Born Galileo Galilei Portrait of Galileo Galilei by Giusto Sustermans February 15, 1564[1]Pisa, Tuscany - Italy[1] January 8, 1642 (aged 77)[1]Arcetri, Tuscany - Italy[1] Grand Duchy of Tuscany Astronomy, Physics and Mathematics University of Padua University of Pisa KinematicsTelescopeSolar System Roman Catholic

Galileo Galilei (15 February 1564[2]8 January 1642)[1][3] was a Tuscan (Italian) physicist, mathematician, astronomer, and philosopher who played a major role in the scientific revolution. Justus Sustermans (also known as Giusto Sustermans) was a Flemish painter in the Baroque style Events 590 - Khosrau II is crowned as king of Persia 1637 - Ferdinand III becomes Holy Roman Emperor Pisa is a city in Tuscany, central Italy, on the right bank of the mouth of the Arno River on the Ligurian Sea. Tuscany (Toscana is a region in Italy. It has an area of 22990 km² and a population of about 3 Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Events 871 - Battle of Ashdown - Ethelred of Wessex defeats a Danish invasion army Arcetri is a region of Florence, Italy, in the hills to the south of the city centre Tuscany (Toscana is a region in Italy. It has an area of 22990 km² and a population of about 3 Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest The Grand Duchy of Tuscany (Granducato di Toscana Magnus Ducatus Tusciae was a state in central Italy that existed from 1569 to 1859 replacing the Duchy of Florence Astronomy (from the Greek words astron (ἄστρον "star" and nomos (νόμος "law" is the scientific study Physics (Greek Physis - φύσις in everyday terms is the Science of Matter and its motion. Mathematics is the body of Knowledge and Academic discipline that studies such concepts as Quantity, Structure, Space and The University of Padua ( Italian Università degli Studi di Padova, UNIPD) located in Padua, Italy, was founded in 1222 Alma mater is Latin for "nourishing mother" It was used in Ancient Rome as a title for the mother Goddess, and in Medieval The University of Pisa ( Italian Università di Pisa) is one of the most renowned Italian universities Kinematics ( Greek κινειν, kinein, to move is a branch of Classical mechanics which describes the motion of objects without A telescope is an instrument designed for the observation of remote objects and the collection of Electromagnetic radiation. The Solar System consists of the Sun and those celestial objects bound to it by Gravity. Events 590 - Khosrau II is crowned as king of Persia 1637 - Ferdinand III becomes Holy Roman Emperor Events 871 - Battle of Ashdown - Ethelred of Wessex defeats a Danish invasion army Tuscany (Toscana is a region in Italy. It has an area of 22990 km² and a population of about 3 The' Italian people' are a Southern European Ethnic group located primarily in Italy, Switzerland, France and by virtue of a wide-ranging A physicist is a Scientist who studies or practices Physics. Physicists study a wide range of physical phenomena in many branches of physics spanning A mathematician is a person whose primary area of study and research is the field of Mathematics. Historically Astronomy was more concerned with the classification and description of phenomena in the sky while Astrophysics attempted to explain these phenomena Philosophy is the study of general problems concerning matters such as existence knowledge truth beauty justice validity mind and language The period which many historians of science call the Scientific Revolution can be roughly dated as having begun in 1543 the year in which Nicolaus Copernicus published His achievements include improvements to the telescope and consequent astronomical observations, and support for Copernicanism. A telescope is an instrument designed for the observation of remote objects and the collection of Electromagnetic radiation. Galileo has been called the "father of modern observational astronomy",[4] the "father of modern physics",[5] the "father of science",[5] and “the Father of Modern Science. Astronomy (from the Greek words astron (ἄστρον "star" and nomos (νόμος "law" is the scientific study Physics (Greek Physis - φύσις in everyday terms is the Science of Matter and its motion. Science (from the Latin scientia, meaning " Knowledge " or "knowing" is the effort to discover, and increase human understanding[6] The motion of uniformly accelerated objects, taught in nearly all high school and introductory college physics courses, was studied by Galileo as the subject of kinematics. Kinematics ( Greek κινειν, kinein, to move is a branch of Classical mechanics which describes the motion of objects without His contributions to observational astronomy include the discovery of the four largest satellites of Jupiter, named the Galilean moons in his honour, and the observation and analysis of sunspots. The Galilean moons are the four moons of Jupiter discovered by Galileo Galilei. A sunspot is a region on the Sun 's surface ( Photosphere) that is marked by intense magnetic activity which inhibits Convection, forming Galileo also worked in applied science and technology, improving compass design. A compass, magnetic compass or mariner's compass is a navigational instrument for determining direction relative to the earth's Magnetic poles It consists

Galileo's championing of Copernicanism was controversial within his lifetime. The geocentric view had been dominant since the time of Aristotle, and the controversy engendered by Galileo's opposition to this view resulted in the Catholic Church's prohibiting the advocacy of heliocentrism as potentially factual, because that theory had no decisive proof and was contrary to the literal meaning of Scripture. In Astronomy, the geocentric model of the Universe is the superseded theory that the Earth is the center of the universe and other In Astronomy, heliocentrism is the theory that the Sun is at the center of the Solar System. [7] Galileo was eventually forced to recant his heliocentrism and spent the last years of his life under house arrest on orders of the Inquisition. The term Inquisition can refer to any one of several institutions charged with trying and convicting heretics within the Roman Catholic Church and

## Life

Galileo was born in Pisa (then part of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany), the first of six children of Vincenzo Galilei, a famous lutenist and music theorist, and Giulia Ammannati. Pisa is a city in Tuscany, central Italy, on the right bank of the mouth of the Arno River on the Ligurian Sea. The Grand Duchy of Tuscany (Granducato di Toscana Magnus Ducatus Tusciae was a state in central Italy that existed from 1569 to 1859 replacing the Duchy of Florence Vincenzo Galilei (c 1520 &ndash July 2, 1591) was an Italian lutenist, Composer, and music theorist, and the father of Lute can refer generally to any plucked string instrument with a neck (either Fretted or unfretted and a deep round back or more specifically to an instrument from Music theory is the field of study that deals with the Mechanics of music and how Music works At the age of 8, his family moved to Florence, but he was left with Jacopo Borghini for two years. Florence ( Italian: Firenze Florentia and Fiorenza) is the Capital City of the Italian region of Tuscany [1] He then was educated in the Camaldolese Monastery at Vallombrosa, 21 mi southeast of Florence. [1] Although he seriously considered the priesthood as a young man, he enrolled for a medical degree at the University of Pisa at his father's urging. He did not complete this degree, but instead studied mathematics. [8] In 1589, he was appointed to the chair of mathematics in Pisa. In 1591 his father died and he was entrusted with the care of his younger brother Michelagnolo. Michelagnolo Galilei (also sometimes spelled Michelangelo) ( December 18, 1575 – January 3, 1631) was an Italian composer and In 1592, he moved to the University of Padua, teaching geometry, mechanics, and astronomy until 1610. The University of Padua ( Italian Università degli Studi di Padova, UNIPD) located in Padua, Italy, was founded in 1222 Geometry ( Greek γεωμετρία; geo = earth metria = measure is a part of Mathematics concerned with questions of size shape and relative position Mechanics ( Greek) is the branch of Physics concerned with the behaviour of physical bodies when subjected to Forces or displacements Astronomy (from the Greek words astron (ἄστρον "star" and nomos (νόμος "law" is the scientific study [9] During this period Galileo made significant discoveries in both pure science (for example, kinematics of motion, and astronomy) and applied science (for example, strength of materials, improvement of the telescope). His multiple interests included the study of astrology, which in pre-modern disciplinary practice was seen as correlated to the studies of mathematics and astronomy. Astrology (from Greek grc ἄστρον astron, "constellation star" and grc -λογία -logia) is a group of Systems [10]

Although a devout Roman Catholic, Galileo fathered three children out of wedlock with Marina Gamba. In Common law, legitimacy is the status of a Child that is born to parents who are legally married to one another or that is born shortly after the Marina Gamba of Venice was the mother of three of Galileo Galilei 's illegitimate children They had two daughters, Virginia in 1600 and Livia in 1601, and one son, Vincenzio, in 1606. Because of their illegitimate birth, their father considered the girls unmarriageable. Their only worthy alternative was the religious life. Both girls were sent to the convent of San Matteo in Arcetri and remained there for the rest of their lives. Arcetri is a region of Florence, Italy, in the hills to the south of the city centre [11] Virginia took the name Maria Celeste upon entering the convent. Sister Maria Celeste, born Virginia Gamba on August 16, 1600, was the daughter of Galileo Galilei and Marina Gamba. She died on April 2, 1634, and is buried with Galileo at the Basilica di Santa Croce di Firenze. Events 68 - Galba, Governor of Hispania, names himself legatus senatus populique Romani, breaking the line of The Basilica di Santa Croce (Basilica of the Holy Cross is the principal Franciscan church in Florence, Italy, and a Minor basilica of the Livia took the name Sister Arcangela and was ill for most of her life. Vincenzio was later legitimized and married Sestilia Bocchineri. Legitimation is the act of providing Legitimacy. Legitimation in the Social sciences refers to the Process whereby an act process or Ideology [12]

In 1610 Galileo published an account of his telescopic observations of the moons of Jupiter, using this observation to argue in favor of the sun-centered, Copernican theory of the universe against the dominant earth-centered Ptolemaic and Aristotelian theories. In Astronomy, the geocentric model of the Universe is the superseded theory that the Earth is the center of the universe and other The next year Galileo visited Rome in order to demonstrate his telescope to the influential philosophers and mathematicians of the Jesuit Collegio Romano, and to let them see with their own eyes the reality of the four moons of Jupiter. The Society of Jesus ( Latin: Societas Iesu, SJ and SI or SJ, SI) is a Catholic religious order [13] While in Rome he was also made a member of the Accademia dei Lincei. The Accademia dei Lincei, (literally the " Academy of the Lynxes" but also known as the Lincean Academy) is an Italian science academy located [14]

In 1612, opposition arose to the Sun-centered solar system which Galileo supported. In 1614, from the pulpit of Santa Maria Novella, Father Tommaso Caccini (1574–1648) denounced Galileo's opinions on the motion of the Earth, judging them dangerous and close to heresy. Tommaso Caccini (1574 &ndash 1648 was an Italian Dominican monk and preacher Heresy, as a blanket term describes a practice or belief that is labeled as unorthodox Galileo went to Rome to defend himself against these accusations, but, in 1616, Cardinal Roberto Bellarmino personally handed Galileo an admonition enjoining him neither to advocate nor teach Copernican astronomy. Robert Bellarmine ( Roberto Francesco Romolo Cardinale Bellarmino) (4 October 1542 Montepulciano, Siena, Italy – 17 September 1621 [15] During 1621 and 1622 Galileo wrote his first book, The Assayer (Il Saggiatore), which was approved and published in 1623. The Assayer was a book published in Rome by Galileo Galilei in October 1623 In 1630, he returned to Rome to apply for a license to print the Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems, published in Florence in 1632. The Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems ( Dialogo sopra i due massimi sistemi del mondo) was a 1632 book by Galileo, comparing the Florence ( Italian: Firenze Florentia and Fiorenza) is the Capital City of the Italian region of Tuscany In October of that year, however, he was ordered to appear before the Holy Office in Rome. The Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith (CDF ( Congregatio pro Doctrina Fidei) previously known as the Supreme Sacred Congregation of the Holy Office,

Following a papal trial in which he was found guilty of heresy, Galileo was placed under house arrest and his movements restricted by the Pope. From 1634 onward he stayed at his country house at Arcetri, outside of Florence. He went completely blind in 1638 and was suffering from a painful hernia and insomnia, so he was permitted to travel to Florence for medical advice. A hernia is a protrusion of a tissue, structure or part of an organ through the muscular tissue or the membrane by which it is normally contained Insomnia is a symptom of a sleeping disorder characterized by persistent difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep despite the opportunity He continued to receive visitors until 1642, when, after suffering fever and heart palpatations, he passed away. [16][17]

## Scientific methods

Galileo Galilei pioneered the use of quantitative experiments whose results could be analyzed with mathematical precision. More typical of science at the time were the qualitative studies of William Gilbert, on magnetism and electricity. William Gilbert, also known as Gilbard ( Colchester, England, May 24, 1544 &ndash London, England, November 30 Galileo's father, Vincenzo Galilei, a lutenist and music theorist, had performed experiments establishing perhaps the oldest known non-linear relation in physics: for a stretched string, the pitch varies as the square root of the tension. Vincenzo Galilei (c 1520 &ndash July 2, 1591) was an Italian lutenist, Composer, and music theorist, and the father of Lute can refer generally to any plucked string instrument with a neck (either Fretted or unfretted and a deep round back or more specifically to an instrument from [18] These observations lay within the framework of the Pythagorean tradition of music, well-known to instrument makers, which included the fact that subdividing a string by a whole number produces a harmonious scale. "Pythagoras of Samos" redirects here For the Samian statuary of the same name see Pythagoras (sculptor. Thus, a limited amount of mathematics had long related music and physical science, and young Galileo could see his own father's observations expand on that tradition. [19]

Galileo is perhaps the first to clearly state that the laws of nature are mathematical. In The Assayer he wrote "Philosophy is written in this grand book, the universe . The Assayer was a book published in Rome by Galileo Galilei in October 1623 . . It is written in the language of mathematics, and its characters are triangles, circles, and other geometric figures; . . . ". [20] His mathematical analyses are a further development of a tradition employed by late scholastic natural philosophers, which Galileo learned when he studied philosophy. [21] Although he tried to remain loyal to the Catholic Church, his adherence to experimental results, and their most honest interpretation, led to a rejection of blind allegiance to authority, both philosophical and religious, in matters of science. In broader terms, this aided to separate science from both philosophy and religion; a major development in human thought. Philosophy is the study of general problems concerning matters such as existence knowledge truth beauty justice validity mind and language

By the standards of his time, Galileo was often willing to change his views in accordance with observation. Philosopher of science Paul Feyerabend also noted the supposedly improper aspects of Galileo's methodology, but he argued that Galileo's methods could be justified retroactively by their results. Paul Karl Feyerabend ( January 13, 1924 – February 11, 1994) was an Austrian born Philosopher of science best known for The bulk of Feyerabend's major work, Against Method (1975), was devoted to an analysis of Galileo, using his astronomical research as a case study to support Feyerabend's own anarchistic theory of scientific method. Scientific method refers to bodies of Techniques for investigating phenomena As he put it: 'Aristotelians . . . demanded strong empirical support while the Galileans were content with far-reaching, unsupported and partially refuted theories. I do not criticize them for that; on the contrary, I favour Niels Bohr's "this is not crazy enough. Niels Henrik David Bohr (nels ˈb̥oɐ̯ˀ in Danish 7 October 1885 – 18 November 1962 was a Danish Physicist who made fundamental contributions to understanding "'[22] In order to perform his experiments, Galileo had to set up standards of length and time, so that measurements made on different days and in different laboratories could be compared in a reproducible fashion.

Galileo showed a remarkably modern appreciation for the proper relationship between mathematics, theoretical physics, and experimental physics. He understood the parabola, both in terms of conic sections and in terms of the ordinate (y) varying as the square of the abscissa (x). In Mathematics, the parabola (pəˈræbələ from the Greek παραβολή) is a Conic section, the intersection of a right circular In Mathematics, a conic section (or just conic) is a Curve obtained by intersecting a cone (more precisely a circular Conical surface In Mathematics, the Cartesian coordinate system (also called rectangular coordinate system) is used to determine each point uniquely in a plane In Mathematics, the Cartesian coordinate system (also called rectangular coordinate system) is used to determine each point uniquely in a plane Galilei further asserted that the parabola was the theoretically-ideal trajectory for uniformly accelerated motion, in the absence of friction and other disturbances. Trajectory is the path a moving object follows through space The object might be a Projectile or a Satellite, for example Friction is the Force resisting the relative motion of two Surfaces in contact or a surface in contact with a fluid (e He also noted that there are limits to the validity of this theory, stating that it was appropriate only for laboratory-scale and battlefield-scale trajectories, and noting on theoretical grounds that the parabola could not possibly apply to a trajectory so large as to be comparable to the size of the planet. A planet, as defined by the International Astronomical Union (IAU is a celestial body Orbiting a Star or stellar remnant that is [23] Thirdly, Galilei recognized that his experimental data would never agree exactly with any theoretical or mathematical form, because of the imprecision of measurement, irreducible friction, and other factors.

According to Stephen Hawking, Galileo probably bears more of the responsibility for the birth of modern science than anybody else,[24] and Albert Einstein called him the father of modern science. Stephen William Hawking CH, CBE, FRS, FRSA (born 8 January 1942 is a British theoretical physicist. Albert Einstein ( German: ˈalbɐt ˈaɪ̯nʃtaɪ̯n; English: ˈælbɝt ˈaɪnstaɪn (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955 was a German -born theoretical [25]

## Astronomy

### Contributions

It was on this page that Galileo first noted an observation of the moons of Jupiter. A natural satellite or moon is a Celestial body that Orbits a Planet or smaller body which is called the primary. This observation upset the notion that all celestial bodies must revolve around the Earth. Galileo published a full description in Sidereus Nuncius in March 1610
The phases of Venus, observed by Galileo in 1610

Based only on uncertain descriptions of the telescope, invented in the Netherlands in 1608, Galileo, in that same year, made a telescope with about 3x magnification, and later made others with up to about 32x magnification. The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands With this improved device he could see magnified, upright images on the earth - it was what is now known as a terrestrial telescope, or spyglass. He could also use it to observe the sky; for a time he was one of very few who could construct telescopes good enough for that purpose. On 25 August 1609, he demonstrated his first telescope to Venetian lawmakers. Events 1248 - The Dutch city of Ommen receives city rights and fortification rights from Otto III the Venice ( Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venesia or Venexia) is a city in Northern Italy, the capital of the His work on the device made for a profitable sideline with merchants who found it useful for their shipping businesses and trading issues. He published his initial telescopic astronomical observations in March 1610 in a short treatise entitled Sidereus Nuncius (Starry Messenger). Sidereus Nuncius (usually translated into English as Sidereal Messenger, although Starry Messenger and Sidereal Message are

On January 7, 1610 Galileo observed with his telescope what he described at the time as "three fixed stars, totally invisible[26] by their smallness", all within a short distance of Jupiter, and lying on a straight line through it. Events 1325 - Alfonso IV becomes King of Portugal. 1558 - France takes Calais, the last continental [27] Observations on subsequent nights showed that the positions of these "stars" relative to Jupiter were changing in a way that would have been inexplicable if they had really been fixed stars. On January 10 Galileo noted that one of them had disappeared, an observation which he attributed to its being hidden behind Jupiter. Events 49 BC - Julius Caesar crosses the Rubicon, signaling the start of civil war. Within a few days he concluded that they were orbiting Jupiter:[28] he had discovered three of Jupiter's four largest satellites (moons): Io, Europa, and Callisto. In Physics, an orbit is the gravitationally curved path of one object around a point or another body for example the gravitational orbit of a planet around a star A natural satellite or moon is a Celestial body that Orbits a Planet or smaller body which is called the primary. TemplateInfobox Planet.--> Io (ˈaɪoʊ, or as Greek TemplateInfobox Planet.--> Europa (jʊˈroʊpə; or as TemplateInfobox Planet.--> Callisto (kəˈlɪstoʊ, or as Greek He discovered the fourth, Ganymede, on January 13. TemplateInfobox Planet.--> Ganymede (ˈgænɨmiːd, or as Greek Events 532 - Nika riots in Constantinople. 888 - Odo Count of Paris becomes King of the Franks Galileo named the four satellites he had discovered Medicean stars, in honour of his future patron, Cosimo II de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, and Cosimo's three brothers. [29] Later astronomers, however, renamed them Galilean satellites in honour of Galileo himself. The Galilean moons are the four moons of Jupiter discovered by Galileo Galilei.

A planet with smaller planets orbiting it was problematic for the orderly, comprehensive picture of the geocentric model of the universe, in which everything was supposed to circle around the Earth. In Astronomy, the geocentric model of the Universe is the superseded theory that the Earth is the center of the universe and other As a consequence, many astronomers and philosophers initially refused to believe that Galileo could have discovered such a thing. [30]

Galileo continued to observe the satellites over the next eighteen months, and by mid 1611 he had obtained remarkably accurate estimates for their periods—a feat which Kepler had believed impossible. Johannes Kepler (ˈkɛplɚ ( December 27 1571 &ndash November 15 1630) was a German Mathematician, Astronomer [31]

From September 1610, Galileo observed that Venus exhibited a full set of phases similar to that of the Moon. The VENUS ( V ictoria E xperimental N etwork U nder the S ea project is a cabled sea floor observatory operated by the University Lunar phase (or Moon phase refers to the appearance of the illuminated portion of the Moon as seen by an observer usually on Earth The heliocentric model of the solar system developed by Nicolaus Copernicus predicted that all phases would be visible since the orbit of Venus around the Sun would cause its illuminated hemisphere to face the Earth when it was on the opposite side of the Sun and to face away from the Earth when it was on the Earth-side of the Sun. In Astronomy, heliocentrism is the theory that the Sun is at the center of the Solar System. The Sun (Sol is the Star at the center of the Solar System. In contrast, the geocentric model of Ptolemy predicted that only crescent and new phases would be seen, since Venus was thought to remain between the Sun and Earth during its orbit around the Earth. In Astronomy, the geocentric model of the Universe is the superseded theory that the Earth is the center of the universe and other Claudius Ptolemaeus ( Greek: Klaúdios Ptolemaîos; after 83 &ndash ca Galileo's observations of the phases of Venus proved that it orbited the Sun and lent support to (but did not prove) the heliocentric model. In Astronomy, heliocentrism is the theory that the Sun is at the center of the Solar System. However, since it refuted the Ptolemaic pure geocentric planetary model, it seems it was the crucial observation that caused the 17th century majority conversion of the scientific community to geoheliocentric geocentric models such as the Tychonic and Capellan models, and was thereby arguably Galileo’s historically most important astronomical observation.

Galileo also observed the planet Saturn, and at first mistook its rings for planets, thinking it was a three-bodied system. When he observed the planet later, Saturn's rings were directly oriented at Earth, causing him to think that two of the bodies had disappeared. The rings reappeared when he observed the planet in 1616, further confusing him. [32]

Galileo was one of the first Europeans to observe sunspots, although Kepler had unwittingly observed one in 1607, but mistook it for a transit of Mercury. A sunspot is a region on the Sun 's surface ( Photosphere) that is marked by intense magnetic activity which inhibits Convection, forming . He also reinterpreted a sunspot observation from the time of Charlemagne, which formerly had been attributed (impossibly) to a transit of Mercury. Charlemagne (ˈʃɑrlɨmeɪn Carolus Magnus or Karolus Magnus meaning Charles the Great) (747 – 28 January 814 was King of the Franks from 768 to his The very existence of sunspots showed another difficulty with the unchanging perfection of the heavens posited by orthodox Aristotelian celestial physics, but their regular periodic transits also confirmed the dramatic novel prediction of Kepler's Aristotelian celestial dynamics in his 1609 Astronomia Nova that the sun rotates, which was the first successful novel prediction of post-spherist celestial physics. [33] And the annual variations in sunspots' motions, first noticed by Francesco Sizzi, provided a powerful argument against both the Ptolemaic system and the geoheliocentric system of Tycho Brahe. Tycho Brahe, born Tyge Ottesen Brahe ( December 14 1546 &ndash October 24 1601) was a Danish nobleman [34] A dispute over priority in the discovery of sunspots, and in their interpretation, led Galileo to a long and bitter feud with the Jesuit Christoph Scheiner; in fact, there is little doubt that both of them were beaten by David Fabricius and his son Johannes, looking for confirmation of Kepler's prediction of the sun's rotation. Christoph Scheiner SJ ( 25 July 1573 (or 1575 in Markt Wald near Mindelheim in Swabia David Fabricius ( March 9, 1564, Esens - May 7, 1617, Osteel) was a German theologian who made two major Johann(es Fabricius ( 8 January 1587 &ndash 19 March 1616) eldest son of David Fabricius (1564-1617 was a Frisian / Scheiner quickly adopted Kepler's 1615 proposal of the modern telescope design, which gave larger magnification at the cost of inverted images; Galileo apparently never changed to Kepler's design.

Galileo was the first to report lunar mountains and craters, whose existence he deduced from the patterns of light and shadow on the Moon's surface. A mountain is a Landform that extends above the surrounding Terrain in a limited area with a peak In the broadest sense the term impact crater can be applied to any depression natural or manmade resulting from the high velocity impact of a projectile with larger body He even estimated the mountains' heights from these observations. This led him to the conclusion that the Moon was "rough and uneven, and just like the surface of the Earth itself," rather than a perfect sphere as Aristotle had claimed. "Globose" redirects here See also Globose nucleus. A sphere (from Greek σφαίρα - sphaira, "globe Galileo observed the Milky Way, previously believed to be nebulous, and found it to be a multitude of stars packed so densely that they appeared to be clouds from Earth. The Milky Way (a translation of the Latin Via Lactea, in turn derived from the Greek Γαλαξίας (Galaxias sometimes referred to simply A nebula (from Latin: "mist" pl nebulae or nebulæ, with ligature or nebulas) is an Interstellar cloud of A star is a massive luminous ball of plasma. The nearest star to Earth is the Sun, which is the source of most of the Energy on Earth He located many other stars too distant to be visible with the naked eye. Galileo also observed the planet Neptune in 1612, but did not realize that it was a planet and took no particular notice of it. Neptune ( English|AmE] ] is the eighth and farthest Planet from the Sun in the Solar System. It appears in his notebooks as one of many unremarkable dim stars.

### Controversy over comets and The Assayer

Main article: The Assayer

In 1619, Galileo became embroiled in a controversy with Father Orazio Grassi, professor of mathematics at the Jesuit Collegio Romano. The Assayer was a book published in Rome by Galileo Galilei in October 1623 Orazio Grassi ( Savona, 1583– Rome, 1654 was a Italian Mathematician, Astronomer and Architect. Pontifical Gregorian University (Pontificia Università Gregoriana (also known as the Gregorianum) is a Pontifical university located in Rome, Italy It began as a dispute over the nature of comets, but by the time Galileo had published The Assayer (Il Saggiatore) in 1623, his last salvo in the dispute, it had become a much wider argument over the very nature of Science itself. The Assayer was a book published in Rome by Galileo Galilei in October 1623 Because The Assayer contains such a wealth of Galileo's ideas on how Science should be practised, it has been referred to as his scientific manifesto. [35]

Early in 1619, Father Grassi had anonymously published a pamphlet, An Astronomical Disputation on the Three Comets of the Year 1618,[36] which discussed the nature of a comet that had appeared late in November of the previous year. The Assayer was a book published in Rome by Galileo Galilei in October 1623 Grassi concluded that the comet was a fiery body which had moved along a segment of a great circle at a constant distance from the earth,[37] and that it had been located well beyond the moon.

Grassi's arguments and conclusions were criticised in a subsequent article, Discourse on the Comets,[38] published under the name of one of Galileo's disciples, a Florentine lawyer named Mario Guiducci, although it had been largely written by Galileo himself. The Assayer was a book published in Rome by Galileo Galilei in October 1623 Mario Guiducci (1585-1646 studied law for some time at Pisa University. [39] Galileo and Guiducci offered no definitive theory of their own on the nature of comets,[40] although they did present some tentative conjectures which we now know to be mistaken.

In its opening passage, Galileo and Guiducci's Discourse gratuitously insulted the Jesuit Christopher Scheiner,[41] and various uncomplimentary remarks about the professors of the Collegio Romano were scattered throughout the work. Christoph Scheiner SJ ( 25 July 1573 (or 1575 in Markt Wald near Mindelheim in Swabia [42] The Jesuits were offended,[43] and Grassi soon replied with a polemical tract of his own, The Astronomical and Philosophical Balance,[44] under the pseudonym Lotario Sarsi Sigenzano (an anagram of his full name), purporting to be one of his own pupils. The Assayer was a book published in Rome by Galileo Galilei in October 1623

The Assayer was Galileo's devastating reply to the Astronomical Balance. [45] It has been widely regarded as a masterpiece of polemical literature,[46] in which "Sarsi's" arguments are subjected to withering scorn. [47] It was greeted with wide acclaim, and particularly pleased the new pope, Urban VIII, to whom it had been dedicated. Pope [48]

Galileo's dispute with Grassi permanently alienated many of the Jesuits who had previously been sympathetic to his ideas,[49] and Galileo and his friends were convinced that these Jesuits were responsible for bringing about his later condemnation. [50] The evidence for this is at best equivocal, however. [51]

### Galileo, Kepler and theories of tides

Cardinal Bellarmine had written in 1615 that the Copernican system could not be defended without "a true physical demonstration that the sun does not circle the earth but the earth circles the sun". [52] Galileo considered his theory of the tides to provide the required physical proof of the motion of the earth. This theory was so important to Galileo that he originally intended to entitle his Dialogue on the Two Chief World Systems the Dialogue on the Ebb and Flow of the Sea. [53] For Galileo, the tides were caused by the sloshing back and forth of water in the seas as a point on the Earth's surface speeded up and slowed down because of the Earth's rotation on its axis and revolution around the Sun. Characteristics A tide is a repeated cycle of sea level changes in the following stages Over several hours the water rises or advances up a beach in the flood Galileo circulated his first account of the tides in 1616, addressed to Cardinal Orsini. [54]

If this theory were correct, there would be only one high tide per day. Galileo and his contemporaries were aware of this inadequacy because there are two daily high tides at Venice instead of one, about twelve hours apart. Venice ( Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venesia or Venexia) is a city in Northern Italy, the capital of the Galileo dismissed this anomaly as the result of several secondary causes, including the shape of the sea, its depth, and other factors. [55] Against the assertion that Galileo was deceptive in making these arguments, Albert Einstein expressed the opinion that Galileo developed his "fascinating arguments" and accepted them uncritically out of a desire for physical proof of the motion of the Earth. Albert Einstein ( German: ˈalbɐt ˈaɪ̯nʃtaɪ̯n; English: ˈælbɝt ˈaɪnstaɪn (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955 was a German -born theoretical [56]

Galileo dismissed as a "useless fiction" the idea, held by his contemporary Johannes Kepler, that the moon caused the tides. Johannes Kepler (ˈkɛplɚ ( December 27 1571 &ndash November 15 1630) was a German Mathematician, Astronomer [57] Galileo also refused to accept Kepler's elliptical orbits of the planets,[58] considering the circle the "perfect" shape for planetary orbits. Johannes Kepler (ˈkɛplɚ ( December 27 1571 &ndash November 15 1630) was a German Mathematician, Astronomer

## Technology

Galileo Galilei. Portrait in crayon by Leoni
A replica of the earliest surviving telescope attributed to Galileo Galilei, on display at the Griffith Observatory

Galileo made a number of contributions to what is now known as technology, as distinct from pure physics, and suggested others. Griffith Observatory is located in Los Angeles California, United States. Technology is a broad concept that deals with a Species ' usage and knowledge of Tools and Crafts and how it affects a species' ability to control and adapt This is not the same distinction as made by Aristotle, who would have considered all Galileo's physics as techne or useful knowledge, as opposed to episteme, or philosophical investigation into the causes of things. Between 1595–1598, Galileo devised and improved a Geometric and Military Compass suitable for use by gunners and surveyors. Artillery (from French artillerie) is a military Combat Arm which employs any apparātus machine Surveying is the technique and science of accurately determining the terrestrial or three-dimensional space Position of points and the distances and angles between This expanded on earlier instruments designed by Niccolò Tartaglia and Guidobaldo del Monte. Niccolò Fontana Tartaglia (1499/1500 Brescia, Italy &ndash December 13, 1557, Venice, Italy was a Mathematician Guidobaldo del Monte ( 11 January 1545 - 6 January 1607, var Guidobaldi or Guido Baldi) Marquis del Monte For gunners, it offered, in addition to a new and safer way of elevating cannons accurately, a way of quickly computing the charge of gunpowder for cannonballs of different sizes and materials. | NOTE Throughout this article "cannon" is used as BOTH the || singular and plural Gunpowder is a an explosive mixture of Sulfur, Charcoal and Potassium nitrate (also known as saltpetre/saltpeter that burns rapidly producing volumes Round shot is an obsolete solid Projectile without explosive charge fired from Small arms or Cannons As the name implies round shot is spherical As a geometric instrument, it enabled the construction of any regular polygon, computation of the area of any polygon or circular sector, and a variety of other calculations. In Geometry a polygon (ˈpɒlɨɡɒn ˈpɒliɡɒn is traditionally a plane figure that is bounded by a closed path or circuit About 1593, Galileo constructed a thermometer, using the expansion and contraction of air in a bulb to move water in an attached tube. Timeline of Temperature and Pressure Measurement Technology A history of Temperature measurement and Pressure measurement The thermometer is a device that measures Temperature or Temperature gradient using a variety of different principles it comes from the Greek roots

In 1612, having determined the orbital periods of Jupiter's satellites, Galileo proposed that with sufficiently accurate knowledge of their orbits one could use their positions as a universal clock, and this would make possible the determination of longitude. Longitude (ˈlɒndʒɪˌtjuːd or ˈlɒŋgɪˌtjuːd symbolized by the Greek character Lambda (λ is the east-west Geographic coordinate measurement He worked on this problem from time to time during the remainder of his life; but the practical problems were severe. The method was first successfully applied by Giovanni Domenico Cassini in 1681 and was later used extensively for large land surveys; this method, for example, was used by Lewis and Clark. Giovanni Domenico Cassini ( June 8, 1625 &ndash September 14, 1712) was an Italian Mathematician, Astronomer For sea navigation, where delicate telescopic observations were more difficult, the longitude problem eventually required development of a practical portable marine chronometer, such as that of John Harrison. A marine chronometer is a timekeeper precise enough to be used as a portable Time standard; it can therefore be used to determine Longitude by means of Celestial John Harrison (24 March 1693 – 24 March 1776 was an English Clockmaker.

In his last year, when totally blind, he designed an escapement mechanism for a pendulum clock, a vectorial model of which may be seen here. In Mechanical watches and Clocks an escapement is a device which converts continuous rotational motion into an oscillating or back and forth motion Galileo's escapement is a design for a clock Escapement, invented by Galileo Galilei. The first fully operational pendulum clock was made by Christiaan Huygens in the 1650s. Christiaan Huygens (ˈhaɪgənz in English ˈhœyɣəns in Dutch) ( April 14, 1629 &ndash July 8, 1695) was a Dutch Galilei created sketches of various inventions, such as a candle and mirror combination to reflect light throughout a building, an automatic tomato picker, a pocket comb that doubled as an eating utensil, and what appears to be a ballpoint pen.

## Physics

Classical mechanics
$\vec{F} = \frac{\mathrm{d}}{\mathrm{d}t}(m \vec{v})$
Newton's Second Law
History of ...
Scientists
Galileo · Kepler · Newton
Laplace · Hamilton · d'Alembert
Cauchy · Lagrange · Euler
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Galileo's theoretical and experimental work on the motions of bodies, along with the largely independent work of Kepler and René Descartes, was a precursor of the classical mechanics developed by Sir Isaac Newton. Classical mechanics is used for describing the motion of Macroscopic objects from Projectiles to parts of Machinery, as well as Astronomical objects Newton's laws of motion are three Physical laws which provide relationships between the Forces acting on a body and the motion of the Early Ideas on Motion The Greek philosophers, and Aristotle in particular were the first to propose that there are abstract principles governing nature Johannes Kepler (ˈkɛplɚ ( December 27 1571 &ndash November 15 1630) was a German Mathematician, Astronomer Sir Isaac Newton, FRS (ˈnjuːtən 4 January 1643 31 March 1727) Biography Early years See also Isaac Newton's early life and achievements Sir William Rowan Hamilton (4 August 1805 &ndash 2 September 1865 was an Irish Mathematician, Physicist, and Astronomer who Classical mechanics is used for describing the motion of Macroscopic objects from Projectiles to parts of Machinery, as well as Astronomical objects Sir Isaac Newton, FRS (ˈnjuːtən 4 January 1643 31 March 1727) Biography Early years See also Isaac Newton's early life and achievements He was a pioneer, at least in the European tradition, in performing rigorous experiments and insisting on a mathematical description of the laws of nature. Mathematics is the body of Knowledge and Academic discipline that studies such concepts as Quantity, Structure, Space and

A biography by Galileo's pupil Vincenzo Viviani stated that Galileo had dropped balls of the same material, but different masses, from the Leaning Tower of Pisa to demonstrate that their time of descent was independent of their mass. Vincenzo Viviani ( April 5, 1622 - September 22, 1703) was an Italian Mathematician and Scientist. BALL ( Biochemical Algorithms Library) is a C++ library containing common algorithms used in Biochemistry and Bioinformatics. Mass is a fundamental concept in Physics, roughly corresponding to the Intuitive idea of how much Matter there is in an object The Leaning Tower of Pisa (Torre pendente di Pisa or simply The Tower of Pisa (it La Torre di Pisa is the Campanile, or freestanding bell tower of the [67] This was contrary to what Aristotle had taught: that heavy objects fall faster than lighter ones, in direct proportion to weight. [68] While this story has been retold in popular accounts, it is generally accepted by historians that there is no account by Galileo himself of such an experiment, and that it was at most a thought experiment which did not actually take place. A thought experiment (from the German Gedankenexperiment) is a proposal for an Experiment that would test a Hypothesis or Theory [69][70] However, Galileo did perform experiments which proved the same thing by rolling balls down inclined planes:[71] falling or rolling objects (rolling is a slower version of falling, as long as the distribution of mass in the objects is the same) are accelerated independently of their mass. In scientific inquiry an experiment ( Latin: Ex- periri, "to try out" is a method of investigating particular types of research questions or This article deals with the physical structure For related terms see Canal inclined plane, Cable railway, Funicular, or Fixed-wing Galileo was the first person to demonstrate this via experiment, but he was not—contrary to popular belief—the first to argue that it was true. A number of scholars[72] prior to Galileo wrote -- or showed by experiment -- that in a vacuum, bodies which are composed of the same substance but which have different masses, fall through equal distances in equal times: Lucretius (ca. Titus Lucretius Carus (ca 99 BC- ca 55 BC was a Roman Poet and Philosopher. 99 - ca. 55 B. C. E. , Roman poet),[73] John Philoponus (ca. John Philoponus ( ca 490&ndash ca 570 also known as John Grammarian of Alexandria was a Christian and Aristotelian commentator and the author of a considerable 490 - ca. 570 C. E. , Greek philosopher in Alexandria, Egypt),[74] Thomas Bradwardine (ca. Thomas Bradwardine (c 1290 &ndash 26 August 1349 often called "the Profound Doctor" was an English scholar and courtier and very briefly Archbishop of Canterbury 1290 - 1349, scholar at Merton College of Oxford University),[75] Albert of Saxony (1316 - 1390, German cleric and philosopher),[76] Pietro Monte (a. Albert of Saxony (Latin Albertus de Saxonia; (c 1320 &ndash 8 July 1390) was a German Philosopher known for his contributions to Logic Pietro Monte was a Spanish master of arms who lived in Italy in the late 1400s. k. a. Petrus Montius, ca. 1457 - 1530, Spanish master at arms who resided in N. Italy),[77] Benedetto Varchi (1502/3 - 1565, Italian historian and poet),[78] Domingo de Soto (1494 - 1560, Spanish cleric and theologian),[79] Giambattista Benedetti (1530 - 1590, Venetian mathematician),[80] Giuseppe Moletti (1531 - 1588, Italian mathematician),[81] and Simon Stevin (1548/9 - 1620, Flemish engineer and mathematician). Benedetto Varchi (1502/1503 - 1565 was an Italian Historian and Poet. Domingo de Soto (1494 - 1560 was a Dominican priest and theologian born in Segovia, Spain and died in Salamanca. Giambattista (Gianbattista Benedetti ( August 14 1530 &ndash January 20 1590) was an Italian mathematician from Venice Giuseppe Moletti (1531-1588 was an Italian mathematician best known for his Dialogo intorno alla Meccanica (Dialogue on Mechanics Simon Stevin (1548/49 &ndash 1620 was a Flemish Mathematician and Engineer. [82]

Galileo arrived at the correct mathematical law for uniform acceleration: the total distance covered, starting from rest, is proportional to the square of the time ($d \propto t^2$), already discovered by Domingo de Soto in the 16th century. Domingo de Soto (1494 - 1560 was a Dominican priest and theologian born in Segovia, Spain and died in Salamanca. He expressed this law using geometrical constructions and mathematically-precise words, adhering to the standards of the day. (It remained for others to re-express the law in algebraic terms). But he erroneously claimed gravitational free-fall universally is uniformly accelerated as the fundamental law of motion of his cosmology and cosmogony, a claim that was never generally accepted and soon refuted by the 1660s discovery that it is exponentially increasingly accelerated (a difform motion in scholastic terms) and inversely proportional to distance from its gravitational centre. He also concluded that objects retain their velocity unless a force—often friction—acts upon them, refuting the generally accepted Aristotelian hypothesis that objects "naturally" slow down and stop unless a force acts upon them (philosophical ideas relating to inertia had been proposed by Ibn al-Haytham centuries earlier, as had Jean Buridan, and according to Joseph Needham, Mo Tzu had proposed it centuries before either of them, but this was the first time that it had been mathematically expressed, verified experimentally, and introduced the idea of frictional force, the key breakthrough in validating inertia). In Physics, a force is whatever can cause an object with Mass to Accelerate. Friction is the Force resisting the relative motion of two Surfaces in contact or a surface in contact with a fluid (e The vis insita or innate force of matter is a power of resisting by which every body as much as in it lies endeavors to preserve in its present state whether it be of rest or of moving TemplateInfobox Muslim scholars --> ( Arabic: ابو علی، حسن بن حسن بن هيثم Latinized Jean Buridan (in Latin, Johannes Buridanus; ca 1295 &ndash 1358 was a French Priest who sowed the seeds of the Copernican revolution Noel Joseph Terence Montgomery Needham, CH, FRS, FBA ( December 9, 1900 – March 24 1995) was a British Mozi ( Lat as Micius, ca 470 BCE&ndashca 391 BCE was a Philosopher who lived in China during the Hundred Schools of Thought Friction is the Force resisting the relative motion of two Surfaces in contact or a surface in contact with a fluid (e Galileo's Principle of Inertia stated: "A body moving on a level surface will continue in the same direction at constant speed unless disturbed. " This principle was incorporated into Newton's laws of motion (first law). Newton's laws of motion are three Physical laws which provide relationships between the Forces acting on a body and the motion of the

Dome of the cathedral of Pisa with the "lamp of Galileo"

Galileo also claimed (incorrectly) that a pendulum's swings always take the same amount of time, independently of the amplitude. A pendulum is a mass that is attached to a pivot from which it can swing freely Amplitude is the magnitude of change in the oscillating variable with each Oscillation, within an oscillating system That is, that a simple pendulum is isochronous. Isochronous: From Greek iso, equal + Chronos, time It literally means to occur at the same time or at equal time intervals It is popularly believed that he came to this conclusion by watching the swings of the bronze chandelier in the cathedral of Pisa, using his pulse to time it. It appears however, that he conducted no experiments because the claim is true only of infinitesimally small swings as discovered by Christian Huygens. Christiaan Huygens (ˈhaɪgənz in English ˈhœyɣəns in Dutch) ( April 14, 1629 &ndash July 8, 1695) was a Dutch Galileo's son, Vincenzo, sketched a clock based on his father's theories in 1642. The clock was never built and, because of the large swings required by its verge escapement, would have been a poor timekeeper. The verge (or crown wheel) escapement is the earliest known type of mechanical Escapement, the mechanism in a mechanical Clock that controls (See Technology above. )

In 1638 Galileo described an experimental method to measure the speed of light by arranging that two observers, each having lanterns equipped with shutters, observe each other's lanterns at some distance. The first observer opens the shutter of his lamp, and, the second, upon seeing the light, immediately opens the shutter of his own lantern. The time between the first observer's opening his shutter and seeing the light from the second observer's lamp indicates the time it takes light to travel back and forth between the two observers. Galileo reported that when he tried this at a distance of less than a mile, he was unable to determine whether or not the light appeared instantaneously. [83] Sometime between Galileo's death and 1667, the members of the Florentine Accademia del Cimento repeated the experiment over a distance of about a mile and obtained a similarly inconclusive result. The Accademia del Cimento (Academy of Experiment an early scientific society, was founded in Florence 1657 by students of Galileo, Evangelista [84]

Galileo is lesser known for, yet still credited with, being one of the first to understand sound frequency. By scraping a chisel at different speeds, he linked the pitch of the sound produced to the spacing of the chisel's skips, a measure of frequency.

In his 1632 Dialogue Galileo presented a physical theory to account for tides, based on the motion of the Earth. The Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems ( Dialogo sopra i due massimi sistemi del mondo) was a 1632 book by Galileo, comparing the Characteristics A tide is a repeated cycle of sea level changes in the following stages Over several hours the water rises or advances up a beach in the flood If correct, this would have been a strong argument for the reality of the Earth's motion. In fact, the original title for the book described it as a dialogue on the tides; the reference to tides was removed by order of the Inquisition. His theory gave the first insight into the importance of the shapes of ocean basins in the size and timing of tides; he correctly accounted, for instance, for the negligible tides halfway along the Adriatic Sea compared to those at the ends. As a general account of the cause of tides, however, his theory was a failure. Kepler and others correctly associated the Moon with an influence over the tides, based on empirical data; a proper physical theory of the tides, however, was not available until Newton.

Galileo also put forward the basic principle of relativity, that the laws of physics are the same in any system that is moving at a constant speed in a straight line, regardless of its particular speed or direction. Galilean invariance or Galilean relativity is a Principle of relativity which states that the fundamental laws of physics are the same in all Inertial Hence, there is no absolute motion or absolute rest. This principle provided the basic framework for Newton's laws of motion and is central to Einstein's special theory of relativity. Albert Einstein ( German: ˈalbɐt ˈaɪ̯nʃtaɪ̯n; English: ˈælbɝt ˈaɪnstaɪn (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955 was a German -born theoretical Special relativity (SR (also known as the special theory of relativity or STR) is the Physical theory of Measurement in Inertial

## Mathematics

While Galileo's application of mathematics to experimental physics was innovative, his mathematical methods were the standard ones of the day. The analysis and proofs relied heavily on the Eudoxian theory of proportion, as set forth in the fifth book of Euclid's Elements. Eudoxus of Cnidus ( Greek Εὔδοξος ὁ Κνίδιος (410 or 408 BC &ndash 355 or 347 BC was a Greek Astronomer, Mathematician Euclid's Elements ( Greek:) is a mathematical and geometric Treatise consisting of 13 books written by the Greek This theory had become available only a century before, thanks to accurate translations by Tartaglia and others; but by the end of Galileo's life it was being superseded by the algebraic methods of Descartes. Niccolò Fontana Tartaglia (1499/1500 Brescia, Italy &ndash December 13, 1557, Venice, Italy was a Mathematician

Galileo produced one piece of original and even prophetic work in mathematics: Galileo's paradox, which shows that there are as many perfect squares as there are whole numbers, even though most numbers are not perfect squares. Galileo's paradox is a demonstration of one of the surprising properties of Infinite sets In his final scientific work the Two New Sciences, Galileo Such seeming contradictions were brought under control 250 years later in the work of Georg Cantor. Georg Ferdinand Ludwig Philipp Cantor ( – January 6 1918) was a German Mathematician, born in Russia.

## Church controversy

Main article: Galileo affair
Cristiano Banti's 1857 painting Galileo facing the Roman Inquisition

Western Christian biblical references Psalm 93:1, Psalm 96:10, and 1 Chronicles 16:30 include text stating that "the world is firmly established, it cannot be moved. The Galileo affair, in which Galileo Galilei came into conflict with the Catholic Church over his support of Copernican astronomy, is often considered a Psalms ( Hebrew: Tehilim, תהילים, or "praises" is a book of the Hebrew Bible (the Christian Old Testament) included The Books of Chronicles ( Hebrew Divrei Hayyamim, דברי הימים Greek Paraleipomêna) are part of the Hebrew Bible (Jewish " In the same tradition, Psalm 104:5 says, "the LORD set the earth on its foundations; it can never be moved. " Further, Ecclesiastes 1:5 states that "And the sun rises and sets and returns to its place, etc. Ecclesiastes (often abbreviated Ecc) (קֹהֶלֶת Kohelet, variously transliterated as Qoheleth, Göhalath, Koheles, Koheleth "[85]

Galileo defended heliocentrism, and claimed it was not contrary to those Scripture passages. In Astronomy, heliocentrism is the theory that the Sun is at the center of the Solar System. He took Augustine's position on Scripture: not to take every passage literally, particularly when the scripture in question is a book of poetry and songs, not a book of instructions or history. The writers of the Scripture wrote from the perspective of the terrestrial world, and from that vantage point the sun does rise and set. In fact, it is the earth's rotation which gives the impression of the sun in motion across the sky.

By 1616 the attacks on Galileo had reached a head, and he went to Rome to try to persuade the Church authorities not to ban his ideas. Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 In the end, Cardinal Bellarmine, acting on directives from the Inquisition, delivered him an order not to "hold or defend" the idea that the Earth moves and the Sun stands still at the centre. Robert Bellarmine ( Roberto Francesco Romolo Cardinale Bellarmino) (4 October 1542 Montepulciano, Siena, Italy – 17 September 1621 The decree did not prevent Galileo from discussing heliocentrism hypothetically. For the next several years Galileo stayed well away from the controversy. He revived his project of writing a book on the subject, encouraged by the election of Cardinal Barberini as Pope Urban VIII in 1623. Pope Pope Barberini was a friend and admirer of Galileo, and had opposed the condemnation of Galileo in 1616. The book, Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems, was published in 1632, with formal authorization from the Inquisition and papal permission. The Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems ( Dialogo sopra i due massimi sistemi del mondo) was a 1632 book by Galileo, comparing the The term Inquisition can refer to any one of several institutions charged with trying and convicting heretics within the Roman Catholic Church and

Pope Urban VIII personally asked Galileo to give arguments for and against heliocentrism in the book, and to be careful not to advocate heliocentrism. He made another request, that his own views on the matter be included in Galileo's book. Only the latter of those requests was fulfilled by Galileo. Whether unknowingly or deliberate, Simplicius, the defender of the Aristotelian Geocentric view in Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems, was often caught in his own errors and sometimes came across as a fool. The Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems ( Dialogo sopra i due massimi sistemi del mondo) was a 1632 book by Galileo, comparing the This fact made Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems appear as an advocacy book; an attack on Aristotelian geocentrism and defense of the Copernican theory. To add insult to injury, Galileo put the words of Pope Urban VIII into the mouth of Simplicius. Most historians agree Galileo did not act out of malice and felt blindsided by the reaction to his book. [86] However, the Pope did not take the suspected public ridicule lightly, nor the blatant bias. Galileo had alienated one of his biggest and most powerful supporters, the Pope, and was called to Rome to defend his writings.

With the loss of many of his defenders in Rome because of Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems, Galileo was ordered to stand trial on suspicion of heresy in 1633. The sentence of the Inquisition was in three essential parts:

• Galileo was required to abjure the opinion that the Sun lies motionless at the centre of the universe, and that the Earth is not at its centre and moves; the idea that the Sun is stationary was condemned as "formally heretical. Abjuration is the solemn repudiation abandonment or renunciation by or upon Oath, often the renunciation of Citizenship or some other Right or Privilege " However, while there is no doubt that Pope Urban VIII and the vast majority of Church officials did not believe in heliocentrism, heliocentrism was never formally or officially condemned by the Catholic Church, except insofar as it held (for instance, in the formal condemnation of Galileo) that "The proposition that the sun is in the center of the world and immovable from its place is absurd, philosophically false, and formally heretical; because it is expressly contrary to Holy Scriptures", and the converse as to the Sun's not revolving around the Earth. [87]
• He was ordered imprisoned; the sentence was later commuted to house arrest.
• His offending Dialogue was banned; and in an action not announced at the trial, publication of any of his works was forbidden, including any he might write in the future. [88]
Tomb of Galileo Galilei, Santa Croce

According to popular legend, after recanting his theory that the Earth moved around the Sun, Galileo allegedly muttered the rebellious phrase And yet it moves, but there is no evidence that he actually said this or anything similarly impertinent. The Basilica di Santa Croce (Basilica of the Holy Cross is the principal Franciscan church in Florence, Italy, and a Minor basilica of the

After a period with the friendly Ascanio Piccolomini (the Archbishop of Siena), Galileo was allowed to return to his villa at Arcetri near Florence, where he spent the remainder of his life under house arrest, and where he later became blind. Ascanio Piccolomini (1590-1671 was the Archbishop of Siena from 1629-1671 Siena is a city in Tuscany, Italy. It is the capital of the Province of Siena. Arcetri is a region of Florence, Italy, in the hills to the south of the city centre It was while Galileo was under house arrest that he dedicated his time to one of his finest works, Two New Sciences. The Discourses and Mathematical Demonstrations Relating to Two New Sciences ( Discorsi e dimostrazioni matematiche intorno a due nuove scienze, 1638 was Galileo's Here he summarized work he had done some forty years earlier, on the two sciences now called kinematics and strength of materials. Kinematics ( Greek κινειν, kinein, to move is a branch of Classical mechanics which describes the motion of objects without In Materials science, the strength of a material refers to the material's ability to resist an applied force This book has received high praise from both Sir Isaac Newton and Albert Einstein. Sir Isaac Newton, FRS (ˈnjuːtən 4 January 1643 31 March 1727) Biography Early years See also Isaac Newton's early life and achievements Albert Einstein ( German: ˈalbɐt ˈaɪ̯nʃtaɪ̯n; English: ˈælbɝt ˈaɪnstaɪn (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955 was a German -born theoretical As a result of this work, Galileo is often called, the "father of modern physics".

Galileo died on January 8, 1642. Events 871 - Battle of Ashdown - Ethelred of Wessex defeats a Danish invasion army The Grand Duke of Tuscany, Ferdinando II, wished to bury him in the main body of the Basilica of Santa Croce, next to the tombs of his father and other ancestors, and to erect a marble mausoleum in his honour. Ferdinando II de' Medici Grand Duke of Tuscany ( 14 July 1610 &ndash 23 May 1670) ruled as Grand Duke of Tuscany from 1621 to 1670 The Basilica di Santa Croce (Basilica of the Holy Cross is the principal Franciscan church in Florence, Italy, and a Minor basilica of the [89] These plans were scrapped, however, after Pope Urban VIII and his nephew, Cardinal Francesco Barberini, protested. [90] He was instead buried in a small room next to the novices' chapel at the end of a corridor from the southern transept of the basilica to the sacristy. [91] He was reburied in the main body of the basilica in 1737 after a monument had been erected there in his honour. [92]

The Inquisition's ban on reprinting Galileo's works was lifted in 1718 when permission was granted to publish an edition of his works (excluding the condemned Dialogue) in Florence. [93] In 1741 Pope Benedict XIV authorized the publication of an edition of Galileo's complete scientific works[94] which included a mildly censored version of the Dialogue. Pope Benedict XIV ( March 31, 1675 &ndash May 3, 1758) born Prospero Lorenzo Lambertini, was Pope from August 17 [95] In 1758 the general prohibition against works advocating heliocentrism was removed from the Index of prohibited books, although the specific ban on uncensored versions of the Dialogue and Copernicus's De Revolutionibus remained. The Index Librorum Prohibitorum ("List of Prohibited Books" was a list of publications prohibited by the Roman Catholic Church. [96] All traces of official opposition to heliocentrism by the Church disappeared in 1835 when these works were finally dropped from the Index. [97]

In 1939 Pope Pius XII, in his first speech to the Pontifical Academy of Sciences, within a few months of his election to the papacy, described Galileo as being among the "most audacious heroes of research . Pope . . not afraid of the stumbling blocks and the risks on the way, nor fearful of the funereal monuments"[98] His close advisor of 40 years, Professor Robert Leiber wrote: "Pius XII was very careful not to close any doors (to science) prematurely. He was energetic on this point and regretted that in the case of Galileo. "[99]

On February 15, 1990, in a speech delivered at the Sapienza University of Rome,[100] Cardinal Ratzinger cited some current views on the Galileo affair as forming what he called "a symptomatic case that permits us to see how deep the self-doubt of the modern age, of science and technology goes today. Events 590 - Khosrau II is crowned as king of Persia 1637 - Ferdinand III becomes Holy Roman Emperor Year 1990 ( MCMXC) was a Common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar) Sapienza University of Rome ( Italian Sapienza Università di Roma) is a coeducational autonomous state university in Rome, Italy Pope Benedict XVI ( Latin: Benedictus PP XVI; Italian: Benedetto XVI; German: Benedikt XVI; born Joseph Alois Ratzinger "[101] Some of the views he cited were those of the philosopher Paul Feyerabend, whom he quoted as saying “The Church at the time of Galileo kept much more closely to reason than did Galileo himself, and she took into consideration the ethical and social consequences of Galileo's teaching too. Paul Karl Feyerabend ( January 13, 1924 – February 11, 1994) was an Austrian born Philosopher of science best known for Her verdict against Galileo was rational and just and the revision of this verdict can be justified only on the grounds of what is politically opportune. ”[102] The Cardinal did not clearly indicate whether he agreed or disagreed with Feyerabend's assertions. He did, however, say "It would be foolish to construct an impulsive apologetic on the basis of such views". [101]

On 31 October 1992, Pope John Paul II expressed regret for how the Galileo affair was handled, and officially conceded that the Earth was not stationary, as the result of a study conducted by the Pontifical Council for Culture. Events 445 BC – Ezra reads the Book of the Law to the Israelites in Jerusalem (see Nehemiah 91 NLTse Year 1992 ( MCMXCII) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar) Pope The Pontifical Council for Culture (Pontificium Consilium de Cultura dates back to the Second Vatican Council. [103][104]

## His writings

Statue outside the Uffizi, Florence

## Legacy

• The four large moons of Jupiter discovered by Galileo (Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto) are often referred to as the 'Galilean moons'. The Uffizi Gallery (Galleria degli Uffizi one of the oldest and most famous Art Museums in the world is housed in the Palazzo degli Uffizi, a Sidereus Nuncius (usually translated into English as Sidereal Messenger, although Starry Messenger and Sidereal Message are Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. Sidereus Nuncius (usually translated into English as Sidereal Messenger, although Starry Messenger and Sidereal Message are The Letter to The Grand Duchess Christina, written in 1615 by Galileo Galilei was an essay on the relation between the Revelations of the Bible The Assayer was a book published in Rome by Galileo Galilei in October 1623 The Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems ( Dialogo sopra i due massimi sistemi del mondo) was a 1632 book by Galileo, comparing the The Discourses and Mathematical Demonstrations Relating to Two New Sciences ( Discorsi e dimostrazioni matematiche intorno a due nuove scienze, 1638 was Galileo's Italian ( or lingua italiana) is a Romance language spoken by about 63 million people as a First language, primarily in Italy. TemplateInfobox Planet.--> Ganymede (ˈgænɨmiːd, or as Greek
• The Galileo spacecraft was the first spacecraft to enter orbit around Jupiter, where it investigated the planet and its moons from 1995 to 2003. Galileo was an Unmanned spacecraft sent by NASA to study the Planet Jupiter and its moons Named after the Astronomer
• Galileo is also the name of a proposed, European satellite navigation system. Galileo is a Global navigation satellite system currently being built by the European Union (EU and European Space Agency (ESA Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS is the standard generic term for satellite navigation systems that provide autonomous geo-spatial positioning with global coverage
• A transformation between inertial systems in classical mechanics is called a Galilean transformation. In Mathematics, a transformation could be any Function from a set X to itself In Physics, an inertial frame of reference is a Frame of reference which belongs to a set of frames in which Physical laws hold in the same and simplest Classical mechanics is used for describing the motion of Macroscopic objects from Projectiles to parts of Machinery, as well as Astronomical objects The Galilean transformation is used to transform between the coordinates of two Reference frames which differ only by constant relative motion within the constructs of Newtonian
• The gal, sometimes called galileo, (symbol Gal) is a non-SI unit of acceleration named after Galileo. The gal is defined as 1 centimeter per second squared (1 cm/s²).
• The United Nations scheduled the International Year of Astronomy in 2009 in part to coincide with Galileo's first recorded astronomical observations with a telescope. The International Year of Astronomy is a year-long celebration of Astronomy, taking place in 2009 to coincide with the 400th anniversary of the first recorded [105]

## In popular culture

• Singer-songwriter Ellis Paul wrote and recorded a song Did Galileo Pray. Ellis Paul (born January 14 1965 is an American Singer-songwriter and folk musician [106] See also commentary on the song published in the June/July 2006 issue of the physics journal Symmetry. [107]
• There is a play called Life of Galileo by the German dramatist Bertolt Brecht. Life of Galileo ( Leben des Galilei) also known as Galileo, is a play by the twentieth-century German Dramatist Bertolt (born; 10 February 1898&ndash14 August 1956 was a German Poet, Playwright, and Theatre director. It was filmed in 1975 as Galileo, with Topol in the title role, and an all-star cast.
• A play about Galileo's struggle with the Church, Lamp at Midnight, was first televised in 1966 on the Hallmark Hall of Fame, with Melvyn Douglas as Galileo and Kim Hunter as his daughter. Hallmark Hall of Fame is a long-running irregularly scheduled anthology program on American Television. Melvyn Edouard Hesselberg ( April 5, 1901 – August 4, 1981) better known as Melvyn Douglas, was an American actor Kim Hunter ( November 12, 1922 – September 11, 2002) was an Academy Award -winning American film and stage actress The production also featured an appearance by Roy Scheider in an early role. Roy Richard Scheider (November 10 1932 – February 10 2008 was an Academy Award - and Golden Globe -nominated American Actor.
• Galileo is mentioned in Queen's song, Bohemian Rhapsody. Queen were an English rock band formed in 1970 in London by guitarist is a Song written by Freddie Mercury and originally recorded by the band Queen for their 1975 album ''A Night at the Opera''.
• The American duo Indigo Girls released a song in 1992 about the "king of night vision" whose head was "on the block. Indigo Girls are an American Folk rock duo consisting of Amy Ray and Emily Saliers. " Entitled "Galileo," the song hit the #10 spot on the Billboard's Modern Rock Tracks chart, the biggest hit to date for the musical duo. Galileo is a song by Emily Saliers, recorded and performed by the Indigo Girls. See Billboard (Turkish magazine Billboard is a weekly American Magazine devoted to the Music industry
• Galileo is also the title of a song by Amy Grant. Amy Lee Grant (born November 25 1960 in Augusta, Georgia) is an American Singer-songwriter, best known for her Contemporary Christian
• The Philadelphia Atmospheric Sludge Metal band named their 2005 full length "The Galilean Satellites", wherein most songs are about Jupiter and its 4 Galilean moons, specifically Europa.
• The Symphonic Metal band Haggard made an album based on the life of Galileo and the legend that he muttered the phrase Eppur si muove meaning "And yet it does move", after being forced to recant, in front of the Inquisition.
• The shuttlecraft used in the Star Trek first season episode The Galileo Seven is named after the famed astronomer. " The Galileo Seven " is an episode of Star Trek The Original Series. When that shuttle is destroyed at the end of the episode, another shuttlecraft is named the Galileo II.

## Notes

1. ^ a b c d e f g O'Connor, J. J. ; Robertson, E. F. . Galileo Galilei. The MacTutor History of Mathematics archive. University of St Andrews, Scotland. The University of St Andrews is the oldest University in Scotland and third oldest in the English-speaking world, having been founded between Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain. Retrieved on 2007-07-24. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Events 1132 - Battle of Nocera between Ranulf II of Alife and Roger II of Sicily.
2. ^ Drake (1978, p.1). The date of Galileo's birth is given according to the Julian calendar, which was then in force throughout the whole of Christendom. The Julian calendar, a reform of the Roman calendar, was introduced by Julius Caesar in 46 BC and came into force in 45 BC (709 Ab urbe condita In 1582 it was replaced in Italy and several other Catholic countries with the Gregorian calendar. The Gregorian calendar is the most widely used Calendar in the world today Unless otherwise indicated, dates in this article are given according to the Gregorian calendar.
3. ^ "Galileo Galilei" in the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia. by John Gerard. Retrieved 11 August 2007
4. ^ Singer, Charles (1941), A Short History of Science to the Nineteenth Century, Clarendon Press  (page 217)
5. ^ a b Weidhorn, Manfred (2005). Events 2492 BC - Traditional date of the defeat of Bel by Hayk, progenitor and founder of the Armenian nation Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. The Person of the Millennium: The Unique Impact of Galileo on World History. iUniverse, p. 155. ISBN 0595368778.
6. ^ Finocchiaro (2007).
7. ^ Sharratt (1996, pp.127-131), McMullin (2005a).
8. ^ Reston (2000, pp. 3–14).
9. ^ Sharratt (1996, pp. 45-66).
10. ^ Rutkin, H. Darrel. Galileo, Astrology, and the Scientific Revolution: Another Look. Program in History & Philosophy of Science & Technology, Stanford University. . Retrieved on 2007-04-15. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Events 1450 - Battle of Formigny: Toward the end of the Hundred Years' War, the French attack and nearly annihilate English
11. ^ Sobel (2000, p.5) Chapter 1. Retrieved on August 26, 2007. Events 1071 - Battle of Manzikert: The Seljuk Turks defeat the Byzantine Army at Manzikert. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. "But because he never married Virginia's mother, he deemed the girl herself unmarriageable. Soon after her thirteenth birthday, he placed her at the Convent of San Matteo in Arcetri. "
12. ^ Pedersen, O. (May 24-27, 1984). "Galileo's Religion". Proceedings of the Cracow Conference, The Galileo affair: A meeting of faith and science: 75-102, Cracow: Dordrecht, D. Reidel Publishing Co. . Retrieved on 2008-06-09. 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Events 53 - Roman Emperor Nero marries Claudia Octavia 62 - Claudia Octavia commits
13. ^ Gebler (1879, pp. 22-35).
14. ^ Anonymous (2007). History. Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei. Retrieved on 2008-06-10. 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Events 1190 - Third Crusade: Frederick I Barbarossa drowns in the Sally River while leading an army to Jerusalem
15. ^ There are contradictory documents describing the nature of this admonition and the circumstances of its delivery. Finocchiaro, The Galileo Affair, pp. 147–149, 153
16. ^ Carney, Jo Eldridge (2000). Renaissance and Reformation, 1500-1620: a. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 0313305749.
17. ^ Allan-Olney (1870)
18. ^ Cohen, H. F. (1984). Quantifying Music: The Science of Music at. Springer, pp. 78–84. ISBN 9027716374.
19. ^ Field, Judith Veronica (2005). Piero Della Francesca: A Mathematician's Art. Yale University Press, pp. 317–320. ISBN 0300103425.
20. ^ In Drake (1957, pp.237−238)
21. ^ Wallace, (1984).
22. ^ Feyerabend, Paul (1993). Against Method, 3rd edition, London: Verso, p. 129. ISBN 0860916464.
23. ^ Galilei (1954, p.250); Favaro (1898, 8:274) (Italian).
24. ^ Hawking (1988, p.179).
25. ^ Einstein (1954, p.271). "Propositions arrived at by purely logical means are completely empty as regards reality. Because Galileo realised this, and particularly because he drummed it into the scientific world, he is the father of modern physics—indeed, of modern science altogether. "
26. ^ i. e. invisible to the naked eye.
27. ^ Drake (1978, p.146).
28. ^ In Sidereus Nuncius (Favaro, 1892, 3:81 (Latin)) Galileo stated that he had reached this conclusion on January 11. Events 1055 - Theodora is crowned Empress of the Byzantine Empire. Drake (1978, p.152), however, after studying unpublished manuscript records of Galileo's observations, concluded that he did not do so until January 15. Events 588 BC - Nebuchadrezzar II of Babylon lays siege to Jerusalem under Zedekiah 's reign
29. ^ Sharratt (1996, p.17).
30. ^ Drake (1978, p.158–68), Sharratt (1996, p.18–19).
31. ^ Drake (1978, p.168), Sharratt (1996, p.93).
32. ^ Baalke, Ron. Historical Background of Saturn's Rings. Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, NASA. Retrieved on 2007-03-11
33. ^ In Kepler's Thomist 'inertial' variant of Aristotelian dynamics as opposed to Galileo's impetus dynamics variant all bodies universally have an inherent resistance to all motion and tendency to rest, which he dubbed 'inertia'. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Events 1425 BC - Thutmose III, Pharaoh of Egypt, dies (according to the Low Chronology of the 18th Dynasty This notion or inertia was originally introduced by Averroes in the 12th century just for the celestial spheres in order to explain why they do not rotate with infinite speed on Aristotelian dynamics, as they should if they had no resistance to their movers. And in his Astronomia Nova celestial mechanics the inertia of the planets is overcome in their solar orbital motion by their being pushed around by the sunspecks of the rotating sun acting like the spokes of a rotating cartwheel. And more generally it predicted all but only planets with orbiting satellites, such as Jupiter for example, also rotate to push them around, whereas the Moon, for example, does not rotate, thus always presenting the same face to the Earth, because it has no satellites to push around. These seem to have been the first successful novel predictions of Thomist 'inertial' Aristotelian dynamics as well as of post-spherist celestial physics.
34. ^ In geostatic systems the apparent annual variation in the motion of sunspots could only be explained as the result of an implausibly complicated precession of the Sun's axis of rotation (Linton, 2004, p.212; Sharratt, 1996, p.166; Drake, 1970, pp.191–196)
35. ^ Drake (1960, pp.vii,xxiii-xxiv), Sharratt (1996, pp.139-140).
36. ^ Grassi (1960a).
37. ^ Drake (1978, p.268), Grassi (1960a, p.16).
38. ^ Galilei & Guiducci (1960).
39. ^ Drake (1960, p.xvi).
40. ^ Drake (1957, p.222), Drake (1960, p.xvii).
41. ^ Sharratt (1996, p.135), Drake (1960, p.xii), Galilei & Guiducci (1960, p.24).
42. ^ Sharratt (1996, p.135).
43. ^ Sharratt (1996, p.135), Drake (1960, p.xvii).
44. ^ Grassi (1960b).
45. ^ Galilei (1960).
46. ^ Sharratt (1996, p.137), Drake (1957, p.227).
47. ^ Sharratt (1996, p.138-142).
48. ^ Drake (1960, p.xix).
49. ^ Drake (1960, p.vii).
50. ^ Sharratt (1996, p.175).
51. ^ Sharratt (1996, pp.175-178).
52. ^ Finocchiaro (1989), pp. 67–9.
53. ^ Finocchiaro (1989), p. 354, n. 52
54. ^ Finocchiaro (1989), pp. 119–133
55. ^ Finocchiaro (1989), pp. 127–131 and Drake (1953), pp. 432–6
56. ^ Einstein (1952) p. xvii
57. ^ Finocchiaro (1989), p. 128
58. ^ Sachiko Kusukawa. Starry Messenger. The Telescope, Department of History and Philosophy of Science of the University of Cambridge. Retrieved on 2007-03-10
59. ^ omni-optical.com "A Very Short History of the Telescope"
60. ^ Drake (1978, p.163-164), Favaro (1892, 3:163-164)(Latin)
61. ^ Probably in 1623, according to Drake (1978, p.286). Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Events 241 BC - First Punic War: Battle of the Aegates Islands - The Romans sink the Carthaginian fleet bringing
62. ^ Drake (1978, p.289), Favaro (1903, 13:177) (Italian).
63. ^ Drake (1978, p.286), Favaro (1903, 13:208)(Italian). The actual inventors of the telescope and microscope remain debatable. A general view on this can be found in the article Hans Lippershey (last updated 2003-08-01), © 1995-2007 by Davidson, Michael W. Year 2003 ( MMIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. Events 30 BC - Octavian (later known as Augustus enters Alexandria, Egypt, bringing it under the control of the Roman and the Florida State University. Florida State University (commonly referred to as Florida State or FSU) is a public Research University located in Tallahassee Retrieved 2007-08-28
64. ^ brunelleschi.imss.fi.it "Il microscopio di Galileo"
65. ^ Van Helden, Al. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Events 475 - The Roman General Orestes forces western Roman Emperor Julius Nepos to flee his Capital Galileo Timeline (last updated 1995), The Galileo Project. Retrieved 2007-08-28. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Events 475 - The Roman General Orestes forces western Roman Emperor Julius Nepos to flee his Capital See also Timeline of microscope technology. Timeline of Microscope Technology 1021 - The properties of Magnifying glass are first clearly described by the
66. ^ Drake (1978, p.286).
67. ^ Drake (1978, pp.19,20). At the time when Viviani asserts that the experiment took place, Galileo had not yet formulated the final version of his law of free fall. He had, however, formulated an earlier version which predicted that bodies of the same material falling through the same medium would fall at the same speed (Drake, 1978, p.20).
68. ^ Drake (1978, p.9); Sharratt (1996, p.31).
69. ^ Groleau, Rick. Galileo's Battle for the Heavens. July 2002].
70. ^ Ball, Phil. Science history: setting the record straight. June 30, 2005].
71. ^ Sharratt (1996, pp.75,198); Drake (1978, pp.85–90).
72. ^ Lists of Galileo's predecessors in falling bodies experiment: Lane Cooper, Artistotle, Galileo, and the Tower of Pisa (Ithaca, N. Y. : Cornell University Press, 1935). See also: Thomas B. Settle, “Galileo and early experimentation,” in Rutherford Aris, H. Ted Davis, and Roger H. Stuewer, ed. s, Springs of Scientific Creativity: Essays on Founders of Modern Science (Minneapolis, Minnesota: University of Minnesota Press, 1983), pages 3 - 20.
73. ^ Lucretius, De rerum natura II, 225-229; Relevant passage appears in: Lane Cooper, Artistotle, Galileo, and the Tower of Pisa (Ithaca, N. Y. : Cornell University Press, 1935), page 49. Available on-line at: http://www.archive.org/stream/aristotlegalileo006316mbp/aristotlegalileo006316mbp_djvu.txt
74. ^ John Philoponus, In Aristotelis Physicorum libros commentaria (517 C. E. ). Relevant passage appears in: Anthony Gottlieb, The Dream of Reason: A History of Philosophy from the Greeks to the Renaissance (N. Y. , N. Y. : W. W. Norton & Co. , 2002), page 386. See also: Morris R. Cohen and Israel E. Drabin, ed. , A Source Book in Greek Science (N. Y. , N. Y. : McGraw-Hill, 1948), p. 217. Relevant passage also appears in: Lane Cooper, Artistotle, Galileo, and the Tower of Pisa (Ithaca, N. Y. : Cornell University Press, 1935), page 47. Available on-line at: http://www.archive.org/stream/aristotlegalileo006316mbp/aristotlegalileo006316mbp_djvu.txt
75. ^ Thomas Bradwardine, Tractatus de Proportionibus [Treatise on Proportions] (1328) (See: Chapter 3, Theorem XII. ); for the relevant passage see: Edward Grant, A Source Book in Medieval Science (Cambridge, Mass. : Harvard University Press, 1974), page 305. See also: Edward Grant (1965) “Bradwardine and Galileo: Equality of velocities in the void,” Archive for History of Exact Sciences, II, pages 344-364.
76. ^ Albert of Saxony, Questions on “The Physics” [of Aristotle] (1368) (See: Book 4, Question 12); see: Edward Grant, A History of Natural Philosophy: From the Ancient World to the Nineteenth Century (Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 2007), page 209.
77. ^ Pietro Monte, De unius legis veritate et sectarum falsitate opus utilissimum y perspicacissimum(Milan, Italy: Jo. Jacobi & Bros. , 1509) (See section “On the relative velocity of falling bodies”. ) Description of this book and its contents: http://search.abaa.org/dbp2/detail.php?booknr=340660800
78. ^ Benedetto Varchi, Questione sull’alchimia (Venice: 1544), page 54, in which Varchi claims that experimental tests of the equality of gravitational acceleration of bodies had been performed by a Dominican philosopher at Pisa, Francesco Beato, and by a Bolognese physician and botanist, Luca Ghini; the relevant passage is quoted and translated in: Charles B. Schmitt and Quentin Skinner, ed. s, The Cambridge History of Renaissance Philosophy (Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1988), page 222.
79. ^ Domingo de Soto, . . .  octo libros Physicorum Aristotelis. Commentaria, 2nd ed. [Commentaries on the Eight Books of Aristotle’s “Physics”] (Salamanca, Spain: A. de Portonaris, 1551-1552) (See: third and fourth Questions on Book 7. ). See: William A. Wallace (1968) “The enigma of Domingo de Soto: uniformiter difformis and falling bodies in late medieval physics,” Isis, vol. 59, pages 384 - 401.
80. ^ Giambattista Benedetti, Demonstrato proportionum motuum localium contra Aristotilem et omnes philosophos (1554); see: Domenico Bertoloni Meli, Thinking with Objects: The Transformation of Mechanics in the Seventeenth Century (Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2006), page 48.
81. ^ Giuseppe Moletti, Dialogo intorno alla Meccanica [Dialogue on Mechanics] (1576) mentions that wooden and lead balls fall through equal distances in equal times; for an English translation, see: Walter Roy Laird, The Unfinished Mechanics of Giuseppe Moletti: An Edition and English Translation of His Dialogue on Mechanics, 1576 (Toronto, Canada: University of Toronto Press, 2000), page 147.
82. ^ Simon Stevin, De Beghinselen des Waterwichts, Anvang der Waterwichtdaet, en de Anhang komen na de Beghinselen der Weeghconst en de Weeghdaet [The Elements of Hydrostatics, Preamble to the Practice of Hydrostatics, and Appendix to The Elements of the Statics and The Practice of Weighing] (Leiden, Netherlands: Christoffel Plantijn, 1586) reports an experiment by Stevin and Jan Cornets de Groot in which they dropped lead balls from a church tower in Delft; relevant passage is translated here: E. J. Dijksterhuis, ed. , The Principal Works of Simon Stevin (Amsterdam, Netherlands: C. V. Swets & Zeitlinger, 1955) vol. 1, pages 509 and 511. Available on-line at: http://www.library.tudelft.nl/cgi-bin/digitresor/display.cgi?bookname=Mechanics%20I&page=509
83. ^ Galileo Galilei, Two New Sciences, (Madison: Univ. of Wisconsin Pr. , 1974) p. 50.
84. ^ I. Bernard Cohen, "Roemer and the First Determination of the Velocity of Light (1676)," Isis, 31 (1940): 327–379, see pp. 332–333
85. ^ Brodrick (1965, c1964, p.95) quoting Cardinal Bellarmine's letter to Foscarini, dated April 12, 1615. Translated from Favaro (1902, 12:171–172) (Italian).
86. ^ See Langford (1966, pp.133–134), and Seeger (1966, p.30), for example. Drake (1978, p.355) asserts that Simplicio's character is modelled on the Aristotelian philosophers, Lodovico delle Colombe and Cesare Cremonini, rather than Urban. For the Italian Renaissance scholastic see Cesare Cremonini (philosopher Cesare Cremonini (born on March 27, 1980 in He also considers that the demand for Galileo to include the Pope's argument in the Dialogue left him with no option but to put it in the mouth of Simplicio (Drake, 1953, p.491). Even Arthur Koestler, who is generally quite harsh on Galileo in The Sleepwalkers (1959), after noting that Urban suspected Galileo of haviing intended Simplicio to be a caricature of him, says "this of course is untrue" (1959, p.483)
87. ^ The Crime of Galileo: Indictment and Abjuration of 1633. Arthur Koestler CBE ( September 5, 1905, Budapest &ndash March 3, 1983, London) was a This article concerns the nonfiction book by Arthur Koestler For the novel trilogy by Hermann Broch, see The Sleepwalkers (Broch. Modern History Sourcebook. Retrieved on 2007-07-24. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Events 1132 - Battle of Nocera between Ranulf II of Alife and Roger II of Sicily.
88. ^ Drake (1978, p.367), Sharratt (1996, p.184), Favaro (1905, 16:209, 230)(Italian). See Galileo affair for further details. The Galileo affair, in which Galileo Galilei came into conflict with the Catholic Church over his support of Copernican astronomy, is often considered a
89. ^ Shea & Artigas (2003, p.199); Sobel (2000, p.378).
90. ^ Shea & Artigas (2003, p.199); Sobel (2000, p.378); Sharratt (1996, p.207); Favaro (1906,18:378–80) (Italian).
91. ^ Shea & Artigas (2003, p.199); Sobel (2000, p.380).
92. ^ Shea & Artigas (2003, p.200); Sobel (2000, p.380–384).
93. ^ Heilbron (2005, p.299).
94. ^ Two of his non-scientific works, the letters to Castelli and the Grand Duchess Christina, were explicitly not allowed to be included (Coyne 2005, p.347).
95. ^ Heilbron (2005, p.303–04); Coyne (2005, p.347). The uncensored version of the Dialogue remained on the Index of prohibited books, however (Heilbron 2005, p.279).
96. ^ Heilbron (2005, p.307); Coyne (2005, p.347)
97. ^ McMullin (2005, p.6); Coyne (2005, p.346). In fact, the Church's opposition had effectively ended in 1820 when a Catholic canon, Giuseppe Settele, was given permission to publish a work which treated heliocentism as a physical fact rather than a mathematical fiction. The 1835 edition of the Index was the first to be issued after that year.
98. ^ Discourse of His Holiness Pope Pius XII given on 3 December 1939 at the Solemn Audience granted to the Plenary Session of the Academy, Discourses of the Popes from Pius XI to John Paul II to the Pontifical Academy of the Sciences 1939-1986, Vatican City, p. 34
99. ^ Robert Leiber, Pius XII Stimmen der Zeit, November 1958 in Pius XII. Sagt, Frankfurt 1959, p. 411
100. ^ An earlier version had been delivered on December 16, 1989, in Rieti, and a later version in Madrid on February 24, 1990 (Ratzinger, 1994, p.81). Events 755 - An Lushan revolts against Chancellor Yang Guozhong at Fanyang, initiating the An Shi Rebellion Year 1989 ( MCMLXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar) Events 303 - Galerius, Roman Emperor, publishes his edict that begins the persecution of Christians in his portion of the Year 1990 ( MCMXC) was a Common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar) According to Feyerabend himself, Ratzinger had also mentioned him "in support of" his own views in a speech in Parma around the same time (Feyerabend, 1995, p.178).
101. ^ a b Ratzinger (1994, p.98).
102. ^ Ratzinger (1994, p.98)
103. ^ Vatican admits Galileo was right. New Scientist 7 November 1992. Events 1492 - The Ensisheim Meteorite the oldest Meteorite with a known date of impact strikes the Earth around noon in a Wheat Year 1992 ( MCMXCII) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar) Retrieved on 9 August 2007. Events 48 BC - Caesar's civil war: Battle of Pharsalus - Julius Caesar decisively defeats Pompey at Pharsalus Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century.
104. ^ "Papal visit scuppered by scholars", BBC News, 2008-01-15. 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Events 588 BC - Nebuchadrezzar II of Babylon lays siege to Jerusalem under Zedekiah 's reign
105. ^ United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (August 11, 2005). Events 2492 BC - Traditional date of the defeat of Bel by Hayk, progenitor and founder of the Armenian nation Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Proclamation of 2009 as International year of Astronomy (PDF). UNESCO. Retrieved on 2008-06-10. 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Events 1190 - Third Crusade: Frederick I Barbarossa drowns in the Sally River while leading an army to Jerusalem
106. ^ Ellis Paul website. "Did Galileo Pray?. Retrieved February 13, 2008.
107. ^ Perricone, Mike. gallery: ellis paul. Did Galileo Pray? Symmetry: Dimensions of Particle Physics, Jun/July 2006, p. 28-9. Retrieved June 8, 2007. Events 68 - The Roman Senate accepts emperor Galba. 536 - St Silverius becomes Pope (probable Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century.

## References

• Allan-Olney, Mary (1870). The Private Life of Galileo: Compiled primarily from his correspondence and that of his eldest daughter, Sister Maria Celeste. Boston: Nichols and Noyes. Retrieved on 2008-06-09. 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Events 53 - Roman Emperor Nero marries Claudia Octavia 62 - Claudia Octavia commits
• Biagioli, Mario (1993). Galileo, Courtier: The Practice of Science in the Culture of Absolutism. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
• Consolmagno, Guy; Schaefer, Marta (1994) Worlds Apart, A Textbook in Planetary Science. Englewood, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc. ISBN 0-13-964131-9
• Brodrick, James, S. J. [c1964] (1965). Galileo: the man, his work, his misfortunes. London: G. Chapman.
• Coyne, George V. , S. J. (2005). The Church's Most Recent Attempt to Dispel the Galileo Myth, In McMullin (2005, pp.340–359).
• Drake, Stillman (translator) (1953). Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
• Drake, Stillman (1957). Discoveries and Opinions of Galileo. New York: Doubleday & Company. ISBN 0-385-09239-3
• Drake, Stillman (1960). Introduction to the Controversy on the Comets of 1618, In Drake & O'Malley (1960, pp.vii–xxv).
• Drake, Stillman (1970). Galileo Studies. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press. ISBN 0-472-08283-3.
• Drake, Stillman (1973). "Galileo's Discovery of the Law of Free Fall". Scientific American v. 228, #5, pp. 84–92.
• Drake, Stillman (1978). Galileo At Work. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-16226-5
• Drake, Stillman, and O'Malley, C. D. (translators) (1960). The Controversy on the Comets of 1618. Philadelphia, PA: University of Philadelphia Press.
• Einstein, Albert (1952). Foreword to (Drake, 1953)
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