French wine is produced in several regions throughout France, on over 800,000 hectares (over 2 million acres) of vineyards, and in a typical year between 50 and 60 million hectolitres of wine is produced, or some 7 to 8 billion bottles. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Explanation The hectare is commonly used in most countries around the world especially in domains concerned with land planning and management such as Agriculture, The acre is a unit of Area in a number of different systems including the imperial and U A vineyard is a Plantation of Grape -bearing Vines grown mainly for Winemaking, but also Raisins Table grapes and non-alcoholic The litre or liter (see spelling differences) is a unit of Volume. Wine is an Alcoholic beverage made from the fermentation of Grape juice  France thus has the world's second-largest total vineyard surface (behind Spain) and competes with Italy for the position of having the world's largest wine production. Spanish wines are wines produced in the southwestern European country of Spain. Italian wine is Wine produced in Italy, a Country which is home to some of the oldest wine-producing regions in the world The earliest history of French wine goes back to the 6th century BC, and many of France's regions count their wine-making history to Roman times. This is a list of topics related to ancient Rome that aims to include aspects of both the ancient Roman Republic and Roman Empire. Over the last several hundred years, France has been the most influential country in the wine world: France is the source of more well-known grape varieties (such as Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay, Pinot Noir, Sauvignon Blanc and Syrah) and winemaking practices than any other country, the names of many French wine regions such as Bordeaux, Burgundy and Champagne are well-known throughout the world, and the style of top French wines have long been the benchmark for winemaking in most wine-producing countries of the world. For the Tokyo University supercomputer see Gravity Pipe. GRAPE, or GRA phics P rogramming E nvironment is Cabernet Sauvignon is one of the world's most widely recognized red Wine grape varieties. Chardonnay is a green-skinned Grape variety used to make white Wine. Pinot noir ('pino nwar is a red Wine Grape variety of the species Vitis vinifera. Sauvignon blanc is a green-skinned Grape variety which originates from the Bordeaux region of France. Syrah is a dark-skinned variety of Grape used in Wine. Syrah is grown in many countries and is primarily used to produce powerful Red wines which enjoy Winemaking, or vinification, is the production of Wine, starting with selection of the Grapes and ending with bottling the finished wine This list of wine-producing regions catalogues significant Growing regions where Vineyards are planted A Bordeaux wine is any Wine produced in the Bordeaux region of France. Burgundy wine ( is wine made in the Burgundy region in eastern France. The Champagne wine region ( archaic Champany is a historic province within the Champagne administrative province in the northeast of France. French wine therefore plays an enormously important role in French identity and pride, and the combination of French wine and the equally influential French gastronomy has been an important one. Gastronomy is the study of the relationship between Culture and Food. Over the last decades, however, international competition in the wine industry has gotten much more fierce, and France has been challenged both by winemakers of the New World and by traditional wine-producing countries in southern Europe, while domestic consumption of wine has decreased. The New World is one of the names used for the non-Eurasian/non-African parts of the Earth specifically the Americas and Australia. Since the French wine industry is very heterogeneous, and ranges from production of very cheap table wine to expensive First Growths and similar "luxury" wines, these changes have hit some very hard and others not at all: while some regions are plagued with constant overproduction of low-quality wines that can't find buyers, and many smaller growers have an increasingly difficult time to make a living, some top producers are more profitable than ever before. In the United States table wine is used as a legal definition to differentiate standard Wine from stronger (higher alcohol content Fortified wine or First Growth (Premier Cru status refers to a classification of Wines primarily from the Bordeaux region of France
Two central concepts to better-quality French wines are the notion of terroir and the Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée (AOC) system. Terroir (/t̪εʁwaʁ/ in French (terruño pago was originally a French term in Wine, Coffee and Tea used to denote the special characteristics Appellation d’origine contrôlée ( AOC) which translates as "controlled term of origin" is the French certification granted to certain French "Terroir wines" reflect their place of origin, which are therefore carefully specified on labels of French wine, usually in terms of which appellation the wine comes from. The appellation rules closely define which grape varieties and winemaking practices that are allowed in each of France's several hundred geographically defined appellations, and those rules must be followed by all producers who wish to use an AOC designation for their wines.
The production of French wine has its origins in the 6th century BC, with the colonization of Southern Gaul by Greek settlers. Gaul (Gallia was the Roman name for the region of Western Europe comprising present day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western The Greeks ( Greek: Έλληνες) are a Nation and Ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus and neighbouring regions Viticulture soon flourished with the founding of the Greek colony of Marseille. Viticulture (from the Latin word for Vine) is the Science, production and study of Grapes which deals with the series of Marseille, ( English alt Marseilles mɑrˈseɪ — French: maʁsɛj locally — Provençal Occitan: Marselha maʀˈsijɔ  Regions in the south were licensed by the Roman Empire to produce wines. St. Martin of Tours (316-397) was actively engaged in both spreading Christianity and planting vineyards. Saint Martin of Tours (Martinus (316/317 Savaria, Pannonia &ndash November 8, 317, Candes, Gaul; buried November Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings A vineyard is a Plantation of Grape -bearing Vines grown mainly for Winemaking, but also Raisins Table grapes and non-alcoholic  During the Middle Ages, monks maintained vineyards and, more important, wine making knowledge and skills during that often turbulent period. MONK is a Monte Carlo software package for simulating nuclear processes particularly for the purpose of determining the neutron multiplication factor or k-effective Monasteries had the resources, security, and motivation to produce a steady supply of wine for both celebrating mass and generating income.  During this time the best vineyards were owned by the monasteries and their wine was considered to be superior.  Over time the nobility acquired extensive vineyards. However, the French Revolution led to the confiscation of many of the vineyards owned by the Church and others. The French Revolution (1789–1799 was a period of political and social upheaval in the History of France, during which the French governmental structure previously an 
Despite some exports from Bordeaux, until about 1850 most wine in France was consumed locally. The spread of railroads and the improvement of roads reduced the cost of transportation and dramatically increased exports. 
A number of laws to control the quality of French wine were passed in 1935. They established the Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée system, which is governed by a powerful oversight board (Institut National des Appellations d’Origine - INAO). Appellation d’origine contrôlée ( AOC) which translates as "controlled term of origin" is the French certification granted to certain French The Institut National des Appellations d'Origine is the French organization charged with regulating controlled place names Consequently, France has one of the oldest systems for Protected designation of origin for wine in the world, and strictest laws concerning winemaking and production. Many other European systems are modelled on it, and has led to the word "appellation" being borrowed as a term in many other countries, sometimes in a much looser meaning. An appellation is a Geographical indication used to identify where the Grapes for a Wine were grown With European Union wine laws being modeled on those of the French, this trend is likely to continue with further EU expansion. The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in
French law divides wine into four categories, two falling under the European Union's Table Wine category and two falling under the EU's Quality Wine Produced in a Specific Region (QWPSR) designation. The categories and their share of the total French production for the 2005 vintage, excluding wine destined for Cognac, Armagnac and other brandies, were:
The total French production for the 2005 vintage was 43. 9 million hl (plus an additional 9. 4 million hl destined for various brandies), of which 28. 3% was white and 71. 7% was red or rosé.  The proportion of white wine is slightly higher for the higher categories, with 34. 3% of the AOC wine being white.
In years with less favourable vintage conditions than 2005, the proportion of AOC wine tends to be a little lower. The proportion of Vin de table has decreased considerably over the last decades, while the proportion of AOC has increased somewhat and Vin de Pays has increased considerably.
In 2005 there were 472 different wine AOCs in France. 
All common styles of wine - red, rosé, white (dry, semi-sweet and sweet), sparkling and fortified - are produced in France. Wine is an Alcoholic beverage made from the fermentation of Grape juice A rosé (From French rosé ‘pinkish’ Wine has some of the color typical of a red wine but only enough to turn it pink Wine is an Alcoholic beverage made from the fermentation of Grape juice The sweetness of a Wine is defined by the level of residual sugar (or RS in the fermentation proces Fortified wine is Wine to which alcohol (usually Brandy) has been added In most of these styles, the French production ranges from cheap and simple versions to some of the world's internationally most famous and expensive examples. The possible exception is French fortified wine, which tend to be relatively unknown outside France's border.
A very large number of grape varieties are cultivated in France, including both internationally well-known and obscure, little noted local varieties. This is a list of varieties of cultivated Grapes whether used for Wine, or eating as a Table grape, fresh or dried ( Raisin, currant, sultana In fact, most of the so-called "international varieties" are of French origin, or became known and spread because of their cultivation in France. Since French appellation rules generally restrict wines from each region, district or appellation to a small number of allowed grape varieties, there are in principle no varieties that are commonly planted throughout all of France. Most varieties are therefore associated with a certain region, such as Cabernet Sauvignon in Bordeaux and Syrah in Rhône, although there are varieties that are commonly found in two or more regions, such as Chardonnay in Bourgogne (including Chablis) and Champagne, and Sauvignon Blanc in Loire and Bordeaux. As an example of the rules, although climatic conditions would seem to allow good examples to be produced, there are no Cabernet Sauvignon wines from Rhône, Riesling wines from Loire, or Chardonnay wines from Bordeaux. (If such wines were produced they would have to be declassified to Vin de Pays or French table wine, and would not be allowed to display any appellation name or even region of origin. )
Traditionally, many French wines have been blended from several grape varieties rather than varietally pure. Varietal white wines have been, and are still, more common than varietal red wines.
In many respects, French wines have more of a regional than a national identity, as evidenced by different grape varieties, production methods and different classification systems in the various regions. Quality levels and prices varies enormously, and some wines are made for immediate consumption while other are meant for long-time cellaring. If there is one thing that most French wines have in common, then it is that most styles have developed as wines meant to accompany food, be it a quick baguette, a simple bistro meal or a full-fledged multi-course menu. A baguette (bəˈɡɛt is a variety of Bread distinguishable by its length very crispy crust and slits cut into it to enable proper expansion A bistro, sometimes spelled bistrot, is a small Restaurant serving moderately priced simple meals in a modest setting More seldomly have the wines been developed or styled as "bar wines" for drinking on their own, or to impress in tastings already when young.
The labels on a bottle of French wine often carry important information that can help the consumer evaluate its potential quality. Following are some potentially important phrases:
In previous times, France had no tradition of varietal labelling of wines, with the exception of wines from the Alsace region, with their Germanic influence. Alsace wine or Alsatian wine (in French: Vin d'Alsace) is produced in the Alsace region in France and is primarily white This was not just because wines were made blended, not even traditionally varietally pure wines (such as Chardonnay-based Chablis or Chenin Blanc-based Vouvray) displayed varietial names on the label. Chablis is a town and commune of the Yonne département in France. Vouvray is a town and commune 10 km east of Tours on the north shore of the Loire River, in the Indre-et-Loire département Varietal labelling was not even allowed under appellation rules. After New World wines made the varietal names "household names" on the export market in the later part of the 20th century, more French wines have started to use varietal labelling. In general, varietal labelling is most common for the Vin de Pays category. Some AOC wines in "simpler" categories are also allowed to display varietal names, but these wines are rather few. For most AOC wines, if varietal names are found, it will be in small print on a back label.
If varietal names are displayed, common EU rules apply:
Terroir refers to the unique combination of natural factors associated with any particular vineyard. Terroir (/t̪εʁwaʁ/ in French (terruño pago was originally a French term in Wine, Coffee and Tea used to denote the special characteristics Cahors (kaɔʁ Occitan: Caors pronounced kaˈurs ˈkɔws ˈkɔw is the principal town and commune in south west France capital of the A vineyard is a Plantation of Grape -bearing Vines grown mainly for Winemaking, but also Raisins Table grapes and non-alcoholic These factors include such things as soil, underlying rock, altitude, slope of hill or terrain, orientation toward the sun, and microclimate (typical rain, winds, humidity, temperature variations, etc. Soil, often typeset as SOiL, is a four piece rock band from Chicago Illinois United States founded by Shaun Glass Tom Schofield Tim King and Adam Zadel Altitude is the Elevation of a point or object from a known level or datum (plural data Slope is used to describe the steepness incline gradient or grade of a straight line. In Physical geography, aspect generally refers to the direction to which a Mountain slope faces A microclimate is a local atmospheric zone where the Climate differs from the surrounding area ) No two vineyards, not even in the same area, have exactly the same terroir.
The major wine regions of France are:
There are also several smaller production areas situated outside these major regions. Many of those are VDQS wines, and some, particularly those in more northern locations, are remnants of productions areas which were once larger. Vin Délimité de Qualité Superieure ("Delimited Wine of Superior Quality" usually abbreviated as VDQS, is the second highest category of French wine,
France has traditionally been the largest consumer of its own wines. However, wine consumption has been dropping in France for 40 years. During the decade of the 1990s, per capita consumption dropped by nearly 20 percent. Therefore, French wine producers must rely increasingly on foreign markets. In Economics, an export is any good or Commodity, Transported from one country to another country in a Legitimate fashion However, consumption has also been dropping in other potential markets such as Italy, Spain and Portugal.
The result has been a continuing wine glut, often called the wine lake, that has led to the distillation of wine into industrial alcohol as well as a government program to pay farmers to pull up their grape vines through vine pull schemes. The wine lake refers to the continuing surplus of Wine over demand (glut produced in the European Union. Vine pull schemes are programs whereby Grape growers receive a financial incentive to pull up their grape Vines a process known as arrachage in French A large part of this glut is caused by the re-emergence of Languedoc wine. Languedoc wine, including the Vin de pays labeled Vin de Pays d'Oc, is produced in southern France.
Immune from these problems has been the market for Champagne as well as the market for the expensive ranked or classified wines. Champagne is a Sparkling wine produced by inducing the in-bottle Secondary fermentation of Wine to effect Carbonation. However, these constitute only about five percent of French production.
French regulations in 1979 created simple rules for the then-new category of Vin de pays. Vin de pays is a French term meaning "country wine" Vins de pays are a step in the French wine classification which is above the table wine ( Vin de table The Languedoc-Roussillon region has taken advantage of its ability to market varietal wines. Languedoc-Roussillon ( Occitan: Lengadòc-Rosselhon; Catalan: Llenguadoc-Rosselló) is one of the 26 regions of France.
L'Office national interprofessionnel des vins, abbreviated ONIVINS, is a French association of vintners. This article addresses the current economic situation of France Winemaking, or vinification, is the production of Wine, starting with selection of the Grapes and ending with bottling the finished wine
The following is a list of French Wines that are entitled to use the designation Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée (AOC on their label The following is a list of French wines that are entitled to use the designation VDQS on their label Wine labels are important sources of information for consumers since they tell the type and origin of the wine The history of Wine spans thousands of years and is closely intertwined with the history of Agriculture, Cuisine, Civilization and