A game is a structured or semi-structured activity, usually undertaken for enjoyment and sometimes also used as an educational tool. Year 1895 ( MDCCCXCV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Happiness is an Emotion associated with feelings ranging from contentment and satisfaction to Bliss and intense Joy. Education encompasses both the Teaching and Learning of Knowledge, proper conduct, and technical competency Games are generally distinct from work, which is usually carried out for remuneration, and from art, which is more concerned with the expression of ideas. Manual labour (or manual labor) is physical work done with the hands especially in an unskilled job such as fruit and vegetable picking road building or any Art refers to a diverse range of Human activities creations and expressions that are appealing to the Senses or Emotions of a human individual However, the distinction is not clear-cut, and many games are also considered to be work or art.
Key components of games are goals, rules, challenge, and interactivity. Games generally involve mental or physical stimulation, and often both. Many games help develop practical skills, serve as a form of exercise, or otherwise perform an educational, simulational or psychological role. A skill is the learned capacity or talent to carry out pre-determined results often with the minimum outlay of time energy or both. Education encompasses both the Teaching and Learning of Knowledge, proper conduct, and technical competency Simulation is the imitation of some real thing state of affairs or process Psychology (from Greek grc ψῡχή psȳkhē, "breath life soul" and grc -λογία -logia) is an Academic and
Known to have been played as far back as the 30th century BC, games are a universal part of human experience and present in all cultures. The 30th century BC is a Century which lasted from the year 3000 BC to 2901 BC The Royal Game of Ur, Senet and Mancala are some of the oldest known games. The Royal Game of Ur refers to two game boards found in Royal Tombs of Ur by Sir Leonard Woolley in the 1920s Senet (or senat) a board game from predynastic and ancient Egypt, is the oldest board game whose ancient existence has been confirmed dating Mancala is a family of board games played around the world sometimes called " Sowing " games or "count-and-capture" games which describes the
Ludwig Wittgenstein was probably the first academic philosopher to address the definition of the word game. In his Philosophical Investigations, Wittgenstein demonstrated that the elements of games, such as play, rules, and competition, all fail to adequately define what games are. Philosophical Investigations ( Philosophische Untersuchungen) is along with the Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, one of the two major works Play is a Rite and a quality of mind in engaging with one's worldview. Competition is a rivalry between individuals groups nations or animals for territory or resources He subsequently argued that the concept "game" could not be contained by any single definition, but that games must be looked at as a series of definitions that share a "family resemblance" to one another. This article is about the philosophical term proposed by Ludwig Wittgenstein not about the common observation that offspring resemble parents and one another
Crawford's definition may thus be rendered as: an interactive, goal-oriented activity, active agents to play against, which any player (including active agents) could interfere one another.
Crawford also notes (ibid. ) several other definitions:
Games can be characterized by "what the player does. Eric Zimmerman (born 1969) is a Game designer and the co-founder and CEO of Gamelab, a computer game development company which is " This is often referred to as gameplay, a term that arose among computer game designers in the 1980s but as of 2007 is starting to see use in reference to games of other forms. For the television channel see GamePlay HD. Gameplay includes all player experiences during the interaction with game systems especially formal A personal computer Game (also known as a computer game or simply PC game) is a Video game played on a Personal computer, rather A "game designer" is a person who designs Video games or one who designs traditional games such as Board games Video Games Designer A video game designer The 1980s was the decade spanning from January 1 1980 to December 31 1989. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Major key elements identified in this context are tools and rules which define the overall context of game and which in turn produce skill, strategy, and chance.
Games are often classified by the components required to play them (e. g. miniatures, a ball, cards, a board and pieces or a computer). Miniature wargaming is a form of Wargaming that incorporates Miniature figures and modeled terrain as the main components of play A ball game is a Game played with a Ball. Someone who plays a ball game is known as a ballplayer. A card game is any Game using Playing cards either traditional or game-specific A board game is a Game in which counters or pieces that are placed on removed from or moved across a "board" (a premarked surface usually specific to that game A personal computer Game (also known as a computer game or simply PC game) is a Video game played on a Personal computer, rather In places where the use of leather is well established, the ball has been a popular game piece throughout recorded history, resulting in a worldwide popularity of ball games such as rugby, basketball, football, cricket, tennis and volleyball. Leather is a material created through the Tanning of hides and Skins of Animals primarily Cattlehide The Tanning process Rugby football (usually just " rugby " may refer to a number of sports through history descended from a common form of Football developed at Rugby School Basketball is a team Sport in which two teams of five active players each try to score points against one another by propelling a ball through a 10 feet (3 m Football is the word given to a number of similar Team sports all of which involve (to varying degrees kicking a Ball with the foot in an attempt to score a Cricket is a bat-and-ball team Sport that originated in England and is now played in more than 100 countries Tennis is a sport played between two players ( singles) or between two teams of two players each ( doubles) Volleyball is an Olympic team sport in which two teams of 6 active players (5 normal players and one 'libero' are separated by a net that is usually four feet Other tools are more idiosyncratic to a certain region. Many countries in Europe, for instance, have unique standard decks of playing cards. A playing card is a piece of specially prepared heavy paper thin card or thin plastic figured with distinguishing motifs and used as one of a set for playing Card games Other games such as chess may be traced primarily through the development and evolution of its game pieces. Chess is a recreational and competitive Game played between two players.
Many game tools are tokens, meant to represent other things. A token may be a pawn on a board, play money, or an intangible item such as a point scored.
Games such as hide-and-seek or tag do not utilise any obvious tool. Hide and seek (abbreviated HandS, sometimes also called hide and go seek) is a variant of the game tag, in which one or more players search for the other Tag (also known as it, had, he, tips, tig, touch, tiggy, tick, dobby, chasing Rather its interactivity is defined by the environment. Games with the same or similar rules may have different gameplay if the environment is altered. For example, hide-and-seek in a school building differs from the same game in a park; an auto race can be radically different depending on the track or street course, even with the same cars. A school (from Greek σχολεῖον - scholeion) is an Institution designed to allow and encourage Students (or "pupils" A park is a protected area of Land and Water, usually in its natural or semi-natural (landscaped state and set aside for some purpose often to do with human Auto racing (also known as automobile racing, motor racing or car racing) is a Motorsport involving Racing Cars It A race track (or 'racetrack' or 'racing track' is a purpose-built facility for Racing of animals (eg Street racing is a form of unsanctioned and illegal Auto racing which takes place on Public roads Street racing can either be spontaneous or well-planned
Where as games are often characterized by their tools, they are often defined by their rules. While rules are subject to variations and changes, enough change in the rules usually results in a "new" game. For instance, baseball can be played with "real" baseballs or with wiffleballs. Baseball is a Bat-and-ball Sport played between two teams of nine players each Wiffle® ball is a variation of the sport of Baseball designed for indoor or outdoor play in confined areas However, if the players decide to play with only three bases, they are arguably playing a different game.
Rules generally determine turn order, the rights and responsibilities of the players, and each player’s goals. Player rights may include when they may spend resources or move tokens. Common win conditions are being first to amass a certain quota of points or tokens (as in Settlers of Catan), having the greatest number of tokens at the end of the game (as in Monopoly), or some relationship of one’s game tokens to those of one’s opponent (as in chess's checkmate). Settlers of Catan is a multiplayer Board game designed by Klaus Teuber. Monopoly is a Board game published by Parker Brothers, a subsidiary of Hasbro.
A game’s tools and rules will result in its requiring skill, strategy, chance or a combination thereof, and are classified accordingly. A skill is the learned capacity or talent to carry out pre-determined results often with the minimum outlay of time energy or both. A Strategy is a long term plan of action designed to achieve a particular goal, most often "winning
Games of skill include games of physical skill, such as wrestling, tug of war, hopscotch, target shooting, and stake and games of mental skill such as checkers and chess. A game of skill is a Game where the outcome is determined mainly by mental and/or physical Skill, rather than by pure chance. Wrestling is the act of physical engagement between two people in which each wrestler strives to get an advantage over or control of the opponent Tug of war, tug o' war, or tug war, also known as rope pulling, is a Sport that directly puts two teams against each other in a test of strength Hopscotch is a simple Children's game which can be played with several players or alone The shooting sports include those competitive sports involving tests of proficiency (accuracy and speed using various types of Guns such as Firearms and Airguns Chess is a recreational and competitive Game played between two players. Games of strategy include checkers, chess, go, arimaa, and tic-tac-toe, and often require special equipment to play them. A strategy game is a Game (eg computer, video or Board game) in which the players' decision-making skills have a high significance Arimaa is a two-player Abstract strategy Board game that can be played using the same equipment as Chess. Games of chance include gambling games (blackjack, mah jong, roulette etc. A game of chance is a Game whose outcome is strongly influenced by some randomizing device and upon which contestants frequently wager money Blackjack (also known as Twenty-one, Vingt-et-un (French for Twenty-one or Pontoon) is the most widely played casino banking Mahjong (also called mah-jongg by the American association Traditional Chinese 麻將 Pinyin: májiàng is a Game for four players that originated in Roulette is a Casino and Gambling game named after the French word meaning "small wheel" ), as well as snakes and ladders and rock, paper, scissors; most require equipment such as cards or dice. Snakes and ladders, or Chutes and ladders, is a classic children's Board game. Rock-paper-scissors (also known as scissors-paper-stone, Jan-ken-pon, rochambeau (sometimes spelled roshambo) For other uses see either Die or Dice (disambiguation. Dice (the Plural of Die, from Old French However, most games contain two or all three of these elements. For example, American football and baseball involve both physical skill and strategy while tiddlywinks, poker and Monopoly combine strategy and chance. American football, known in the United States and Canada simply as football, is a competitive Team sport known for mixing strategy with Baseball is a Bat-and-ball Sport played between two teams of nine players each Tiddlywinks is an indoor Game played with sets of small discs called "winks" lying on a surface usually a flat mat Poker is a type of Card game in which players bet on the value of the card combination (" hand " in their possession by placing a bet into Monopoly is a Board game published by Parker Brothers, a subsidiary of Hasbro.
Most games require multiple players. However, Single-player games are unique in respect to the type of challenges a player faces. In video gaming, single-player refers to the variant of a particular game where input from only one player is expected throughout the course of the gaming session Unlike a game with multiple players competing with or against each other to reach the game's goal, a one-player game is a battle solely against an element of the environment (an artificial opponent), against one's own skills, against time or against chance. Playing with a yo-yo or playing tennis against a wall is not generally recognised as playing a game due to the lack of any formidable opposition. The yo-yo is a Toy consisting of two equally sized and weighted disks of Plastic, Wood, or Metal, connected with an Axle, with a Tennis is a sport played between two players ( singles) or between two teams of two players each ( doubles) This is not true, though, for a single-player computer game where the computer provides opposition. A personal computer Game (also known as a computer game or simply PC game) is a Video game played on a Personal computer, rather
Many sports require special equipment and dedicated playing fields, leading to the involvement of a community much larger than the group of players. Sport is an Activity that is governed by a set of rules or Customs and often engaged in competitively A city or town may set aside such resources for the organisation of sports leagues. A city is an Urban area with a large Population and a particular Administrative, Legal, or Historical status A town is a type of settlement ranging from a few to several thousand (occasionally hundreds of thousands inhabitants although it may be applied loosely even to huge metropolitan
Popular sports may have spectators who are entertained just by watching games. A spectator sport is a Sport that is characterized by the presence of spectators or watchers at its matches A community will often align itself with a local sports team that supposedly represents it (even if the team or most of its players only recently moved in); they often align themselves against their opponents or have traditional rivalries. The concept of fandom began with sports fans. Fans in Little Italyjpg|thumb|right|Fans in Little Italy Manhattan celebrating the victory of the Italian association football team after the 2006 FIFA World Cup]][[Image Wm-oly-de-cr
Stanley Fish cited the balls and strikes of baseball as a clear example of social construction, the operation of rules on the game's tools. Stanley Eugene Fish (born 1938 is a prominent American literary theorist and legal scholar A social construction or social construct is any phenomenon "invented" or "constructed" by participants in a particular Culture or Society While the strike zone target is governed by the rules of the game, it epitomizes the category of things that exist only because people have agreed to treat them as real. Strike Zone is a Star Trek The Next Generation novel by Peter David. No pitch is a ball or a strike until it has been labeled as such by an appropriate authority, the plate umpire, whose judgment on this matter cannot be challenged within the current game. Strike Zone is a Star Trek The Next Generation novel by Peter David. Strike Zone is a Star Trek The Next Generation novel by Peter David. In Baseball, the umpire is the person charged with officiating the game including beginning and ending the game enforcing the rules of the game and the grounds making
Certain competitive sports, such as racing and gymnastics, are not games by definitions such as Crawford's (see above, despite the inclusion of many in the Olympic Games) because competitors do not interact with their opponents, they simply challenge each other in indirective ways. Types of racing Unassisted human racing Using only the Human body 's own Muscles Running: Cross country Gymnastics is a Sport involving performance of exercises requiring physical strength agility and coordination The Olympic Games is an international Multi-sport event established for both summer and winter games
Lawn games are outdoor games that can be played on a lawn. A lawn game is any outdoor game that can be played on a Lawn. A lawn game is any outdoor game that can be played on a Lawn. A lawn is an area of recreational or amenity land planted with grass, and sometimes Clover and other plants which are maintained at a low even height Many games that are traditionally played on a pitch are marketed as "lawn games" for home use in a front or back yard. This article is for the playing field of many sports For baseball see Pitch (baseball. In popular usage "marketing" is the promotion of products especially Advertising and Branding However in professional usage the term has a wider meaning of Common lawn games include Horseshoes, Sholf, Croquet, Bocce and Stake. Horseshoes is an outdoor Game played between two people (or two teams of two people using four horseshoes and two stakes Sholf, a game is a cross between Table shuffleboard and Golf. Croquet is a Game played both as a recreational Pastime and as a competitive Sport which involves hitting wooden or plastic balls with a mallet through Bocce (or Bocci, or Boccie) is a precision Sport belonging to the Boules sport family closely related to Bowls and Pétanque
Board games use as a central tool a board on which the players' status, resources, and progress are tracked using physical tokens. A board game is a Game in which counters or pieces that are placed on removed from or moved across a "board" (a premarked surface usually specific to that game Many also involve dice and/or cards. For other uses see either Die or Dice (disambiguation. Dice (the Plural of Die, from Old French Most games that simulate war are board games, and the board may be a map on which the players' tokens move. Some games, such as chess and go, are entirely deterministic, relying only on the strategy element for their interest. Chess is a recreational and competitive Game played between two players. Children's games, on the other hand, tend to be very luck-based, with games such as Candy Land having virtually no decisions to be made. Trivia games have a great deal of randomness based on the questions a person gets. German-style board games are notable for often having rather less of a luck factor than many board games. German-style board games are a broad class of games produced in recent decades in Germany and other countries
Card games use as a central tool a deck of cards. A card game is any Game using Playing cards either traditional or game-specific The cards may be a standard Anglo-American (52-card) deck of playing cards (such as Go Fish or Crazy Eights), a regional deck using 32, 36 or 40 cards and different suit signs, a tarot deck, or a deck specific to the individual game (such as Set). A playing card is a piece of specially prepared heavy paper thin card or thin plastic figured with distinguishing motifs and used as one of a set for playing Card games A playing card is a piece of specially prepared heavy paper thin card or thin plastic figured with distinguishing motifs and used as one of a set for playing Card games Go Fish, also called Fish (not to be confused with the card game Literature, which is also commonly called Fish is a simple Card game. Crazy Eights is a Card game for two to seven players The object of the game is to be the first to get rid of all the player's cards to a discard pile Set! redirects here Set! is also a special form in the Scheme programming language. Uno and Rook are examples of games that were originally played with a standard deck and have since been commercialized with customized decks. Rook is a Trick-taking game, usually played with a specialized deck of cards Some collectible card games such as Magic: The Gathering are played with a small selection of cards which have been collected or purchased individually from large available sets. Collectible card games (CCGs also called trading card games (TCGs or customizable card games (CCGs are played using specially designed sets of cards This article is somewhat over-complete Please do not add significant new content without first discussing it on the talk page
Video games are computer- or microprocessor-controlled games. A video game is a Game that involves interaction with a User interface to generate visual feedback on a video device. A computer is a Machine that manipulates data according to a list of instructions. A microprocessor incorporates most or all of the functions of a Central processing unit (CPU on a single Integrated Computers can create virtual tools to be used in a game, such as cards or dice, or far more elaborate worlds where mundane or fantastic things can be manipulated through gameplay.
A computer or video game uses one or more input devices, typically a button/joystick combination (on arcade games); a keyboard, mouse and/or trackball (computer games); or a controller or a motion sensitive tool. An input device is any Peripheral (piece of Computer hardware equipment used to provide data and control signals to an information processing system (such as a A push-button (often simply " button " or " pushbutton " is a simple Switch mechanism for controlling some aspect of a Machine A joystick is an input device consisting of a stick that pivots on a base and reports its angle or direction to the device it is controlling An arcade game is a coin-operated entertainment machine typically installed in businesses such as Restaurants Pubs Video arcades and Family Entertainment In Computing, a keyboard is an Input device partially modelled after the typewriter keyboard which uses an arrangement of buttons or keys In Computing, a mouse (plural mice, mouse devices, or mouses) A trackball is a Pointing device consisting of a Ball housed in a socket containing sensors to detect rotation of the ball about two axes&mdashlike an upside-down A personal computer Game (also known as a computer game or simply PC game) is a Video game played on a Personal computer, rather A game controller is an Input device used to control a Video game. (console games). More esoteric devices such as paddle controllers have also been used for input. A paddle is a Game controller with a round wheel and one or more fire buttons, where the wheel is typically used to control movement of the player object In computer games, the evolution of user interfaces from simple keyboard to mouse, joystick or joypad has profoundly changed the nature of game development.
In more open-ended computer simulations, aka sandbox-style games, the player may be free to do whatever they like within the confines of the virtual universe. Sometimes, there is a lack of goals or opposition, which has stirred some debate on whether these should be considered "games" or "toys". (Crawford specifically mentions Will Wright’s SimCity as an example of a toy. William Wright (born January 20 1960 in Atlanta Georgia) is an American computer Game designer and co-founder of SimCity is a city-building simulation game, first released in 1989 and designed by Will Wright. )
From the very earliest days of networked and timeshared computers, online games have been part of the culture. Online games are games played over some form of computer network. Online games are games played over some form of computer network. Early commercial systems such as Plato were at least as widely famous for their games as for their strictly educational value. PLATO was the first (circa 1960 on ILLIAC I) generalized Computer assisted instruction system In 1958, Tennis for Two dominated Visitor's Day and drew attention to the oscilloscope at the Brookhaven National Laboratory; during the 1980s, Xerox PARC was known mainly for Maze War, which was offered as a hands-on demo to visitors. Tennis for Two was a game developed in 1958 on an Analog computer, which simulates a game of Tennis or Ping pong on an Oscilloscope An oscilloscope (commonly abbreviated to scope or O-scope) is a type of Electronic test equipment that allows signal Voltages to be viewed Brookhaven National Laboratory ( BNL) is a United States national laboratory located in Upton New York on Long Island, and was formally established PARC (Palo Alto Research Center Inc formerly Xerox PARC, is a Research and development company in Palo Alto California that began as a division of Maze War (also known as The Maze Game, Maze Wars, Mazewar, or simply Maze) was a historically significant computer game
Modern online games are played using an Internet connection; some have dedicated client programs, while others require only a Web browser. A client is an application or system that accesses a remote service on another Computer system, known as a server, by way of a Network. Browser games are electronic Games that are played online via the Internet. A web browser is a software application which enables a user to display and interact with text images videos music games and other information typically located on a Some simpler browser games appeal to demographic groups (notably women and the middle-aged) that otherwise play very few video games. Middle age is the period of life beyond Young adulthood but before the onset of Old age. Some games can be played in browser. The computer game is the most established of all sectors of the emergent new media landscape. The media is transformed from the traditional way of circulating in just one way to an interactive way. This is the phenomenon that is broadening around the world of videogame. It is an obvious example of the ways in which online and offline space can be seen as ‘merged’ rather than separate.
Media audiences’ characteristic has been changing in consequence of the social changes and development. They are becoming active and interact more than ever before. The players of the game in this phenomenon are just like the social formation in our society. They are both self-regulating, creating their own social norms and subject to regulation and constraint through the code of the game and sometimes through the policing of the game by those who run it. The values that are policed vary from game to game. Many of the values encoded into game cultures reflect offline cultural values, but games also offer a chance to emphasis alternative or subjugated values in the name of fantasy and play. The players of the game at the new century are now apparently expressing their profound self through the game. When they can play with their anonymous status, they are found to be more confident to express and to step out from the position they have never been out from. It offers new experiences and pleasures based in the interactive and immersive possibilities of computer technologies.
Role-playing games, often abbreviated as RPGs, are a type of game in which the participants (usually) assume the roles of characters acting in a fictional setting. A role-playing game ( RPG; often roleplaying game) is a Game in which the participants assume the roles of Fictional characters. The original role playing games -- or at least those explicitly marketed as such -- are played with a handful of participants, usually face-to-face, and keep track of the developing fiction with pen and paper. Together, the players may collaborate on a story involving those characters; create, develop, and "explore" the setting; or vicariously experience an adventure outside the bounds of everyday life. Pen-and-paper role-playing games include, for example, Dungeons & Dragons and GURPS. Dungeons & Dragons (abbreviated as D&D or DnD) is a Fantasy Role-playing game (RPG originally designed by The Generic Universal RolePlaying System, commonly known as GURPS, is a Role-playing game system designed to adapt to any imaginary gaming Modern independent RPGs, however, often blur the line between the more traditional idea of the RPG and other traditional genres, or border on story-telling. An indie role-playing game is a Role-playing game published outside of traditional "mainstream" means
The term role-playing game has also been appropriated by the video game industry to describe a genre of video games. An electronic role-playing game is a broad genre of video games. These may be single-player games where one player experiences a programmed environment and story, or they may allow players to interact through the internet. The experience is usually quite different than traditional role-playing games. Single-player games include Final Fantasy, Fable: The Lost Chapters, and The Elder Scrolls. Fable is a role-playing Video game for Xbox, Mac OS X, and Windows platforms The Elder Scrolls (also known as Elder Scrolls or abbreviated as TES) is a Computer role-playing game series developed Online multi-player games, often referred to as Massively Multiplayer Online role playing games, or MMORPGs, include RuneScape, EverQuest 2, Guild Wars, MapleStory and Anarchy Online. RuneScape is a Java -based MMORPG ( Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Game) operated by Jagex Ltd EverQuest II ( EQ2) based upon the popular EverQuest, is a Fantasy Massively multiplayer online role-playing game MapleStory (메이플스토리 is a free-of-charge, 2D, Side-scrolling Massively multiplayer online role-playing game developed by Anarchy Online is an online role playing video game published by Funcom Productions. Currently, the most successful MMO has been World of Warcraft, which controls the vast majority of the market. World of Warcraft (commonly acronymed as WoW) is a Massively multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG