A gas chromatograph with a headspace sampler
must be volatile
|Manufacturers||Agilent (a spin-off of Hewlett-Packard)|
Thermo Electron Corporation
|Related||Thin layer chromatography|
High performance liquid chromatography
|Hyphenated||Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry|
Gas-liquid chromatography (GLC), or simply gas chromatography (GC), is a type of chromatography in which the mobile phase is a carrier gas, usually an inert gas such as helium or an unreactive gas such as nitrogen, and the stationary phase is a microscopic layer of liquid or polymer on an inert solid support, inside glass or metal tubing, called a column. Chromatography (from Greek χρώμα chroma, color and γραφειν"graphein" to write is the collective term for a family of Laboratory An organic compound is any member of a large class of Chemical compounds whose Molecules contain Carbon. Traditionally inorganic compounds are considered to be of mineral not biological origin Volatility in the context of Chemistry, Physics and Thermodynamics is a measure of the tendency of a substance to Vaporize. Agilent Technologies ( or Agilent, is a measurement and instrument company headquartered in Santa Clara, California. PerkinElmer Inc ( is an American multinational technology corporation focused in the business areas of Life and Analytical Sciences Optoelectronics, and ( is a manufacturer of precision instruments measuring instruments and medical equipment based in Kyoto, Japan. Thermo Electron Corporation (TMO (NYSE (incorporated 1956was a major provider of analytical instruments and services for a variety of domains Varian Inc ( is one of the largest manufacturers of Scientific instruments for the scientific industry they have offerings over the whole range of chemical analysis equipment Thin layer chromatography (TLC is a Chromatography technique used to separate mixtures High-performance liquid chromatography (or High pressure liquid chromatography, HPLC) is a form of Column chromatography used frequently in Biochemistry Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry ( GC-MS) is a method that combines the features of Gas-liquid chromatography and Mass spectrometry to identify different Chromatography (from Greek χρώμα chroma, color and γραφειν"graphein" to write is the collective term for a family of Laboratory In English to be inert is to be in a state of doing little or nothing Helium ( He) is a colorless odorless tasteless non-toxic Inert Monatomic Chemical Nitrogen (ˈnaɪtɹəʤɪn is a Chemical element that has the symbol N and Atomic number 7 and Atomic weight 14 A polymer is a large Molecule ( Macromolecule) composed of repeating Structural units typically connected by Covalent Chemical bonds The instrument used to perform gas chromatographic separations is called a gas chromatograph (also: aerograph, gas separator).
Gas Chromatography is different from other forms of chromatography (HPLC, TLC, etc. High-performance liquid chromatography (or High pressure liquid chromatography, HPLC) is a form of Column chromatography used frequently in Biochemistry Thin layer chromatography (TLC is a Chromatography technique used to separate mixtures ) because the solutions travel through the column in a gas state. The interactions of these gaseous analytes with the walls of the column (coated by different stationary phases) causes different compounds to elute at different times called retention time. The comparison of these retention times is the analytical power to GC. This makes it very similar to HPLC. High-performance liquid chromatography (or High pressure liquid chromatography, HPLC) is a form of Column chromatography used frequently in Biochemistry
Chromatography dates to 1903 in the work of the Russian scientist, Mikhail Semenovich Tswett. Chromatography (from Greek χρώμα chroma, color and γραφειν"graphein" to write is the collective term for a family of Laboratory Year 1903 ( MCMIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display calendar of the Gregorian calendar or a Common year starting Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending Mikhail Semyonovich Tsvet (Михаил Семенович Цвет also spelled Tsvett, Tswett, Tswet, Zwet, and Cvet) (1872&ndash1919 German graduate student Fritz Prior developed solid state gas chromatography in 1947. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Archer John Porter Martin, who was awarded the Nobel Prize for his work in developing liquid-liquid (1941) and paper (1944) chromatography, laid the foundation for the development of gas chromatography and later produced liquid-gas chromatography (1950). Archer John Porter Martin ( 1 March 1910 in London - 28 July 2002) was a British Chemist and Nobel Prize The Nobel Prize (Nobelpriset (Nobelprisen is a Swedish prize established in the 1895 will of Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel; it was first awarded in Peace, Literature
A gas chromatograph is a chemical analysis instrument for separating chemicals in a complex sample. A chemical substance is a Material with a definite chemical composition. A gas chromatograph uses a flow-through narrow tube known as the column, through which different chemical constituents of a sample pass in a gas stream (carrier gas, mobile phase) at different rates depending on their various chemical and physical properties and their interaction with a specific column filling, called the stationary phase. As the chemicals exit the end of the column, they are detected and identified electronically. Electronics refers to the flow of charge (moving Electrons through Nonmetal conductors (mainly Semiconductors, whereas electrical The function of the stationary phase in the column is to separate different components, causing each one to exit the column at a different time (retention time). Other parameters that can be used to alter the order or time of retention are the carrier gas flow rate, and the temperature.
In a GC analysis, a known volume of gaseous or liquid analyte is injected into the "entrance" (head) of the column, usually using a microsyringe (or, solid phase microextraction fibers, or a gas source switching system). An analyte is a substance or Chemical constituent that is determined in an analytical procedure such as a Titration. A syringe is a simple piston Pump consisting of a plunger that fits tightly in a tube As the carrier gas sweeps the analyte molecules through the column, this motion is inhibited by the adsorption of the analyte molecules either onto the column walls or onto packing materials in the column. Adsorption is a process that occurs when a gas or liquid Solute accumulates on the surface of a solid or a liquid (adsorbent forming a film of molecules or atoms (the In Chemistry, a molecule is defined as a sufficiently stable electrically neutral group of at least two Atoms in a definite arrangement held together by The rate at which the molecules progress along the column depends on the strength of adsorption, which in turn depends on the type of molecule and on the stationary phase materials. Adsorption is a process that occurs when a gas or liquid Solute accumulates on the surface of a solid or a liquid (adsorbent forming a film of molecules or atoms (the Since each type of molecule has a different rate of progression, the various components of the analyte mixture are separated as they progress along the column and reach the end of the column at different times (retention time). A detector is used to monitor the outlet stream from the column; thus, the time at which each component reaches the outlet and the amount of that component can be determined. Generally, substances are identified (qualitatively) by the order in which they emerge (elute) from the column and by the retention time of the analyte in the column.
The autosampler provides the means to introduce automatically a sample into the inlets. Manual insertion of the sample is possible but is no longer common. Automatic insertion provides better reproducibility and time-optimization.
Different kinds of autosamplers exist. Autosamplers can be classified in relation to sample capacity (auto-injectors VS autosamplers, where auto-injectors can work a small number of samples), to robotic technologies (XYZ robot VS rotating/SCARA-robot – the most common), or to analysis:
Traditionally autosampler manufactures are different from GC manufactures and currently no GC manufacture offers a complete range of autosamplers. Solid phase microextraction, or SPME, is a sample preparation technique used both in the laboratory and on-site Historically, the countries most active in autosampler technology development are the United States, Italy, and Switzerland.
The column inlet (or injector) provides the means to introduce a sample into a continuous flow of carrier gas. The inlet is a piece of hardware attached to the column head.
Common inlet types are:
Two types of columns are used in GC:
The temperature-dependence of molecular adsorption and of the rate of progression along the column necessitates a careful control of the column temperature to within a few tenths of a degree for precise work. Temperature is a physical property of a system that underlies the common notions of hot and cold something that is hotter generally has the greater temperature Reducing the temperature produces the greatest level of separation, but can result in very long elution times. For some cases temperature is ramped either continuously or in steps to provide the desired separation. This is referred to as a temperature program. Electronic pressure control can also be used to modify flow rate during the analysis, aiding in faster run times while keeping acceptable levels of separation.
The choice of carrier gas (mobile phase) is important, with hydrogen being the most efficient and providing the best separation. However, helium has a larger range of flowrates that are comparable to hydrogen in efficiency, with the added advantage that helium is non-flammable, and works with a greater number of detectors. Therefore, helium is the most common carrier gas used.
A number of detectors are used in gas chromatography. The most common are the flame ionization detector (FID) and the thermal conductivity detector (TCD). A flame ionization detector (FID is a type of Gas detector used in Gas chromatography The first flame ionization detector was developed in 1957 by scientists The thermal conductivity detector ( TCD) is a bulk property detector and a chemical specific detector commonly used in gas-liquid chromatography Both are sensitive to a wide range of components, and both work over a wide range of concentrations. While TCDs are essentially universal and can be used to detect any component other than the carrier gas (as long as their thermal conductivities are different than that of the carrier gas, at detector temperature), FIDs are sensitive primarily to hydrocarbons, and are more sensitive to them than TCD. However, an FID cannot detect water. Both detectors are also quite robust. Since TCD is non-destructive, it can be operated in-series before an FID (destructive), thus providing complementary detection of the same eluents.
Other detectors are sensitive only to specific types of substances, or work well only in narrower ranges of concentrations. They include:
Some gas chromatographs are connected to a mass spectrometer which acts as the detector. A discharge ionization detector (DID is a type of detector used in gas chromatography. The electron capture detector (ECD was invented in 1957, by Dr A helium ionization detector (HID is a type of detector used in gas chromatography. A photoionization detector or PID is a type of Gas detector. Typical photoionization detectors measure Volatile organic compounds and other gases in Mass spectrometry is an analytical technique that identifies the chemical composition of a compound or sample based on the Mass-to-charge ratio of charged particles The combination is known as GC-MS. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry ( GC-MS) is a method that combines the features of Gas-liquid chromatography and Mass spectrometry to identify different Some GC-MS are connected to an NMR spectrometer which acts as a back up detector. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry ( GC-MS) is a method that combines the features of Gas-liquid chromatography and Mass spectrometry to identify different Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, most commonly known as NMR spectroscopy, is the name given to a technique which exploits the magnetic properties of certain nuclei This combination is known as GC-MS-NMR. Some GC-MS-NMR are connected to an infrared spectrophotometer which acts as a back up detector. Infrared spectroscopy (IR spectroscopy is the subset of Spectroscopy that deals with the Infrared region of the Electromagnetic spectrum. This combination is known as GC-MS-NMR-IR. It must, however, be stressed this is very rare as most analyses needed can be concluded via purely GC-MS.
The method is the collection of conditions in which the GC operates for a given analysis. Method development is the process of determining what conditions are adequate and/or ideal for the analysis required.
Conditions which can be varied to accommodate a required analysis include inlet temperature, detector temperature, column temperature and temperature program, carrier gas and carrier gas flow rates, the column's stationary phase, diameter and length, inlet type and flow rates, sample size and injection technique. Depending on the detector(s) (see below) installed on the GC, there may be a number of detector conditions that can also be varied. Some GCs also include valves which can change the route of sample and carrier flow, and the timing of the turning of these valves can be important to method development.
Typical carrier gases include helium, nitrogen, argon, hydrogen and air. Helium ( He) is a colorless odorless tasteless non-toxic Inert Monatomic Chemical Nitrogen (ˈnaɪtɹəʤɪn is a Chemical element that has the symbol N and Atomic number 7 and Atomic weight 14 This article pertains to the chemical element For other uses see Argon (disambiguation. Hydrogen (ˈhaɪdrədʒən is the Chemical element with Atomic number 1 Temperature and layers The temperature of the Earth's atmosphere varies with altitude the mathematical relationship between temperature and altitude varies among five Which gas to use is usually determined by the detector being used, for example, a DID requires helium as the carrier gas. A discharge ionization detector (DID is a type of detector used in gas chromatography. When analyzing gas samples, however, the carrier is sometimes selected based on the sample's matrix, for example, when analyzing a mixture in argon, an argon carrier is preferred, because the argon in the sample does not show up on the chromatogram. Safety and availability can also influence carrier selection, for example, hydrogen is flammable, and high-purity helium can be difficult to obtain in some areas of the world. (See: Helium--occurrence and production. Helium ( He) is a colorless odorless tasteless non-toxic Inert Monatomic Chemical )
The purity of the carrier gas is also frequently determined by the detector, though the level of sensitivity needed can also play a significant role. Typically, purities of 99. 995% or higher are used. Trade names for typical purities include "Zero Grade," "Ultra-High Purity (UHP) Grade," "4. 5 Grade" and "5. 0 Grade. "
The carrier gas flow rate affects the analysis in the same way that temperature does (see above). The higher the flow rate the faster the analysis, but the lower the separation between analytes. Selecting the flow rate is therefore the same compromise between the level of separation and length of analysis as selecting the column temperature.
With GCs made before the 1990s, carrier flow rate was controlled indirectly by controlling the carrier inlet pressure, or "column head pressure. The 1990s collectively refers to the years between and including 1990 and 1999 " The actual flow rate was measured at the outlet of the column or the detector with an electronic flow meter, or a bubble flow meter, and could be an involved, time consuming, and frustrating process. The pressure setting was not able to be varied during the run, and thus the flow was essentially constant during the analysis.
Many modern GCs, however, electronically measure the flow rate, and electronically control the carrier gas pressure to set the flow rate. Consequently, carrier pressures and flow rates can be adjusted during the run, creating pressure/flow programs similar to temperature programs.
The choice of inlet type and injection technique depends on if the sample is in liquid, gas, adsorbed, or solid form, and on whether a solvent matrix is present that has to be vaporized. Dissolved samples can be introduced directly onto the column via a COC injector, if the conditions are well known; if a solvent matrix has to be vaporized and partially removed, a S/SL injector is used (most common injection technique); gaseous samples (e. g. , air cylinders) are usually injected using a gas switching valve system; adsorbed samples (e. g. , on adsorbent tubes) are introduced using either an external (on-line or off-line) desorption apparatus such as a purge-and-trap system, or are desorbed in the S/SL injector (SPME applications).
The real chromatographic analysis starts with the introduction of the sample onto the column. The development of capillary gas chromatography resulted in many practical problems with the injection technique. The technique of on-column injection, often used with packed columns, is usually not possible with capillary columns. The injection system, in the capillary gas chromatograph, should fulfil the following two requirements:
Some general requirements, which a good injection technique should fulfill, are:
The column(s) in a GC are contained in an oven, the temperature of which is precisely controlled electronically. (When discussing the "temperature of the column," an analyst is technically referring to the temperature of the column oven. The distinction, however, is not important and will not subsequently be made in this article. )
The rate at which a sample passes through the column is directly proportional to the temperature of the column. The higher the column temperature, the faster the sample moves through the column. However, the faster a sample moves through the column, the less it interacts with the stationary phase, and the less the analytes are separated.
In general, the column temperature is selected to compromise between the length of the analysis and the level of separation.
A method which holds the column at the same temperature for the entire analysis is called "isothermal. " Most methods, however, increase the column temperature during the analysis, the initial temperature, rate of temperature increase (the temperature "ramp") and final temperature is called the "temperature program. "
A temperature program allows analytes that elute early in the analysis to separate adequately, while shortening the time it takes for late-eluting analytes to pass through the column.
Generally chromatographic data is presented as a graph of detector response (y-axis) against retention time (x-axis). This provides a spectrum of peaks for a sample representing the analytes present in a sample eluting from the column at different times. An analyte is a substance or Chemical constituent that is determined in an analytical procedure such as a Titration. Retention time can be used to identify analytes if the method conditions are constant. Also, the pattern of peaks will be constant for a sample under constant conditions and can identify complex mixtures of analytes. In most modern applications however the GC is connected to a mass spectrometer or similar detector that is capable of identifying the analytes represented by the peaks. Mass spectrometry is an analytical technique that identifies the chemical composition of a compound or sample based on the Mass-to-charge ratio of charged particles
The area under a peak is proportional to the amount of analyte present. By calculating the area of the peak using the mathematical function of integration, the concentration of an analyte in the original sample can be determined. Concentration can be calculated using a calibration curve created by finding the response for a series of concentrations of analyte, or by determining the relative response factor of an analyte. In Analytical chemistry, a calibration curve is a general method for determining the concentration of a substance in an unknown sample by comparing the unknown to a set of standard The relative response factor is the expected ratio of an analyte to an internal standard (or external standard) and is calculated by finding the response of a known amount of analyte and a constant amount of internal standard (a chemical added to the sample at a constant concentration, with a distinct retention time to the analyte). An internal standard in Analytical chemistry is a Chemical substance that is added in a constant amount to samples the blank and Calibration standards
In most modern GC-MS systems, computer software is used to draw and integrate peaks, and match MS spectra to library spectra. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry ( GC-MS) is a method that combines the features of Gas-liquid chromatography and Mass spectrometry to identify different Mass spectrometry is an analytical technique that identifies the chemical composition of a compound or sample based on the Mass-to-charge ratio of charged particles
In general, substances that vaporize below ca. 300 °C (and therefore are stable up to that temperature) can be measured quantitatively. The samples are also required to be salt-free; they should not contain ions. Salt is a Dietary mineral composed primarily of Sodium chloride that is essential for Animal life but toxic to most land plants An ion is an Atom or Molecule which has lost or gained one or more Valence electrons giving it a positive or negative electrical charge Very minute amounts of a substance can be measured, but it is often required that the sample must be measured in comparison to a sample containing the pure, suspected substance.
Various temperature programs can be used to make the readings more meaningful; for example to differentiate between substances that behave similarly during the GC process.
Professionals working with GC analyze the content of a chemical product, for example in assuring the quality of products in the chemical industry; or measuring toxic substances in soil, air or water. GC is very accurate if used properly and can measure picomoles of a substance in a 1 ml liquid sample, or parts-per-billion concentrations in gaseous samples. The mole (symbol mol) is a unit of Amount of substance: it is an SI base unit, and almost the only unit to be used to measure this "Parts-per" notation is used especially in Science and Engineering, to denote Ratios (relative proportions in measured quantities particularly
In practical courses at colleges, students sometimes get acquainted to the GC by studying the contents of Lavender oil or measuring the ethylene that is secreted by Nicotiana benthamiana plants after artificially injuring their leaves. The Lavenders Lavandula are a Genus of about 25–30 species of Flowering plants in the mint family Lamiaceae, native to the Mediterranean Structure This Hydrocarbon has four Hydrogen Atoms bound to a pair of Carbon atoms that are connected by a Double bond. Nicotiana benthamiana is a close relative of Tobacco and species of Nicotiana indigenous to Australia. These GC analyses hydrocarbons (C2-C40+). In a typical experiment, a packed column is used to separate the light gases, which are then detected with a TCD. The thermal conductivity detector ( TCD) is a bulk property detector and a chemical specific detector commonly used in gas-liquid chromatography The hydrocarbons are separated using a capillary column and detected with an FID. In Organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an Organic compound consisting entirely of Hydrogen and Carbon. A flame ionization detector (FID is a type of Gas detector used in Gas chromatography The first flame ionization detector was developed in 1957 by scientists A complication with light gas analyses that include H2 is that He, which is the most common and most sensitive inert carrier (sensitivity is proportional to molecular mass) has an almost identical thermal conductivity to hydrogen (it is the difference in thermal conductivity between two separate filaments in a Wheatstone Bridge type arrangement that shows when a component has been eluted). For this reason, dual TCD instruments are used with a separate channel for hydrogen that uses nitrogen as a carrier are common. Argon is often used when analysing gas phase chemistry reactions such as F-T synthesis so that a single carrier gas can be used rather than 2 separate ones. The sensitivity is less but this is a tradeoff for simplicity in the gas supply.
Movies, books and TV shows tend to misrepresent the capabilities of gas chromatography and the work done with these instruments.
In the U. S. TV show CSI, for example, GCs are used to rapidly identify unknown samples. CSI Crime Scene Investigation is an American crime drama Television series that trails the investigations of a team of Las Vegas "This is gasoline bought at a Chevron station in the past two weeks," the analyst will say fifteen minutes after receiving the sample.
In fact, a typical GC analysis takes much more time; sometimes a single sample must be run more than an hour according to the chosen program; and even more time is needed to "heat out" the column so it is free from the first sample and can be used for the next. Equally, several runs are needed to confirm the results of a study - a GC analysis of a single sample may simply yield a result per chance (see statistical significance). In Statistics, a result is called statistically significant if it is unlikely to have occurred by Chance.
Also, GC does not positively identify most samples; and not all substances in a sample will necessarily be detected. All a GC truly tells you is at which relative time a component eluted from the column and that the detector was sensitive to it. To make results meaningful, analysts need to know which components at which concentrations are to be expected; and even then a small amount of a substance can hide itself behind a substance having both a higher concentration and the same relative elution time. Last but not least it is often needed to check the results of the sample against a GC analysis of a reference sample containing only the suspected substance.
A GC-MS can remove much of this ambiguity, since the mass spectrometer will identify the component's molecular weight. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry ( GC-MS) is a method that combines the features of Gas-liquid chromatography and Mass spectrometry to identify different Mass spectrometry is an analytical technique that identifies the chemical composition of a compound or sample based on the Mass-to-charge ratio of charged particles But this still takes time and skill to do properly.
Similarly, most GC analyses are not push-button operations. A push-button (often simply " button " or " pushbutton " is a simple Switch mechanism for controlling some aspect of a Machine You cannot simply drop a sample vial into an auto-sampler's tray, push a button and have a computer tell you everything you need to know about the sample. According to the substances one expects to find the operating program must be carefully chosen.
A push-button operation can exist for running similar samples repeatedly, such as in a chemical production environment or for comparing 20 samples from the same experiment to calculate the mean content of the same substance. However, for the kind of investigative work portrayed in books, movies and TV shows this is clearly not the case.