference for information about places and place names (see: toponomy), used in conjunction with a map or a full atlas. A dictionary is a book of alphabetically listed Words in a specific language with definitions etymologies pronunciations and other information or a book of alphabetically Generally a directory, as used in Computing and Telephony, refers to a Repository or Database of information which is heavily optimised Toponymy refers to the scientific study of place-names ( toponyms) their origins meanings use and Typology. A map is a visual representation of an area—a symbolic depiction highlighting relationships between elements of that space such as objects, Regions, and Themes An atlas is a collection of Maps typically of Earth or a region of Earth but there are atlases of the other planets (and their satellites in the solar system  It typically contains information concerning the geographical makeup of a country, region, or continent as well as the social statistics and physical features, such as mountains, waterways, or roads. Geography (from Greek γεωγραφία - geografia) is the study of the Earth and its lands features inhabitants and phenomena In Political geography and International politics, a country is a Political division of a geographical entity The article is about the geographic sense of the term For other uses including Regions and Regional, see Region (disambiguation. A continent is one of several large Landmasses on Earth. They are generally identified by Convention rather than any strict criteria with seven regions Social statistics is the use of statistical measurement systems to study Human behavior in a social environment A mountain is a Landform that extends above the surrounding Terrain in a limited area with a peak A waterway is any navigable Body of water. These include Rivers Lakes Seas Oceans and Canals In order for a waterway A road is an identifiable route, way or path between two or more places. Examples of information you would find include the location of places, dimensions of physical features, population, GDP, literacy rate, etc. In Statistics, a statistical population is a set of entities concerning which Statistical inferences are to be drawn often based on a Random sample traditional definition of literacy is considered to be the ability to read and write or the ability to use Language to read, write, listen, This information is generally divided into overhead topics with entries listed in alphabetical order.
Gazetteers of ancient Greece existed since the Hellenistic era. The term ancient Greece refers to the period of Greek history lasting from the Greek Dark Ages ca This article focuses on the cultural aspects of the Hellenistic age for the historical aspects see Hellenistic period. The first known gazetteer of China appeared by the 1st century, and with the age of print media in China by the 9th century, the Chinese gentry became invested in producing gazetteers for their local areas as a source of information as well as local pride. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National The history of printing began as an attempt to make easier and reduce the cost of reproducing multiple copies of documents fabrics wall papers and so on For the article on the development of printing in Europe see History of western typography. In imperial China, Gentry were the class of landowners who were retired mandarins or their descendants Although existent only in fragments, the geographer Stephanus of Byzantium wrote a geographical dictionary in the 6th century which influenced later European compilers of gazetteers by the 16th century. Stephanus of Byzantium, also known as Stephanus Byzantinus ( Greek:; fl Modern gazetteers can be found in reference sections of most libraries as well as on the Web. A library is a collection of information sources resources and services and the structure in which it is housed it is organized for use and maintained by a public body an institution The World Wide Web (commonly shortened to the Web) is a system of interlinked Hypertext documents accessed via the Internet.
The Oxford English Dictionary defines the "gazetteer" as a "geographical index or dictionary". The Oxford English Dictionary ( OED) published by the Oxford University Press (OUP is a comprehensive Dictionary of the English  It includes as an example a work by the British historian Laurence Echard (d. Laurence Echard (circa 1670 - 1730 was a British Historian. He was born at Barsham, Suffolk, and educated at Cambridge took orders and became Archdeacon 1730) in 1693 that bore the title "The Gazetteer's: or Newsman's Interpreter: Being a Geographical Index".  Echard wrote that the title "Gazetteer's" was suggested to him by a "very eminent person" whose name he chose not to disclose.  For Part II of this work published in 1704, Echard referred to the book as "the Gazeteer' simply. " This marked the introduction of the word 'gazetteer' into the English language. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States  Historian Robert C. White suggests that the "very eminent person" written of by Echard was his colleague Edmund Bohun, and chose not to mention Bohun because he became associated with the Jacobite movement. Jacobitism was (and to a limited extent remains the political movement dedicated to the restoration of the Stuart kings to the thrones of England, Scotland 
Since the 18th century, the word "gazetteer" has been used interchangeably to define either its traditional meaning (i. e. a geographical dictionary or directory) or a daily newspaper, such as the London Gazetteer. A newspaper is a written Publication containing News, information and Advertising, usually printed on low-cost paper called Newsprint. 
Gazetteers are often categorized by the type, and scope, of the information presented. World gazetteers usually consist of an alphabetical listing of countries, with pertinent statistics for each one, with some gazetteers listing information on individual cities, towns, villages, and other settlements of varying sizes. Statistics is a mathematical science pertaining to the collection analysis interpretation or explanation and presentation of Data. A city is an Urban area with a large Population and a particular Administrative, Legal, or Historical status A town is a type of settlement ranging from a few to several thousand (occasionally hundreds of thousands inhabitants although it may be applied loosely even to huge metropolitan A village is a clustered human settlement or community, larger than a hamlet, but smaller than a Town or City. A town is a type of settlement ranging from a few to several thousand (occasionally hundreds of thousands inhabitants although it may be applied loosely even to huge metropolitan Short-form gazetteers, often used in conjunction with computer mapping and GIS systems, may simply contain a list of place-names together with their locations in latitude and longitude or other spatial referencing systems (eg. Latitude, usually denoted symbolically by the Greek letter phi ( Φ) gives the location of a place on Earth (or other planetary body north or south of the Longitude (ˈlɒndʒɪˌtjuːd or ˈlɒŋgɪˌtjuːd symbolized by the Greek character Lambda (λ is the east-west Geographic coordinate measurement Spatial referencing systems (SRS are coordinate-based local regional or global systems used to locate geographical entities British National Grid reference). The British national grid reference system is a system of geographic grid references commonly used in Great Britain, different from using Latitude and Longitude Short-form gazetteers appear as a place-name index in the rear of major published atlases. Descriptive gazetteers may include lengthy textual descriptions of the places they contain, including explanation of industries, government, geography, together with historical perspectives, maps and / or photographs. For other uses of this term see Industry (disambiguation An industry (from Latin industrius, "diligent industrious" For the government of parliamentary systems see Executive (government. Geography (from Greek γεωγραφία - geografia) is the study of the Earth and its lands features inhabitants and phenomena Thematic gazetteers list places or geographical features by theme; for example fishing ports, nuclear power stations, or historic buildings. Nuclear power is any Nuclear technology designed to extract usable Energy from atomic nuclei via controlled Nuclear reactions Their common element is that the geographical location is an important attribute of the features listed.
Gazetteer editors gather facts and other information from official government reports, the census, chambers of commerce, together with numerous other sources, and organise these in digest form. A census is the procedure of acquiring information about every member of a given population A chamber of commerce (also referred to in some circles as a board of trade) is a form of Business network.
In his journal article "Alexander and the Ganges" (1923), the 20th century historian W. W. Tarn calls a list and description of satrapies of Alexander's Empire written between 324 and 323 BC as an ancient gazetteer. See also the related deity Satrapes. Satrap (Persian ساتراپ was the name given to the governors of the Provinces of ancient Alexander the Great ( or, Mégas Aléxandros; July 20 356 BC June 10 or June 11 323 BC also known as Alexander III of Macedon (el Ἀλέξανδρος Γ'  Tarn notes that the document is dated no later than June 323 BC, since it features Babylon as not yet partitioned by Alexander's generals. The Partition of Babylon designates the attribution of the territories by Alexander the Great between his generals soon after his death in 323 BCE.  It was revised by the Greek historian Diodorus Siculus in the 1st century BC.  In the 1st century BC, Dionysius of Halicarnassus mentioned the chronicle-type format of the writing of the logographers in the age before the founder of the Greek historiographic tradition, Herodotus (i. Dionysius of Halicarnassus (Halicarnassus c 60 BC–after 7 BC was a Greek historian and teacher of Rhetoric, who flourished during the reign of Generally a chronicle (chronica from Greek (from) is a historical account of facts and events in chronological order The logographers (from the Ancient Greek λογογράφος logographos, a compound of λόγος logos, here meaning 'story' or 'prose' and γράφω Herodotus of Halicarnassus ( Greek: Hēródotos Halikarnāsseús) was a Greek Historian who lived in the 5th century BC ( 484 BC&ndash e. before the 480s BC), saying "they did not write connected accounts but instead broke them up according to peoples and cities, treating each separately. " Historian Truesdell S. Brown asserts that what Dionysius' describes in this quote about the logographers should be categorized not as a true "history" but rather as a gazetteer.  While discussing the Greek conception of the river delta in ancient Greek literature, Francis Celoria notes that both Ptolemy and Pausanias of the 2nd century AD provided gazetteer information on geographical terms. A delta is a Landform where the mouth of a River flows into an Ocean, Sea, Estuary, Lake or another river Claudius Ptolemaeus ( Greek: Klaúdios Ptolemaîos; after 83 &ndash ca Pausanias ( Greek:) was a Greek traveller and Geographer of the 2nd century CE, who lived in the times of Hadrian, Antoninus 
The Domesday Book initiated by William I of England in 1086 was a government survey on all the administrative counties of England; it was used to assess the properties of farmsteads and landholders in order to tax them sufficiently. The Domesday Book (ˈduːmzdeɪ bʊk also known as Domesday, or Book of Winchester) was the record of the great survey William I of England ( 1027 His reign which brought Norman culture to England had an enormous impact on the subsequent course of England in the Middle Ages England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland In the survey, numerous English castles were listed; scholars debate on exactly how many were actually referenced in the book. A castle is a defensive structure seen as one of the main symbols of the Middle Ages.  However, the Domesday Book does detail the fact that out of 3,558 registered houses destroyed in 112 different boroughs listed, 410 of these destroyed houses were the direct result of castle construction and expansion.  In 1316, the Nomina Villarum survey was initiated by Edward II of England; it was essentially a list of all the administrative subdivisions throughout England which could be utilized by the state in order to assess how much military troops could be conscripted and summoned from each region. Nomina Villarum was a survey carried out in 1316 and contains a list of all cities boroughs and townships in England and the Lords of them For the play see Edward II (play. For the film see Edward II (film.  The Speculum Britanniae (1596) of the Tudor era English cartographer and topographer John Norden (1548–1625) had an alphabetical list of places throughout England with headings showing their administrative hundreds and referenced to attached maps. The Tudor dynasty or House of Tudor was an English royal Dynasty that lasted 118 years from 1485 to 1603 a period known as the Tudor period John Norden (1548- 1625 was an English Topographer. He was the first Englishman who designed a complete series of county histories and geographies or a  Englisham John Speed's Theatre of the Empire of Great Britaine published in 1611 provided gazetteers for counties throughout England, which included illustrative maps, short local histories, a list of administrative hundreds, an index of parishes, and the coordinates of longitude and latitude for county towns. John Speed (1542–1629 was a Historian, now best remembered as the Cartographer whose maps of English counties are often found framed in homes throughout the A parish is a Local church; it is an administrative unit typically found in episcopal or presbyterian churches Longitude (ˈlɒndʒɪˌtjuːd or ˈlɒŋgɪˌtjuːd symbolized by the Greek character Lambda (λ is the east-west Geographic coordinate measurement Latitude, usually denoted symbolically by the Greek letter phi ( Φ) gives the location of a place on Earth (or other planetary body north or south of the  Starting in 1662, the Hearth Tax Returns with attached maps of local areas were compiled by individual parishes throughout England while a duplicate of their records were sent to the central government offices of the Exchequer. The Exchequer was (and in some cases still is a part of the governments of England (latterly to include Wales) Scotland, and Northern Ireland  To supplement his 'new large Map of England' from 1677, the English cartographer John Adams compiled the extensive gazetteer "Index Villaris" in 1680 that had some 24,000 places listed with geographical coordinates coinciding with the map.  The "Geographical Dictionary" of Edmund Bohun was published in London in 1688, comprising 806 pages with some 8,500 entries. London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom.  In his work, Edmund Bohun attributed the first known Western geographical dictionary to geographer Stephanus of Byzantium (fl. Stephanus of Byzantium, also known as Stephanus Byzantinus ( Greek:; fl 6th century) while also noting influence in his work from the Thesaurus Geographicus (1587) by the Belgian cartographer Abraham Ortelius (1527–1598), but stated that Ortelius' work dealt largely with ancient geography and not up-to-date information. The Kingdom of Belgium is a Country in northwest Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts its headquarters as well as those Abraham Ortelius ( Abraham Ortels) ( April 2, 1527 – June 28, 1598) was a Belgian Cartographer and  Only fragments of Stephanus' geographical work Ethnica (Εθνικά) have survived and were first examined by the Italian printer Aldus Manutius in his work of 1502. Aldus Manutius (1449/1450 – February 6, 1515) the Latinized name of Teobaldo Mannucci, sometimes called Aldus Manutius the Elder to distinguish
The Italian monk Phillippus Ferrarrius (d. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest 1626) published his geographical dictionary "Epitome Geographicus in Quattuor Libros Divisum" in the Swiss city of Zurich in 1605. Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation Zürich (, Zürich German: Züri, Zurich, Zurigo; in English generally Zurich) is the largest city in Switzerland and capital of the  He divided this work into overhead topics of cities, rivers, mountains, and lakes and swamps.  All placenames, given in Latin, were arranged in alphabetical order for each overhead division by geographic type;. Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome.  A year after his death, his "Lexicon Geographicum" was published, which contained more than 9,000 different entries for geographic places.  This was an improvement over Ortelius' work, since it included modern placenames and places discovered since the time of Ortelius. 
Pierre Duval (1618–1683), a nephew of the French cartographer Nicolas Sanson, wrote various geographical dictionaries. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Nicolas Sanson (1600 &ndash 1667 was a French Cartographer, wrongly termed by some the creator of French Geography. These include a dictionary on the abbeys of France, a dictionary on ancient sites of the Assyrians, Persians, Greeks, and Romans with their modern equivalent names, and a work published in Paris in 1651 that was both the first universal and vernacular geographical dictionary of Europe. An abbey (from Latin abbatia derived from Syriac abba "father" is a Christian Monastery or Early history The most Neolithic site in Assyria is at Tell Hassuna, the center of the Hassuna culture The Persian Empire was a series of Iranian empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the original Persian homeland and beyond in Western Asia The term ancient Greece refers to the period of Greek history lasting from the Greek Dark Ages ca Ancient Rome was a Civilization that grew out of a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 10th century BC Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city Vernacular refers to the Native language of a country or a locality  With the gradual expansion of Laurence Echard's (d. Laurence Echard (circa 1670 - 1730 was a British Historian. He was born at Barsham, Suffolk, and educated at Cambridge took orders and became Archdeacon 1730) gazetteer of 1693, it too became a universal geographical dictionary that was translated into Spanish in 1750, into French in 1809, and into Italian in 1810. French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people Italian ( or lingua italiana) is a Romance language spoken by about 63 million people as a First language, primarily in Italy. 
Following the American Revolutionary War, United States clergyman and historian Jeremy Belknap and Postmaster General Ebenezer Hazard intended to create the first post-revolutionary geographical works and gazetteers, but they were anticipated by the clergyman and geographer Jedidiah Morse with his Geography Made Easy in 1784. In this article the inhabitants of the thirteen colonies that supported the American Revolution are primarily referred to as "Americans" with occasional references to "Patriots" The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Jeremy Belknap ( June 4, 1744 &ndash June 20, 1798) was an American clergyman and historian The United States Postmaster General is the executive head of the United States Postal Service. Ebenezer Hazard (1744–1817 was born in Philadelphia and educated at Princeton University. Jedidiah Morse ( July 23 1761 &ndash June 9 1826) was a US Clergyman and Geographer.  However, Morse was unable to finish the gazetteer in time for his 1784 geography and postponed it.  Yet his delay to publish it lasted too long, as it was Joseph Scott in 1795 who published the first post-revolutionary American gazetteer, his Gazetteer of the United States.  With the aid of Noah Webster and Rev. Noah Webster (October 16 1758 &ndash May 28 1843 was an American Lexicographer, textbook author Spelling reformer word enthusiast and editor Samuel Austin, Morse finally published his gazetteer The American Universal Geography in 1797.  However, Morse's gazetteer did not receive distinction by literary critics, as gazetteers were deemed as belonging to a lower literary class.  The reviewer of Joseph Scott's 1795 gazetteer commented that it was "little more than medleys of politics, history and miscellaneous remarks on the manners, languages and arts of different nations, arranged in the order in which the territories stand on the map. " Nevertheless, in 1802 Morse followed up his original work by co-publishing A New Gazetteer of the Eastern Continent with Rev. Elijah Parish, the latter of whom Ralph H. Brown asserts did the "lion's share of the work in compiling it. "
Gazetteers became widely popular in Britain in the 19th century, with publishers such as Fullarton, Mackenzie, Chambers and W & A. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was the formal name of the United Kingdom from 1 January 1801 until 12 April 1927 K. Johnston, many of whom were Scottish, meeting public demand for information on an expanding Empire. Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain. This British tradition continues in the electronic age with innovations such as the National Land and Property Gazetteer, the text-based Gazetteer for Scotland, and the new (2008) National Gazetteer (for Scotland), formerly known as the Definitive National Address - Scotland National Gazetteer. The National Land and Property Gazetteer (NLPG is an initiative in the United Kingdom to provide a definitive and consistent address — see Address (geography The Gazetteer for Scotland is an Encyclopaedia covering the geography, history and people of Scotland. The National Gazetteer (for Scotland has been created by all 32 Local Authorities in Scotland who have each complied a local Gazetteer for their administrative area In addition to local or regional gazetteers, there have also been comprehensive world gazetteers published; an early example would be the 1912 world gazetteer published by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins is an academic and professional medical publisher founded in 1792 and now a part of the Wolters Kluwer group  There are also interregional gazetteers with a specific focus, such as the gazetteer of the Swedish atlas "Das Bästas Bilbok" (1969), a road atlas and guide for Sweden, Norway, Finland, and Denmark. "Sverige" redirects here For other uses see Sweden (disambiguation and Sverige (disambiguation. Norway ( Norwegian: Norge ( Bokmål) or Noreg ( Nynorsk) officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Constitutional Finland, officially the Republic of Finland ( is a Nordic country situated in the Fennoscandian region of northern Europe. The Kingdom of Denmark ( ˈd̥ænmɑɡ̊ (archaic ˈd̥anmɑːɡ̊ commonly known as Denmark, is a country in the Scandinavian region of northern Europe 
In Han Dynasty (202 BC–220 AD) China, the Yuejue Shu written in 52 AD is considered by modern sinologists and historians to be the prototype of the gazetteer (Chinese: difangzhi), as it contained essays on a wide variety of subjects including changes in territorial division, the founding of cities, local products, and customs. Taiwan ( Taiwanese: Tâi-oân/Tāi-oân (historically 大灣/台員/大員/台圓/大圓/台窩灣 is an Island in East Asia. The Kangxi Emperor ( Mongolian Enkh Amgalan Khaan, May 4, 1654 &ndash December 20, 1722) was the third Emperor of Not to be confused with Qin Dynasty, the first dynasty of Imperial China The Han Dynasty ( 206 BC–220 AD followed the Qin Dynasty and preceded the Three Kingdoms in China. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National Sinology in general use is the study of China and things related to China but especially in the American academic context refers more strictly to the study of classical language  There are over 8,000 gazetteers of pre-modern China that have survived.  Gazetteers became more common in the Song Dynasty (960–1279), yet the bulk of surviving gazetteers were written during the Ming Dynasty (1368–1644) and Qing Dynasty (1644–1912). The Song Dynasty ( Wade-Giles: Sung Ch'ao was a ruling dynasty in China between 960&ndash1279 CE it succeeded the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms The Ming Dynasty ( or Empire of the Great Ming ( was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644 following the collapse of the Mongol -led Not to be confused with Qin Dynasty, the first dynasty of Imperial China  Modern scholar Liu Weiyi notes that just under 400 gazetteers were compiled in the era between the fall of the Han Dynasty in 220 and the Tang Dynasty (618–907). The Tang Dynasty ( Middle Chinese: dhɑng (June 18 618&ndashJune 4 907 was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui Dynasty and followed by  Gazetteers from this era focused on boundaries and territory, place names, mountains and rivers, ancient sites, local products, local myths and legends, customs, botany, topography, and locations of palaces, streets, temples, etc. Chinese mythology is a collection of Cultural history, Folktales, and Religions that have been passed down in oral or written form Botany, plant science(s, phytology, or plant biology is a branch of Biology and is the scientific study of plant Life Topography ( topo-, "place" and graphia, "writing" is the study of Earth 's Surface features or those of Planets  By the Tang Dynasty the gazetteer became much more geographically specific, with a broad amount of content arranged topically; for example, there would be individual sections devoted to local astronomy, schools, dikes, canals, post stations, altars, local deities, temples, tombs, etc.  By the Song Dynasty it became more common for gazetteers to provide biographies of local celebrities, accounts of elite local families, bibliographies, and literary anthologies of poems and essays dedicated to famous local spots.  Song gazetteers also made lists and descriptions of city walls, gate names, wards and markets, districts, population size, and residences of former prefects. Prefecture, in the context of China, is used to refer to several unrelated political divisions in both ancient and modern China. 
In 610, after the Sui Dynasty (581–618) united a politically divided China, Emperor Yang of Sui had all the empire's commanderies prepare gazetteers called 'maps and treatises' (Chinese: tujing) so that a vast amount of updated textual and visual information on local roads, rivers, canals, and landmarks could be utilized by the central government to maintain control and provide better security. The Sui Dynasty ( 581 - 618 AD and in the undertaking of other construction projects including the reconstruction of the Great Wall. Background Yang Guang was born in 569 during the reign of Emperor Wu of Northern Zhou. This article talks about the history of the Political divisions of China. Cartography or mapmaking (in Greek chartis = map and graphein = write has been an integral part of the human story for a long time (maybe 8000 years  Although the earliest extant Chinese maps date to the 4th century BC, and tujing since the Qin (221–206 BC) or Han dynasties, this was the first known instance in China when the textual information of tujing became the primary element over the drawn illustrations. Cartography or mapmaking (in Greek chartis = map and graphein = write has been an integral part of the human story for a long time (maybe 8000 years Not to be confused with the Qing Dynasty, the last dynasty of China  This Sui Dynasty process of providing maps and visual aids in written gazetteers—as well as the submitting of gazetteers with illustrative maps by local administrations to the central government—was continued in every subsequent Chinese dynasty. The following is a Chronology of the dynasties in Chinese history. 
Historian James M. Hargett states that by the time of the Song Dynasty, gazetteers became far more geared towards serving the current political, administrative, and military concerns than in gazetteers of previous eras, while there were many more gazetteers compiled on the local and national levels than in previous eras.  Emperor Taizu of Song ordered Lu Duosun and a team of cartographers and scholars in 971 to initiate the compilation of a huge atlas and nationwide gazetteer that covered the whole of China proper, which comprised approximately 1,200 counties and 300 prefectures. Ancestry and early life His family was of fairly modest origins and cannot be traced back with certainty further than the late Tang dynasty. China proper (also known as Inner China) refers to the historical lands of China where the Han Chinese are the majority Ethnic group, in contrast In the context of Political divisions of China, county is the standard English translation of 县 ( xiàn) Prefecture, in the context of China, is used to refer to several unrelated political divisions in both ancient and modern China.  This project was completed in 1010 by a team of scholars under Song Zhun, who presented it in 1,566 chapters to the throne of Emperor Zhenzong. Emperor Zhenzong ( December 23, 968 - March 23, 1022) was the third emperor of the Song Dynasty of China.  This Sui Dynasty process of infrequently collecting tujing or "map guides" continued, but it would be enhanced by the matured literary genre of fangzhi or "treatise on a place" of the Song Dynasty.  Although Zheng Qiao of the 12th century did not notice the fangzhi while writing his encyclopedic Tongzhi including monographs to geography and cities, others such as the bibliographer Chen Zhensun of the 13th century were listing gazetteers instead of the map guides in their works.  The main differences between the fangzhi and the tujing was that the former was a product of "local initiative, not a central command" according to Peter K. Bol, and were usually ten, twenty, or even fifty chapters in length compared to the average four chapters for map guides.  Furthermore, the fangzhi were almost always printed because they were intended for a large reading audience, whereas tujing were exclusive records read by the local officials who drafted them and the central government officials who collected them. For the article on the development of printing in Europe see History of western typography.  Although most Song gazetteers credited local officials as the authors, already in the Song there were bibliographers who noted that non-official literati were asked to compose these works or did so on their on behalf.  By the 16th century—during the Ming Dynasty—local gazetteers were commonly composed due to local decision-making rather than a central government mandate.  Historian Peter K. Bol states that local gazetteers composed in this manner were the result of increased domestic and international trade that facilitated greater local wealth throughout China.  Historian R. H. Britnell writes of gazetteers in Ming China, "by the sixteenth century, for a county or monastery not to have a gazetteer was regarded as evidence that the place was inconsequential. In the context of Political divisions of China, county is the standard English translation of 县 ( xiàn) Chinese Buddhism ( Pinyin fójiào refers collectively to the various schools of Buddhism that have flourished in China proper since ancient times "
While working in the Department of Arms, the Tang Dynasty cartographer Jia Dan (730–805) and his colleagues would acquire information from foreign envoys about their respective homelands, and from these interrogations would produce maps supplemented by textual information. The Three Departments and Six Ministries system ( was the main central administrative system adopted in ancient China. Jia Dan ( 730&ndash805 Courtesy name Dunshi (敦诗 was a Chinese scholar-official, geographer, and cartographer Imperial China had a long tradition of Foreign relations. From the Qin Dynasty until the Qing Dynasty, Chinese civilization  Even within China, ethnographic information on ethnic minorities of non-Han peoples were often described in the local histories and gazetteers of provinces such as Guizhou during the Ming and Qing dynasties. Ethnography ( Greek ethnos = people and graphein = writing is a genre of writing that uses Fieldwork to provide a descriptive Ethnic minorities in China refer to the non- Han Chinese population in Mainland China and Taiwan. Han Chinese ( are an Ethnic group native to China and by most modern definitions the largest single Ethnic group in the world. ( also spelled Kweichow) is a province of the People's Republic of China located in the southwestern part of the country  As the Qing Dynasty pushed further with its troops and government authorities into areas of Guizhou that were uninhabited and not administered by the Qing government, the official gazetteers of the region would be revised to include the newly drawn-up districts and non-Han ethnic groups (mostly Miao peoples) therein. The Miao ( Vietnamese: Mèo or H'Mông Thai: แม้ว (Maew or ม้ง (Mong Burmese: mun lu-myo) are a linguistically and culturally  While the late Ming Dynasty officials who compiled the information on the ethnic groups of Guizhou offered scanty details about them in their gazetteers (perhaps due to their lack of contact with these peoples), the later Qing Dynasty gazetteers often provided a much more comprehensive analysis.  By 1673, the Guizhou gazetteers featured different written entries for the various Miao peoples of the region.  Historian Laura Holsteter writes on the woodblock print illustrations of Miao peoples in the Guizhou gazeteer, stating "the 1692 version of the Kangxi gazetteer show a refinement in the quality of the illustrations by comparison to 1673. For the use of the technique in art see Woodcut on the technique and Old master print for the history in Europe and Woodblock printing in Japan. The Kangxi Emperor ( Mongolian Enkh Amgalan Khaan, May 4, 1654 &ndash December 20, 1722) was the third Emperor of "
Historian Timothy Brook states that Ming Dynasty gazetteers demonstrate a shift in the attitudes of Chinese gentry towards the traditionally lower merchant class. In imperial China, Gentry were the class of landowners who were retired mandarins or their descendants The four occupations or " four categories of the people " (Chinese 四民 pinyin simin) was a hierarchic social class structure developed in ancient  As time went on, the gentry solicited funds from merchants to build and repair schools, print scholarly books, build Chinese pagodas on auspicious sites, and other things that were needed by the gentry and scholar-officials in order to succeed. The Chinese Pagoda is a Landmark in Birmingham, England. It is a stone carving of a Chinese pagoda, carved in Fujian, China Scholar-bureaucrats or scholar-officials were civil servants appointed by the Emperor of China to perform day-to-day governance from the Sui Dynasty to  Hence, the gentry figures composing the gazetteers in the latter half of the Ming period spoke favorably of merchants, whereas before they were rarely mentioned.  Brook and other modern sinologist historians also examine and consult the local Ming gazetteers to compare population info with the contemporary central government records, which often provided dubious population figures that did not reflect the actually larger population size of China during the time. 
Although better known for his work on the Gujin Tushu Jicheng encyclopedia, the early-to-mid Qing scholar Jiang Tingxi aided other scholars in the compilation of the "Daqing Yitongzhi" ('Gazetteer of the Qing Empire'). The Gujin Tushu Jicheng ( is a vast encyclopaedic work written in China during the reigns of Qing emperors Kangxi and Yongzheng Jiang Tingxi ( 1669–1732 Courtesy name Yangsun (杨孙 was a Chinese painter, and an editor of the Encyclopedia  This was provided with a preface in 1744 (more than a decade after Jiang's death), revised in 1764, and reprinted in 1849. 
The Italian Jesuit Matteo Ricci created the first comprehensive world map in the Chinese language in the early 17th century, while comprehensive world gazetteers were later tanslated into Chinese by Europeans. The history of the missions of the Jesuits in China in the early modern era stands as one of the notable events in the early history of relations between China and Matteo Ricci SJ ( October 6 1552 &ndash May 11 1610;; Courtesy name: 西泰 Xītài was an Italian Jesuit priest The Christian missionary William Muirhead (1822–1900), who lived in Shanghai during the late Qing period, published the gazetteer "Dili quanzhi", which was reprinted in Japan in 1859. See also Protestantism in China China and the West were virtually unaware of each other’s civilizations until the nineteenth century Shanghai ( 上[[wikt 海|海]] is the largest city in China in terms of population and one of the largest urban areas in the world with over 20 million  Divided into fifteen volumes, this work covered Europe, Asia, Africa, and the Pacific Ocean Archipelagos, and was sub-divided further into sections on geography, topography, water masses, atmosphere, biology, anthropology, and historical geography. Arctic Ocean Canadian Arctic Archipelago Belcher Islands Queen Elizabeth Islands  Chinese maritime trade gazetteers mentioned a slew of different countries that came to trade in China, such as United States vessels docking at Canton in the "Yuehaiguanzhi" ('Gazetteer of the Maritime Customs of Guangdong') published in 1839 (reprinted in 1935). The United States of America —commonly referred to as the  The Chinese language gazetteer "Haiguo tuzhi" ('Illustrated Gazetteer of the Sea Kingdoms') by Wei Yuan in 1844 (with material influenced by the "Sizhou zhi" of Lin Zexu) was printed in Japan two decades later 1854. Wei Yuan ( April 23 1794 — August 26 1856) born Wei Yuanda (魏远达 Courtesy names Moshen (默深 and Lin Zexu ( Styled: Yuanfu (元抚 ( August 30, 1785 &ndash November 22, 1850) was a Chinese scholar and official during  This work was popular in Japan not for its geographical knowledge, but for its analysis of potential defensive military strategy in the face of European imperialism and the Qing's recent defeat in the First Opium War due to European artillery and gunboats. The First Opium War or the First Anglo-Chinese War was fought between the British East India Company and the Qing Dynasty in China from 1839 
Continuing an old tradition of fangzhi, the Republic of China had gazetteers composed and created national standards for them in 1929, updating these in 1946. REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES  The printing of gazetteers was revived in 1956 under Mao Zedong and again in the 1980s, after the reforms of the Deng era to replace the people's communes with traditional townships. Mao Zedong ( 26 December 1893 – 9 September 1976) was a Chinese Military and political leader who led Deng Xiaoping ( 22 August 1904 19 February 1997) was a prominent Chinese Revolutionary, Politician, Pragmatist and Reformer The people's commune ( in the People's Republic of China, were formerly the highest of three administrative levels in rural areas during the period of 1958 to 1982-85 until Township ( is the basic level of political divisions in China.  The difangzhi effort under Mao yielded little results (only 10 of the 250 designated counties ended up publishing a gazetteer), while the writing of difangzhi was interrupted during the Cultural Revolution (1966–1976), trumped by the village and family histories which were more appropriate for the theme of class struggle. The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution in the People’s Republic of China was a struggle for power within the Communist Party of China that manifested into Class struggle is the active expression of Class conflict looked at from any kind of socialist perspective  A Li Baiyu of Shanxi forwarded a letter to the CCP Propaganda Department on May 1, 1979, which urged for the revival of difangzhi. ( Postal map spelling: Shansi) is a province in the northern part of the People's Republic of China. The Propaganda Department of the Communist Party of China Central Committee ( is an internal division of the Communist Party of China, and therefore is not formally Events 305 - Diocletian and Maximian retire from the office of Roman Emperor. Year 1979 ( MCMLXXIX) was a Common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1979 Gregorian calendar)  This proposal was sponsored by Hu Yaobang in June 1979 while Hu Qiaomu of the CCP Politburo lended his support for the idea in April 1980. Hu Yaobang ( Chinese: 胡耀邦 Pinyin: Hú Yàobāng Wade-Giles: Hu Yao-pang 20 November 1915&ndash15 April 1989 was a leader of the People's Hu Qiaomu ( Traditional Chinese: 胡喬木 Simplified Chinese: 胡乔木 Pinyin: Hú Qiáomù (1912-1992 was a revolutionary Sociologist  The first issue of a modern national journal of difangzhi was issued by January 1981. 
In Korea, scholars based their gazetteers largely on the Chinese model. Korea is a geographic area composed of two sovereign countries a civilization and a former state situated on the Korean Peninsula in East Asia.  Like Chinese gazetteers, there were national, provincial, and local prefecture Korean gazetteers which featured geographic information, demographic data, locations of bridges, schools, temples, tombs, fortresses, pavilions, and other landmarks, cultural customs, local products, resident clan names, and short biographies on well-known people.  In an example of the latter, the 1530 edition of "Tongguk yogi su ngnam" ('New Edition of the Korean National Gazetteer') gave a brief statement about Pak Yŏn (1378–1458), noting his successful career in the civil service, his exceptional filiality, his brilliance in music theory, and his praisable efforts in systematizing ritual music for Sejong's court. See also Bureaucrat The term civil service has two distinct meanings Branch of governmental service in which individuals are hired on the basis Music theory is the field of study that deals with the Mechanics of music and how Music works  King Sejong established the Joseon Dynasty's first national gazetteer in 1432, called the "Sinch'an p'aldo" ('Newly Compiled Geographic Treatise on the Eight Circuits').  With additional material and correction of mistakes, the title of this gazetteer was revised in 1454 as the "Sejong Sillok chiriji" ('King Sejong's Treatise on Geography'), updated in 1531 under the title "Sinjŭng tongguk yŏji sŭngnam" ('Augmented Survey of the Geography of Korea'), and enlarged in 1612.  The Joseon Koreans also created international gazetteers. The "Yojisongnam" gazetteer compiled from 1451–1500 provides a small description for 369 different foreign countries known to Joseon Korea in the 15th century. 
In Japan, there were also local gazetteers in pre-modern times, called fudoki. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics.  Japanese gazetteers preserved historical and legendary accounts of various regions. For example, the Nara era (710–794) provincial gazetteer "Harima no kuni fudoki" of Harima province provides a story of an alleged visit by Emperor Ōjin in the 3rd century while on an imperial hunting expedition. The of the History of Japan covers the years from AD 710 to 794. or Banshu (播州 was a province of Japan in the part of Honshū that is the southwestern part of present-day Hyōgo Prefecture. or rather Ōjin ōkimi was the 15th imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession  Local Japanese gazetteers could also be found in later periods such as the Edo period. The, also referred to as the Tokugawa period (徳川時代 Tokugawa-jidai) is a division of Japanese history running from 1603 to 1868  Gazetteers were often composed by the request of wealthy patrons; for example, six scholars in the service of the daimyo of the Ikeda household published the "Biyō kokushi" gazetteer for several counties in 1737. The ( were powerful territorial lords who ruled most of Japan from their vast hereditary land holdings  World gazetteers were written by the Japanese in the 19th century, such as the "Kon'yo zushiki" ('Annotated Maps of the World') published by Mitsukuri Shōgo in 1845, the "Hakkō tsūshi" ('Comprehensive Gazetteer of the Entire World') by Mitsukuri Genpo in 1856, and the "Bankoku zushi" ('Illustrated Gazetteer of the Nations of the World'), which was written by an Englishman named Colton, translated by Sawa Ginjirō, and printed by Tezuka Ritsu in 1862.  Despite the ambitious title, the work by Genpo only covered 'Yōroppa bu' (Section on Europe) while the planned section for Asia was not published. 
In pre-modern India, local gazetteers were written. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country For example, Munhta Nainsi wrote a gazetteer for the Marwar region in the 17th century. Geography In 1901 the region (Jodhpur state had an area of 90554 km² (34963 square miles  B. S. Baliga writes that the history of the gazetteer in Tamil Nadu can be traced back to the classical corpus of Sangam literature, dated 200 BC to 300 AD. Tamil Nadu ( Tamil:, Country of the Tamils, t̪ɐmɨɻ n̪aːɽɯ is one of the 28 states of India. Sangam literature refers to a body of classical Tamil literature created between the years 300 BCE and 600 CE  Abu'l-Fazl ibn Mubarak, the vizier to Akbar the Great of the Mughal Empire, wrote the Ain-e-Akbari, which included a gazetteer with valuable information on India's population in the 16th century. Shaikh Abu al-Fazl ibn Mubarak ( Persian:ابو الفضل also known as Abu'l-Fazl, Abu'l Fadl and Abu'l-Fadl 'Allami ( January 14 A Vizier ( - wazīr) (sometimes also spelled Vazir Vizir Vasir Wazir Vesir, or Vezir - grammatical vowel changes are common in many western Asian Akbar redirects here For other uses see Akbar (disambiguation Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbar ( Jalāl ud-Dīn Muhammad Akbar The Mughal Empire ( Persian and self-designation گورکانی; مغلیہ سلطنت) was an Islamic imperial power which ruled most The Ain-i-Akbari or the "Institutes of Akbar" is a 16th century detailed document recording the administration of emperor Akbar 's empire written by his Vizier 
The pre-modern Islamic world produced gazetteers. The term Muslim world (or Islamic world) has several meanings Cartographers of the Safavid dynasty of Iran made gazetteers of local areas. The Safavids ( صفوی) were an Iranian ref>Helen Chapin Metz For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. 
Examples of electronic world gazetteers can be found at: