apostrophe ( ’ ' )
ampersand ( & )
A full stop or period (sometimes stop, full point, decimal point, or dot), is the punctuation mark commonly placed at the end of several different types of sentences in English and many other languages. Guillemets ( or after French) also called Angle quotes, are line segments pointed as if arrows ( « or ») sometimes forming a complementary A hyphen ( -) is a Punctuation mark It is used for both Words to join and to separate Syllables It is often confused with the dashes The question mark (? also known as an interrogation point, question point, query, or eroteme, is a punctuation mark that replaces Quotation marks or inverted commas (informally referred to as quotes and speech marks) are Punctuation marks used in pairs to set off speech A semicolon (   ) is a conventional Punctuation mark with several usages The slash ( /) is a punctuation mark It is also called a virgule, diagonal, stroke, forward slash, oblique dash, The solidus ( ⁄) is a punctuation mark that is not found on standard keyboards Interword separation is the act and the effect of mutually separating the written representations of Words The early Semitic languages mdashwhich had no vowel In writing a space () is a blank area that is devoid of content which separates words letters numbers and punctuation An interpunct ( ·) is a small dot used for Interword separation in ancient Latin script, being perhaps the first consistent visual representation of word boundaries Typography is the art and techniques of arranging type, Type design, and modifying type Glyphs Type glyphs are created and modified using a variety An ampersand ( &) also commonly called an " 'and' sign," is a Logogram representing the conjunction "and" The typographic character @, the at sign, denotes a pan-lingual abbreviation of the word 'at' An asterisk ( *) (Latin asteriscum "little star" from Greek ἀστερίσκος) is a Typographical symbol or Glyph The backslash ( \) is a typographical mark ( Glyph) used chiefly in Computing. In Typography, a bullet is a typographical symbol or Glyph used to introduce Items in a list, like below also known as the point of a bullet Caret is the name for the symbol ^ in ASCII and some other Character sets Its Unicode code point is U+005E and its ASCII code in hexadecimal is 5E The currency sign ( ¤) is a character used to denote a currency when the symbol for a particular currency is unavailable In many national currencies, the cent is a monetary unit that equals 1/100 of the basic monetary unit The euro sign (€ is the Currency sign used for the Euro, the official currency of the European Union (EU See also Pound (currency.The pound sign (" £ " or " ₤ " is the symbol for the Pound sterling —the currency of the ¥￥ ₪The sheqel sign ( ₪) A dagger ( †, &dagger U+ 2020 is a typographical symbol or Glyph. The degree symbol (° Unicode: U+00B0 HTML: &deg is a typographical symbol or Glyph, that is used to represent degrees of arc (see The inverted question and exclamation marks are used to begin interrogative and exclamatory sentences respectively in written Spanish. The inverted question and exclamation marks are used to begin interrogative and exclamatory sentences respectively in written Spanish. In Logic and Mathematics, negation or not is an operation on Logical values for example the logical value of a Proposition Number sign is a name for the symbol #; it is the preferred Unicode name for the Code point associated with that Glyph. The Numero sign (U+2116 or Number sign is used in many languages to indicate ordinal numeration especially in names and titles for example instead of writing the long " The percent sign ( %) is the symbol used to indicate a Percentage (that the preceding number is divided by one hundred The pilcrow (¶ Unicode U+00B6 HTML entity &para also called the Paragraph sign or the alinea ( The prime symbol ( ′  double prime symbol ( &Prime  triple prime symbol ( ‴  etc The section sign (§ Unicode U+00A7 HTML entity &sect is a typographical character used mainly to refer to a particular section The tilde (~ (/ˈtɪldə/ is a Grapheme with several uses The name of the character comes from Spanish, from the Latin titulus Diaeresis or trema See also Diaeresis History Historically the diaeresis mark or trema is far older than the umlaut mark The underscore _ (also called understrike, underbar, low line, or low dash is a character that originally appeared on the Typewriter. Note "broken bar" and the glyph "¦" redirect here Typography is the art and techniques of arranging type, Type design, and modifying type Glyphs Type glyphs are created and modified using a variety For other uses of this term please refer to Asterism disambiguation page The symbol ☞ is a Punctuation mark called an index or fist. In a Mathematical proof, the therefore sign (∴ is a symbol that is sometimes placed before a Logical consequence, such as the conclusion of a The interrobang ( ‽, is a nonstandard English -language Punctuation mark intended to combine the functions of the Question mark (also "؟" redirects here For the Arabic question mark see Question mark. This page lists Japanese typographic symbols which are not included in Kana or Kanji. A sarcasm mark or sarcasm point identifies text as being Derogatory or ironic. In Linguistics, a sentence is a grammatical unit of one or more words bearing minimal syntactic relation to the words that precede or follow it often preceded and followed English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States A full stop consists of a small dot placed at the end of a line of text, such as at the end of this sentence.
The term full stop is rarely used by speakers in Canada and never in the United States, but is by far the more common term used in British English. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page The United States of America —commonly referred to as the British English or UK English ( BrE, BE, en-GB) is the broad term used to distinguish the forms of the English language used in the If it is used in Canada, it may be generally differentiated from period in contexts where both might be used: a full stop is specifically a delimiting piece of punctuation that represents the end of a sentence. When a distinction is made, a period is then any appropriately sized and placed dot in English language text, including use in abbreviations (such as U. S. ) and at the ends of sentences, but excluding certain special uses of dots at the bottom of a line of text, such as ellipses. Ellipsis (plural ellipses; from Greek 'omission' in Printing and Writing refers to a mark or series of marks that usually indicate an intentional
A full stop is used after some abbreviations. For the HTML tag see HTML element. An abbreviation (from Latin brevis "short"
If the abbreviation ends a declaratory sentence there is no additional full stop immediately following the full stop that ends the abbreviation (e. g. , My name is Michael Dukes, Jr. ) This is called haplography, as logically there should be two full stops (one for the abbreviation, one for the sentence ending), but only one is conventionally written. Haplography is the act of writing once what should be written twice In the case of an interrogative or exclamatory sentence ending with an abbreviation, a question or exclamation mark is still added.
In British English, abbreviations of titles often omit a full stop, as in Mr, Dr, Prof, which in American English would be given as Mr. British English or UK English ( BrE, BE, en-GB) is the broad term used to distinguish the forms of the English language used in the A title is a prefix or suffix added to a person's name to signify either veneration an official position or a professional or academic qualification Phonology North American English regional phonology In many ways compared to English English, North American English is conservative in its Phonology. , Dr. , Prof. The rule "If the abbreviation includes both the first and last letter of the abbreviated word, as in mister and doctor, a full stop is not used. " is sometimes given, though this does not include Professor.
In this use, the full stop is also occasionally known as a suspension mark.
In initialisms, full stops are somewhat more often placed after each initial in American English (e. Acronyms, initialisms, and alphabetisms are Abbreviations that are formed using the initial components in a phrase or name g. , U. S. , U. S. S. R. ) than in British English (e. g. , US, USSR). However, for acronyms that are pronounced like words (e. Acronyms, initialisms, and alphabetisms are Abbreviations that are formed using the initial components in a phrase or name g. , NATO), full stops are omitted in American English.
The same glyph has two separate uses with regard to numbers, the one applied being determined by the country it is used in: as a decimal separator and in presenting large numbers in a more readable form. A glyph is an element of writing Two or more glyphs representing the same symbol whether interchangeable or context-dependent are called Allographs the abstract unit they In a positional Numeral system, the decimal separator is a Symbol used to mark the boundary between the integral and the fractional In most English-speaking countries, the full stop has the former usage while a comma or a space is used for the latter:
In much of Europe, however, a comma is used as a decimal separator, while a full stop or a space is used for the presentation of large numbers:
In countries that use the comma as a decimal separator, the full stop is sometimes found as a multiplication sign, for example: 5,2 . 2 = 10,4. This usage is impossible in countries that use the full stop as a decimal separator, hence the use of the interpunct: 5. An interpunct ( ·) is a small dot used for Interword separation in ancient Latin script, being perhaps the first consistent visual representation of word boundaries 2 · 2 = 10. 4.
The traditional convention in American English is for full stops to be included inside the quotation marks, even if they are not part of the quoted sentence, while the British style shows clearly whether or not the punctuation is part of the quoted phrase. Quotation marks or inverted commas (informally referred to as quotes and speech marks) are Punctuation marks used in pairs to set off speech Phonology North American English regional phonology In many ways compared to English English, North American English is conservative in its Phonology. The American rule is derived from typesetting while the British rule is grammatical (see below for more explanation). Although the terms American style and British style are used it is not as clear cut as that because at least one major British newspaper prefers typesetters' quotation (punctuation inside) and BBC News uses both styles, while scientific and technical publications, even in the U. S. , almost universally use logical quotation (punctuation outside unless part of the source material), due to its precision.
As with many such differences, the American rule follows an older British standard. The typesetter’s rule was standard in early 19th century Britain; the grammatical rule was advocated by the extremely influential book The King’s English, by Fowler and Fowler. The King's English is a book on English usage and grammar It was written by the Fowler brothers Henry Watson Fowler and Francis George Fowler
In British style, both single and double quotation marks are possible, but more modern style guides like the BBC’s tend to prefer the latter. 
Before the advent of mechanical type, the order of quotation marks with full stops and commas was not given much consideration. The printing press required that the easily damaged smallest pieces of type for the comma and full stop be protected behind the more robust quotation marks.  The U. S. style still adheres to this older tradition in formal writing but usually not in everyday use. Today, most areas of publication conform to one of the two standards above. However, in subjects such as chemistry and software documentation it is conventional to include only the precise quoted text within the quotation marks. This avoids ambiguity with regard to whether a punctuation mark belongs to the quotation:
References: Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition; Hart’s Rules for Compositors and Readers at the University Press, Oxford. The Chicago Manual of Style (abbreviated in writing as CMS or CMOS or verbally as Chicago) is a Style guide for American English Hart's Rules for Compositors and Readers at the University Press Oxford is a reference book and Style guide published in England by Oxford University
There are three main conventions relating to the number of spaces used to separate sentences within the same paragraph:
Note that the term double spacing can also refer to a style of leading: the insertion of a full additional empty line between lines of text. In Typography, leading (ˈlɛdɪŋ rhymes with heading) refers to the amount of added vertical Spacing between lines of type This is commonly used for text which may incorporate later markup or modifications, such as proof-readers' copies or legal documents.
In some Asian languages, notably Chinese and Japanese, a small circle is used instead of a solid dot: "。" (U+3002 "Ideographic Full Stop"). is a language spoken by over 130 million people in Japan and in Japanese emigrant communities Unlike the Western full stop, this is often used to separate consecutive sentences, rather than to finish every sentence; it is frequently left out where a sentence stands alone, or where text is terminated by a quotation mark instead.
In the Devanagari script used to write Hindi, Sanskrit and some other Indian languages a vertical line (“।”) (U+0964 “Devanagari Danda”) is used to mark the end of a sentence. Hindi ( Devanāgarī: hi [[wiktहिन्दी हिन्दी]] or hi [[wiktहिंदी हिंदी]] IAST:, IPA:) is Sanskrit (sa संस्कृता वाक् saṃskṛtā vāk, for short sa संस्कृतम् saṃskṛtam) is a historical In Hindi it is known as poorna viraam (full stop). Hindi ( Devanāgarī: hi [[wiktहिन्दी हिन्दी]] or hi [[wiktहिंदी हिंदी]] IAST:, IPA:) is Some Indian languages also use the full-stop such as Marathi. Marathi (mr मराठी Marāṭhī) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by the Marathi people of what is considered western India.
In Thai, no symbol corresponding to full stop is used. Thai (th ภาษาไทย, transcription: phasa thai, transliteration:; pʰāːsǎːtʰāj is the national and A sentence is basically written without a space and a space is used to mark the end of sentence.
In computing, the full stop is often used as a delimiter commonly called a "dot", for example in DNS lookups and file names. Computing is usually defined like the activity of using and developing Computer technology Computer hardware and software. A delimiter is a sequence of one or more characters used to specify the boundary between separate independent regions in Plain text or other data stream The Domain Name System (DNS is a hierarchical naming system for computers services or any resource participating in the Internet. A computer file is a block of Arbitrary Information, or resource for storing information which is available to a Computer program and is usually For example:
In computer programming, the full stop corresponds to Unicode and ASCII character 46, or 0x2E. In Computing, Unicode is an Industry standard allowing Computers to consistently represent and manipulate text expressed in most of the world's American Standard Code for Information Interchange ( ASCII) For other uses see Character. In Computer and machine-based Telecommunications terminology a character is a unit of In Mathematics and Computer science, hexadecimal (also base -, hexa, or hex) is a Numeral system with a It is used in many programming languages as an important part of the syntax. A programming language is an Artificial language that can be used to write programs which control the behavior of a machine particularly a Computer. C uses it as a means of accessing a member of a struct, and this syntax was inherited by C++ as a means of accessing a member of a class or object. tags please moot on the talk page first! --> In Computing, C is a general-purpose cross-platform block structured In Computer science, object composition (not to be confused with function composition) is a way and practice to combine simple objects or C++ (" C Plus Plus " ˌsiːˌplʌsˈplʌs is a general-purpose Programming language. In Object-oriented programming, a class is a Programming language construct that is used as a blueprint to create objects This blueprint includes attributes In its simplest embodiment an object is an allocated region of storage Java and Python also follow this convention. Python is a general-purpose High-level programming language. Its design philosophy emphasizes programmer productivity and code readability
In file systems, the full stop is commonly used to separate the extension of a file name from the name of the file. In Computing, a file system (often also written as filesystem) is a method for storing and organizing Computer files and the data they contain to make RISC OS uses full stops to separate levels of the hierarchical file system when writing path names - similar to / in Unix-based systems and \ in MS-DOS-based systems. RISC OS is an Operating system originally created by British manufacturer Acorn Computers for their ARM based Computers ranging Unix (officially trademarked as UNIX, sometimes also written as Unix with Small caps) is a computer MS-DOS (short for M icro' s' oft D isk O perating S ystem is an Operating system commercialized by Microsoft.
In Unices, files or directories which start with a ". A Unix-like (sometimes shortened to *nix) Operating system is one that behaves in a manner similar to a Unix system while not necessarily conforming " are hidden.
In Unix-like systems, the dot character represents the working directory. A Unix-like (sometimes shortened to *nix) Operating system is one that behaves in a manner similar to a Unix system while not necessarily conforming In Computing, the working directory of a process is a directory of a hierarchical File system, if any dynamically associated with each process Two dots (. . ) represent the parent directory of the working directory. In Computing, the parent directory of a given directory A is the directory B in which A is located
Bourne-derived shells, such as sh, ksh, and Bash, also use the dot as a synonym for the source command, which reads the contents of a file and executes them. The Bourne shell, or sh, was the default Unix shell of Unix Version 7, and replaced the Thompson shell, whose executable file had the same The Korn shell ( ksh) is a Unix shell which was developed by David Korn ( AT&T Bell Laboratories) in the early 1980s Bash is a Free software Unix shell written for the GNU Project.