Omul unei lumi noi ("The Man of a New World"), 1920 portrait of Gala Galaction by Nicolae Tonitza
|Born||April 16, 1879 |
|Died||March 8, 1961 (aged 81)|
|Occupation||short story writer, novelist, dramatist, essayist, journalist, translator, diarist|
|Genres||fiction, fantasy, travel literature, biography|
Gala Galaction (IPA: /'ga. Nicolae Tonitza ( April 13, 1886 &ndash February 27, 1940) was a Romanian painter engraver, lithographer, journalist Events 1178 BC - A Solar eclipse may have marked the return of Odysseus, legendary King of Ithaca, to his kingdom Year 1879 ( MDCCCLXXIX) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Dideşti is a commune in Teleorman County, Romania. Famous residents include Gala Galaction ( 1879 - 1961) writer and Events 1618 - Johannes Kepler discovers the third law of planetary motion. Year 1961 ( MCMLXI) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Bucharest ( Romanian: Bucureşti) is the Capital city, industrial and commercial centre of Romania. Employment is a Contract between two parties, one being the employer and the other being the employee. Nationality is a relationship between a Person and their State of Origin, Culture, association Affiliation and/or Loyalty Romania ( dated: Rumania, Roumania A literary genre is a category of literary composition Genres may be determined by Literary technique, tone, Content, or even (as in the case of fiction Fiction is the telling of stories which are not real More specifically fiction is an imaginative form of Narrative, one of the four basic Rhetorical modes. Fantasy is a Genre that uses magic and other Supernatural forms as a primary element of plot, theme, and/or setting Travel literature is Travel writing considered to have value as Literature. A biography (from the Greek words bíos (βίος meaning "life" and gráphein (γράφειν meaning "to write" is an account Christian Theology is discourse concerning Christian faith Christian theologians use biblical Exegesis, rational analysis and argument This is a list of modern literary movements: that is movements after the Renaissance. Realism in the Visual arts and Literature is the depiction of subjects as they appear in Everyday life, without embellishment or interpretation The word “poporanism” is derived from “popor” meaning “people” in the Romanian language. Tudor Arghezi (pronunciation in Romanian: /'tudor ar'gezi/ May 21, 1880 &mdash July 14, 1967) was a major Romanian writer Constantin Dobrogeanu-Gherea (born Solomon Katz; 1855 near Dnipropetrovsk, then in Imperial Russia &mdash1920 Bucharest) was a Romanian Joséphin Péladan (1858-1918 was a French novelist and Martinist. la ga. lak. 'ti. on/; the pen name of Grigore or Grigorie Pişculescu; April 16, 1879—March 8, 1961) was a Romanian Orthodox clergyman and theologian, writer, journalist, left-wing activist, as well as a political figure of the People's Republic of Romania. A pen name, nom de plume, or literary double, is a Pseudonym adopted by an Author or their publishers to conceal their identity Events 1178 BC - A Solar eclipse may have marked the return of Odysseus, legendary King of Ithaca, to his kingdom Year 1879 ( MDCCCLXXIX) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Events 1618 - Johannes Kepler discovers the third law of planetary motion. Year 1961 ( MCMLXI) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Romania ( dated: Rumania, Roumania The Romanian Orthodox Church ( Biserica Ortodoxă Română in Romanian) is a Autocephalous Eastern Orthodox church Christian Theology is discourse concerning Christian faith Christian theologians use biblical Exegesis, rational analysis and argument Contrary to the spirit of the time, he was a promoter of tolerance towards the Jewish minority. The history of Jews in Romania concerns the Jews of Romania and of Romanian origins from their first mention on what is nowadays Romanian territory
He was born in the village of Dideşti, Teleorman County, the son of a wealthy peasant and a priest's daughter. Dideşti is a commune in Teleorman County, Romania. Famous residents include Gala Galaction ( 1879 - 1961) writer and Teleorman redirects here For the river see Teleorman River. Teleorman (te His father had traveled throughout the Balkans on business, and had settled down as an estate lessee. 
After completing his primary studies in his native village and in Roşiorii de Vede (1888-1890), he went on to study at the Saint Sava National College in Bucharest (1890–1898), and, after a period of studying Philosophy at the University of Bucharest, took a degree in Theology at Chernivtsi University. Roşiorii de Vede ( Roşiori de Vede or in old versions Ruşii de Vede) is a municipality in Teleorman, Wallachia, one of the oldest The Saint Sava National College ( Colegiul Naţional Sfântul Sava) is the oldest and one of the most prestigious high schools in Bucharest, Romania. Bucharest ( Romanian: Bucureşti) is the Capital city, industrial and commercial centre of Romania. The University of Bucharest (Universitatea din Bucureşti in Romania, is a University founded in 1864 by Decree of Prince Alexander John Cuza The Chernivtsi University (current full name Yuriy Fedkovych Chernivtsi National University) is the leading Ukrainian institution for higher education in Northern Bukovina During the period, Galaction began to take an interest in literature, and was briefly influenced by the ideas of Sâr Péladan, a French occultist and poet. Joséphin Péladan (1858-1918 was a French novelist and Martinist. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. The word occult comes from the Latin word occultus (clandestine hidden secret referring to "knowledge of the hidden"  He debuted in 1900 with the novella Moara lui Călifar ("Călifar's Mill"), a sinister story on the subject of demonic temptation; nevertheless, his growing interest in Orthodoxy led him to abandon literature for the following ten years — his 1914 volume of collected stories, comprising La Vulturi! (one of his most famous pieces of writing), was awarded the Romanian Academy prize. A novella is a written, Fictional Prose Narrative longer than a Novelette but shorter than a Novel. The Romanian Academy ( Romanian: Academia Română) is a cultural forum founded in Romania in 1866. 
Having spent his early years a disciple of the Marxist philosopher Constantin Dobrogeanu-Gherea, he was partisan of Poporanism and, like his close friend N. Marxism is the political philosophy and practice derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. Constantin Dobrogeanu-Gherea (born Solomon Katz; 1855 near Dnipropetrovsk, then in Imperial Russia &mdash1920 Bucharest) was a Romanian The word “poporanism” is derived from “popor” meaning “people” in the Romanian language. D. Cocea, socialism - tendencies which established him as a leading figure on the left wing of the Romanian political spectrum. Socialism refers to a broad set of economic theories of social organization advocating state or collective ownership and administration of the Means of production and distribution According to Vianu's later assessment:
"The attraction towards socialism during Galaction's youth was always confessed and never was disavowed, although the religious outlook on life, formulated through the influence of his family and his immediate environment, led him to see socialists as fellow travellers rather than comrades in battle. In some political contexts the term fellow traveler refers to a person who sympathizes with the beliefs of a particular organization but does not belong to that organization "
Noted for his criticism of the violent repression of the Romanian Peasants' Revolt in 1907, he soon became an active journalist. The 1907 Romanian Peasants' Revolt took place in March 1907 in Moldavia and it quickly spread reaching Wallachia. With the help of Tudor Arghezi, he edited Cronica and Spicul, which appeared during World War I (between 1915 and 1918). Tudor Arghezi (pronunciation in Romanian: /'tudor ar'gezi/ May 21, 1880 &mdash July 14, 1967) was a major Romanian writer World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All Like his friend Arghezi and others, he displayed his sympathy for the Central Powers, and remained in Bucharest under German occupation, collaborating with the new authorities. The Central Powers ( German: "Mittelmächte" Hungarian: "Központi hatalmak" Turkish: "İttifak The Romanian Campaign was a campaign in the Balkan theatre of World War I, with Romania and Russia allied against the armies of the Central  Eventually, Galaction welcomed the new political mood established by the Russian Revolution (and first manifested in Romania by the activities of the Socialist Party and the strikes of 1918-1919):
"We were given to witness with our own eyes how the old worlds are crumbling and how the new ones are born. See also Russian Revolution (1905 The Russian Revolution of 1916 refers to a series of popular revolutions in Russia, and the events surrounding them The Socialist Party of Romania ( Romanian: Partidul Socialist din România, commonly known as Partidul Socialist, PS was a Romanian socialist Strike action, often simply called a strike, is a work stoppage caused by the mass refusal by Employees to perform work. And it seems to me that the spectacle is at its most interesting as seen from out little Romanian island. [. . . ] The power of the many, let loose all around us, is rising, is fretting, is roaring and is looking for a new balance. Let us not delude ourselves by thinking we could ever see it return to its previous mould. It would be absurd. "
At around the same time, he became an enthusiastic advocate of the labor movement. A public meeting of factory workers left a lasting impression on him:
"Out of the smoldering and mud-covered suburbs, out of the humid and suffocating basements, out of the thousands of only too small cells, where the proletarian bee distills the honey of capitalist drones, out of all places high and low, the working people had come in black flocks in order to increase, standing shoulder to shoulder, the phalanx of socialist demands. The proletariat (from Latin la ''proles'' "offspring" is a term used to identify a lower Social class; a member of such a class is proletarian Capitalism is the Economic system in which the Means of production are owned by private Persons and operated for Profit and where The phalanx (Ancient Greek φάλαγξ Modern Greek φάλαγγα phālanga (plural phalanxes or phalanges (Ancient and Modern Greek φάλαγγες "
Soon after the war, Galaction befriended Nicolae Tonitza, a painter and illustrator of socialist newspapers who produced the cover of Galaction's collection of essays (O lume nouă) and painted his portrait under the title "The Man of a New World". Nicolae Tonitza ( April 13, 1886 &ndash February 27, 1940) was a Romanian painter engraver, lithographer, journalist  In his memoir of the period, the art collector Krikor Zambaccian described the latter as:
"that hallucinatory portrait [. . . ]. On a background of intense blue is profiled the mage-like figure of the writer Galaction; on the most distant plane emerge the silhouettes of industries and rise up the chimneys of factories. The Magi (singular Magus, from Latin via Greek μάγος; Old English: Mage; from Persian maguš and Kurdish "
In 1922, he was anointed priest, and in 1926 he became professor of Theology and New Testament Studies at the Chişinău University Theology School. To anoint is to pour or smear with perfumed oil milk water melted butter or other substances a process employed ritually by many religions and races Chişinău (kiʃi'nəw (also known as Kishinev, Кишинёв Kishinyov) is the capital and largest city of Moldova. He was dean of the School between 1928 and 1930. In Academic administration, a dean is a person with significant authority over a specific academic unit or over a specific area of concern or both
Together with priest Vasile Radu, he worked on a new translation of the Bible into modern Romanian, a work published in 1938, meant as a newer and more accurate version to replace the traditional Cantacuzino Bible. Etymology According to the Online Etymology Dictionary, the word bible is from Latin biblia, traced from the same word through Medieval Latin and Late Latin Romanian or Daco-Romanian ( dated: Rumanian or Roumanian; self designation limba română, ˈlimba roˈmɨnə is a Romance The Bucharest Bible (Biblia de la Bucureşti also known as the Cantacuzino Bible) was the first complete translation of the Bible in the Romanian language published The literary critic Tudor Vianu wrote:
"[. Tudor Vianu ( January 8 1898 – May 21 1964) was a Romanian literary critic, art critic . . ] the new translation, accomplished through the means created by newer literary evolution and with the talent of a modern poet, presents a major philological and artistic interest. Modernist literature is the literary form of Modernism and especially High modernism; it should not be confused with modern literature, which is the history See Comparative linguistics for the narrower field of "comparative philology" "
During the interwar period, Galaction was also the author of several studies, articles and commentaries on the New Testament, as well as completing a celebrated translation of William Shakespeare's The Merchant of Venice. William Shakespeare ( baptised The Merchant of Venice is a play by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written between 1596 and 1598  He contributed regularly to Viaţa Românească and Adevărul, as well as to Sămănătorul, but was on exceptionally bad terms with the latter's founder, Nicolae Iorga. Adevărul ( The Truth) is a Romanian newspaper based in Bucharest. Nicolae Iorga (his name may also be rendered as Nicolas Jorga in foreign works January 17, 1871, Botoşani – November 27, 
In 1936, he was the subject of a denunciation for "communist activities" and alleged links with the Comintern, which he dismissed as slander. Communism is a Socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless Society based The Comintern ( Com munist Intern ational also known as the Third International) was an international Communist organisation founded in Moscow  Nevertheless, in 1938-1940, Galaction, like other figures on the Poporanist and socialist Left (among them Armand Călinescu, Petre Andrei, Mihai Ralea, Ioan Flueraş, and Mihail Ghelmegeanu), was attracted into collaboration with the fascist-inspired corporatist regime created, as a means to combat the influence of the pro-Nazi Iron Guard, around King Carol II and the National Renaissance Front. Armand Călinescu ( &ndash September 21, 1939) was a Romanian economist and politician who served as Prime Minister between March 1939 and the Ioan Flueraş or Fluieraş ( November 2, 1882 &mdash1952 was a Romanian social democratic politician and a victim of the communist Fascism is a totalitarian nationalist and corporatist ideology Historically corporatism (corporativismo refers to a political or Economic system in which power is held by civic assemblies that represent Economic Nazism, which was a short name for National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus refers primarily to the Ideology and practices of the National Socialist German The Iron Guard is the name most commonly given in English to a Far-right ultra- nationalist Antisemitic, fascist movement and political party See also Kingdom of Romania King of the Roumanians (in Romanian Regele Românilor) rather than King of Romania (in Romanian Regele României Carol II of Romania ( 15 October / 16 October 1893 &ndash 4 April 1953) reigned as King of Romania from June 8 The National Renaissance Front ( Romanian: Frontul Renaşterii Naţionale, FRN also translated as Front of National Regeneration, Front of National  Upon the outbreak of the September Campaign and World War II, he wrote:
"The war has begun. The Invasion of Poland (1939 precipitated World War II. It was carried out by Nazi Germany, the Soviet Union, and a small German-allied World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including Hitler the monster or the demigod, the lever of destiny or the Devil's puppet, has again lifted the banner of death amid the borders of peoples. Hi and welcome to Wikipedia! Please understand that this article is frequently vandalized and vandalism is reverted immediately The term " demigod " meaning "half-god" is used to describe mythological figures whose one parent was a god and whose other parent was human Is he the forerunner and the prophet of better times, or the strix of downfalls and irremediable disasters? Are the Germans fighting for a better future, or for the narthex of barbarity and for the death of Europe? This is yet another pathetic scrutiny! Christian peoples turn their backs on The Calvary, disavow the laws of their upbringing and mock the Nine Joys! The De-Christianized Germans and the Roman Catholic Poles are equally vainglorious and lacking in Christian spirit. "Stryx" redirects here This is also an incorrect spelling of the True owl Genus Strix. The narthex of a church is the entrance or lobby area located at the end of the Nave, at the far end from the church's main Altar. "Barbarian" is a pejorative term for an uncivilized person either in a general reference to a member of a nation or Ethnos perceived Christendom usually refers to Christianity as a territorial phenomenon "Golgotha" redirects here For other uses see Golgotha (disambiguation. In the Gospel of St Matthew, the Sermon on the Mount is a compilation of Jesus' sayings epitomizing his moral teaching. This article gives an overview about Religion in Nazi Germany and the Nazis ' complex and sometimes contradictory relationship with religion The Second Polish Republic or interwar Poland is the Republic of Poland between World War I and World War II. "
The fall of Carol's rule and the establishment of the Iron Guard's National Legionary State saw Galaction's retreat from public life, prolonged after the Legionnaires' Rebellion and the onset of Ion Antonescu's dictatorship. The National Legionary State (Statul Naţional Legionar was the Romanian government of September 6, 1940 — January 23, 1941. The Legionnaires' rebellion and the Bucharest pogrom occurred in Bucharest, Romania, between the 21 January and 23 January, 1941. "Antonescu" redirects here For other persons with that surname see Antonescu (surname. In 1944, as the August 23 coup overthrew Antonescu, taking Romania out of the Axis camp and opening the country to Soviet influence, Galaction expressed his enthusiasm:
"The long-awaited hour has arrived during a night when our hearts were being estinguished with fear and our houses were falling apart. In June 1941 after a brief period of nominal neutrality under King Carol, Romania joined the Axis Powers. The Axis powers also known as the Axis alliance Axis nations Axis countries or sometimes just the Axis were those Countries The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 . . It has arrived after traveling a long way, passing among ruins, tombs, and smoke-covered towers. . . It is here!. . . Become an epoch, become a century, you long-awaited hour!"
Soon after, Galaction began collaborating with the Romanian Communist Party and its various organizations. The Romanian Communist Party ( Romanian: ro Partidul Comunist Român, PCR was a communist political party in Romania. In 1947, he replaced the purged Nichifor Crainic as a member of the Romanian Academy, and was elected vice-president of the Writers' Union in the same year; Galaction was himself purged from the Academy later in the same year, and readmitted as an honorary member in 1948. Nichifor Crainic ( December 22 1889, Bulbucata, Giurgiu County &mdash August 20 1972, The Romanian Academy ( Romanian: Academia Română) is a cultural forum founded in Romania in 1866. The Writers' Union of Romania (Uniunea Scriitorilor din România founded in March 1949 is a professional association of writers in Romania  Many times decorated, he was also elected to the Parliament of Romania (1946-1948), and to its successor, the Great National Assembly (a legislative body of little actual relevance; 1948-1952). The Parliament of Romania is made up of two chambers The Chamber of Deputies The Senate Prior to The Great National Assembly (Marea Adunare Naţională MAN was the Legislature of the Romanian People's Republic and the Socialist Republic Romania
One of the last causes he was involved in was the peace movement (in the context of the Cold War), with the intention of helping in the creation of a "supreme areopagus of peace". A peace movement is a Social movement that seeks to achieve ideals such as the ending of a particular war (or all wars minimize inter-human violence in a particular place or Cold War is the state of conflict tension and competition that existed between the United States and the Soviet Union (USSR and their respective allies from the This article concerns the place where a classical judicial body met  He was bedridden for the final years of his life, due to a stroke; this probably accounted for the scarcity in criticism aimed at him during the Zhdanovist campaign in Romania. A stroke is the rapidly developing loss of brain functions due to a disturbance in the blood vessels supplying blood to the brain The Zhdanov Doctrine (also called zhdanovism or zhdanovschina, Russian: доктрина Жданова ждановизм ждановщина was a 
His Diary was only published, selectively, two decades after his death, under the Nicolae Ceauşescu regime. Nicolae Ceauşescu (nikoˈlaje tʃauˈʃesku (January 26 1918 – December 25 1989 was the communist dictator of Romania from 1965 until December 1989 when a revolution The newer edition contains the censored discourse of an embittered Galaction, who had become heavily critical of Stalinism, while reviewing his own beliefs in an "Evangelical and cloud-like" socialism. Censorship is the suppression of speech or deletion of communicative material which may be considered objectionable harmful or sensitive as determined by a censor Stalinism is the political regime named after Joseph Stalin, leader of the Soviet Union from 1929–1953 
Galaction was also noted for the support he gave to Constantin Galeriu, who later became a celebrated priest and theologian. Galeriu, who had been one of Galaction's favourite students, was rescued by the latter in 1952, after he was arrested and imprisoned at the Danube-Black Sea Canal (Galaction successfully called on Prime Minister Petru Groza to intervene in his favor). The Danube-Black Sea Canal (Canalul Dunăre-Marea Neagră is a Canal in Romania which runs from Cernavodă on the Danube to Agigea The Prime Minister of Romania is the head of the Government of Romania. Petru Groza ( December 7, 1884 - January 7, 1958) was a Romanian politician best known as Prime Minister of the first 
Galaction had four daughters, one of whom, Maria or Mărioara, was married to Serban Tuculescu the brother of painter Ion Ţuculescu in 1936; one was the actress Elena Galaction Stanciulescu and the other two, Magdalena and Lucretia, married Italian citizens — the husband of Luki Galaction (Galaction Passarelli or Galaction Sciarra), who was a painter and a writer, was Domenico Sciarra, a prominent figure of the Fascist regime (whom Gala Galaction was visiting in Rome at the time of his denunciation). Ion Ţuculescu ( May 19, 1910 &ndash July 27, 1962) was a Romanian expressionist and abstract oil painter Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest The term Italian Fascism denotes the totalitarian Fascismo political movement that ruled Italy from 1922 until 1943 under leader Benito Mussolini Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 
A friend of Communist politician Lucreţiu Pătrăşcanu, Galaction helped his Jewish wife Herta Schwamen avoid anti-Semitic measures enforced in 1938 by the National Christian Party government, baptizing her Romanian Orthodox (she consequently took the Christian name Elena). Lucreţiu Pătrăşcanu ( November 4, 1900 &mdash April 17, 1954) was a Romanian communist politician and leading member of Antisemitism (alternatively spelled anti-semitism or anti-Semitism; also rarely known as judeophobia) is the Prejudice against or hostility The National Christian Party (Partidul Naţional Creştin was a Romanian Political party, the product of a union between Octavian Goga 's National Agrarian In Christianity, baptism ( Greek, "immersing" "performing Ablutions " is the ritual act with the use of water by which one is admitted 
Galaction was a lifelong friend of the journalist Vasile Demetrius, whom he first collaborated with during the 1910s.  He was also close to Vasile's daughter, the novelist and actress Lucia Demetrius, who expressed her gratitude for the moral support he gave her family after Vasile Demetrius died. 
Galaction published articles in several Romanian-Jewish periodicals, such as Mântuirea (1919-1922), Lumea Evree (1919-1920), Ştiri din Lumea Evreiască (1924-1925) and Adam (1929-1939). 
His contributions were later collected in the volume Sionismul la Prieteni ("Zionism among Friends"), published in 1919. History of Zionism|Timeline of Zionism|World Zionist Organization|Zionist political violence Zionism is an international political movement that originally supported the Alongside his praise for Theodor Herzl, whom he considered "the greatest Israelite in the modern world", he wrote:
"Whoever reads and loves the Bible cannot hate Israel. Theodor Herzl (בנימין זאב הרצל ( Binyamin Ze'ev Herzl) (May 2 1860&ndashJuly 3 1904 was an Austrian Jewish journalist who founded modern See also History of ancient Israel and Judah According to the Bible, the Israelites were the dominant group living in the Land of Israel. For other uses see Israel (disambiguation The Land of Israel ( Hebrew: אֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל Eretz Yisrael) is "
In 1930, he was a pilgrim to Jerusalem, visiting the British Mandate of Palestine together with his lifelong friend and son-in-law, the painter Ţuculescu, and both their families. In Religion and Spirituality, a pilgrimage is a long journey or Search of great Moral significance Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם, he-Latn Yerushaláyim; Arabic: ar القُدس, ar-Latn al-Quds) is the The Palestine Mandate, was a set of protocols or articles that formed a multilateral legal and administrative agreement Reviewing his travel memoir În pământul făgăduinţei ("In the Promised Land"), Alexandru A. The Promised Land ( הארץ המובטחת, translit: ha-Aretz ha-Muvtachat) is another name for the Land of Israel, the region which according Philippide, a fellow writer at Viaţa Românească, thought that Galaction's attitude was linked to both his own theological outlook on tolerance and the branch of Christianity he represented:
"[A] tolerant character is, after all, what sets Orthodoxy apart. Father Galaction turns this into his point of honor. On the same ship as him there were many Jewish immigrants, setting for Palestine. «Brave soldiers of such a passionate and sacrifice-eager ideal!» exclaims Father Galaction. That is, indeed, an exclamation that goes beyond faith (or, in any case, stems from plaits of the soul other than faith). "
In late 1947, Galaction welcomed the more decisive steps taken towards the creation of Israel. The Israeli Declaration of Independence (הכרזת העצמאות Hakhrazat HaAtzma'ut or מגילת העצמאות Megilat HaAtzma'ut) made on 14 May  Nowadays, in remembrance of his role, a square in Tel Aviv bears his name. Tel Aviv-Yafo (תֵּל ־אָבִיב-יָפוֹ تل أبيب Tal ʾAbīb) (usually Tel Aviv) is the second-largest city in Israel