Kingdom of France
The nobility (French: la noblesse) in France, in the Middle Ages and the Early Modern period, had specific legal and financial rights, and prerogatives. The Ancien Régime, a French term rendered in English as “Old Rule” “Old Kingdom” or simply “Old Regime” refers primarily to the aristocratic The Estates of the realm were the broad divisions of society usually distinguishing Nobility, Clergy, and Commoners recognized in the Middle Ages This article is for the Ancien Régime institution For the post-Revolutionary and present-day institution see French Parliament. Taille was also a name used in the time of Johann Sebastian Bach for the Baroque Cor anglais. The following article is about a Tax. If you are looking for information about a literary character see A Tale of Two Cities. This article is about the medieval system "Manors" redirects here Nobility is a government-privileged title which may be either hereditary (see Hereditary titles) or for a lifetime French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. France in the Middle Ages covers an area roughly corresponding to modern day France, from the death of Charlemagne in 814 to the middle of the 15th Early Modern France is the Early modern period of French history from the end of the 15th century to the end of the 18th century (or from the French Renaissance
The first official list of these prerogatives was established relatively late, under Louis XI of France after 1440 and includes:
Certain ecclesiastic, civic, and military positions were reserved for nobles. At the same time, certain activities were required of nobles. These included:
Other activities could cause dérogeance, or loss of one's nobility. So were most commercial and manual activities strictly prohibited, although nobles could profit from their lands through mines and forges. Mining is the extraction of valuable Minerals or other geological materials from the earth usually (but not always from an Ore body A forge is the workplace of a smith or a Blacksmith. A forge is sometimes referred to as a smithy.
Other than in isolated cases, serfdom ceased to exist in France by the 15th century. In Early Modern France, nobles nevertheless maintained a great number of seigneurial privileges over the free peasants that worked lands under their control. This article is about the medieval system "Manors" redirects here These included:
Nobles also maintained certain judicial rights over their vassals, although with the rise of the modern state many of these privileges had passed to state control, leaving rural nobility only local police functions and judicial control over violation of their seigneurial rights.
In the 17th century this seigneurial system was established in France's North American possessions. The seigneurial system of New France was the semi- feudal system of land distribution used in the colonies of New France. The Viceroyalty of New France (Nouvelle-France was the area colonized by France in North America during a period extending from the exploration of the
In the political system of the Estates General, the nobility made up the Second Estate. In France under the Ancien Regime, the States-General or Estates-General (French états généraux) was a Legislative assembly The Estates of the realm were the broad divisions of society usually distinguishing Nobility, Clergy, and Commoners recognized in the Middle Ages This three-way division of the Estates should not be construed however as implying a division of Early Modern French society into three rigid orders (clergy, nobles, bourgeois and peasants) without the possibility of crossover.
Figures differ on the actual number of nobles in France at the end of the 18th century. The 18th century lasted from 1701 to 1800 in the Gregorian calendar, in accordance with the Anno Domini / Common Era numbering system For the year 1789, the French historian François Bluche gives a figure of 140,000 nobles (9,000 noble families) and claims that around 5% of nobles claimed descent from feudal nobility before the 15th century. Year 1789 ( MDCCLXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common 
With a total population of 28 million, this would represent merely 0. 5%. The historian Gordon Wright gives a figure of 300,000 nobles (of which 80,000 were from the traditional noblesse d'épée), which agrees with the estimation of the historian Jean de Viguerie, or a little over 1% (proportionally one of smallest noble classes in Europe).
Despite common perceptions, the nobility in France was never an entirely closed class. Titles of nobility were generally hereditary, but many were awarded by the French monarchy for loyal service and many opportunities, both legal and illegal, were available for wealthy individuals to eventually gain titles of nobility for themselves or their descendants.
From 1275 to 1578, non-nobles could acquire titles of nobility after three generations by buying lands or castles that had noble privileges attached to them, that is to say that these fiefs had formerly belonged to a noble lord or the king and had been given in feudal homage. Under the system of Feudalism, a fiefdom, fief, feud, feoff, or fee, often consisted of inheritable lands or revenue-producing Non-nobles could not possess noble fiefs without paying a special tax on them (the franc-fief) to their liege-holder.
In the 16th century, families could acquire nobility by possessing certain important official or military charges, generally after two generations.
Many titles of nobility were usurped by non-nobles in the Renaissance and early 17th century by purchasing fiefs and by living nobly, i. As a means of recording the passage of Time, the 17th Century was that Century which lasted from 1601 - 1700 in the Gregorian calendar e. by avoiding commercial and manual activity and by finding some way to be exempted from the official taille lists. Taille was also a name used in the time of Johann Sebastian Bach for the Baroque Cor anglais. In this way, the family would slowly come to be seen as noble.
The king could grant titles of nobility to individuals by lettres patentes and convert their lands into noble fiefs or, for non-nobles possessing noble fiefs, to grant them possession of the noble titles. Nobility is a government-privileged title which may be either hereditary (see Hereditary titles) or for a lifetime Letters patent are a type of Legal instrument in the form of an Open letter issued by a Monarch or Government, granting an office right
The king could also confer on noble fiefs special privileges, such as peerage for certain duchies. The Peerage is a system of Titles of Nobility in the United Kingdom, part of the British honours system. In general, these lettres needed to be officially registered with the Parlement. This article is for the Ancien Régime institution For the post-Revolutionary and present-day institution see French Parliament. In the case of an unwilling Parlement, nobles were termed à brevet (as in duc à brevet or duke by certificate).
French nobility is generally divided into the following classes:
Nobles sometimes made the following distinctions based on the age of their status:
A non-noble is generally called roturier. Magistrates and men of law are sometimes called robins.
The acquisition of titles of nobility could be done in one generation or gradually over several generations:
The noblesse de lettres became, starting in the reign of Francis I of France, a handy method for the court to raise revenues; non-nobles possessing noble fiefs would pay a year's worth of revenues from their fiefs to gain nobility. Francis I (September 12 1494 &ndash March 31 1547 was crowned King of France in 1515 in the cathedral at Reims and reigned until 1547 In 1598, Henry IV of France undid a number of these anoblissments, but eventually saw the necessity of the practice. Henry IV (Henri IV ( 13 December 1553 &ndash 14 May 1610) ruled as King of France from 1589 to 1610 and as Henry III
The noblesse de cloche dates from 1372 (for the city of Poitiers) and was found only in certain cities with legal and judicial freedoms; by the Revolution these cities were only a handful. Poitiers is a town on the Clain River in west central France.
The noblesse de chancellerie first appeared during the reign of Charles VIII of France at the end of the 15th century. Charles VIII, called the Affable (l'Affable 30 June 1470 &ndash 7 April 1498 was King of France from 1483 to his death As being a royal chancellor demanded (with few exceptions) royal status, non-nobles holding the position were conferred nobility, generally after 20 years of service. Chancellor or chancellour (archaic ( Latin: cancellarius) is an official Title used in countries whose civilization has arisen Non-nobles paid enormous sums to hold these positions, but this form of nobility was often criticized as being savonnette à villain (soap for serfs).
The noblesse de robe was a longstanding tradition. In 1600 it gained legal status. High positions in regional parlements, tax boards (chambres des comptes), and other important financial and official state offices (usually bought at great price) conferred nobility, generally in two generations, although the Parlements of Paris, Dauphiné, Besançon, Flanders and the tax boards of Paris, Dole, and Grenoble conferred nobility in one generation. This article is for the Ancien Régime institution For the post-Revolutionary and present-day institution see French Parliament. Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city The Dauphiné or Dauphiné Viennois is a former province in southeastern France, roughly corresponding to the present departments ' of the Besançon (bəzɑ̃ˈsɔ̃ in French and Arpitan; German: Bisanz) is the capital and principal city of the Franche-Comté Nord (North is a department in the far north of France. It is the country's most populated department Dole is a commune in the Jura département in France, of which it is a Sous-préfecture. Grenoble is a city and commune in south-east France situated at the foot of the Alps where the Drac joins the Isère River.
These state offices could be lost by a family at the unexpected death of the office holder. In an attempt to gain more tax revenues, the king's financial advisor Paulet instituted the Paulette in 1604, a yearly tax of 1/60th of the price of the office that insured hereditary transmission. This annual tax solidified the hereditary acquisition of offices in France, and by the middle of the 17th century the majority of office holders were already noble from long possession of these offices.
Henry IV of France began to crack down on the usurpation of titles of nobility, and in 1666-1674, Louis XIV of France mandated a massive program of verification of titles of nobility. Henry IV (Henri IV ( 13 December 1553 &ndash 14 May 1610) ruled as King of France from 1589 to 1610 and as Henry III Early years Birth and ancestry Louis XIV was born in the Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye on September 5 1638 and bore the Heir apparent Oral testimony that maintained that parents and grandparents had always been nobles and lived nobly were no longer accepted. Nobles needed written proofs (marriage contracts, land documents) that they had been noble since 1560. Many families were put back on the lists of the taille and or forced to pay fines for usurping noble titles. Taille was also a name used in the time of Johann Sebastian Bach for the Baroque Cor anglais.
There were two kinds of titles used by French nobles, some were personal ranks, other were titles linked to the fiefs owned, called fiefs de dignité.
The term gentilhomme (gentleman), was used for any noble, from the king to the last écuyer without any title.
The Pairie was technically a dignity of the Crown, as marshall, but was in fact the highest title used by the French nobility. Peerage of France (Pairie de France was a distinction within the French nobility which appeared in the Middle Ages. The Marshal of France (Maréchal de France and pl Maréchaux de France is a military distinction in contemporary France, not a Military rank. The peerage was only awarded to princes of the blood, some foreign princes, some bishops and dukes, often from the most ancient and powerful families. The peers could sit in the Parliament of Paris, the most important Court of Justice in the kingdom. This article is for the Ancien Régime institution For the post-Revolutionary and present-day institution see French Parliament.
In his full style, a noble shall use his rank, his title, and his dignity, as in Marie Jean de Caritat, écuyer, marquis de Condorcet or Louis de Rouvroy, chevalier, duc de Saint-Simon, pair de France. Louis de Rouvroy duc de Saint-Simon ( January 16, 1675 &ndash March 2, 1755) French soldier Diplomatist and writer
In principle, the expression seigneur (lord of the manor) applied to anyone possessing a fief, but the term was often used to imply a grand seigneur, or a noble of high rank or status. The title of Lord of the Manor arose in the English mediaeval system of Manorialism following the Norman Conquest.
The use of de in noble names (Fr: la particule) was not officially controlled in France (unlike von in the German states), and is not reliable evidence of the bearer's nobility. A simple tailor could be named Marc de Lyon, as a sign of his birth place. In the 19th century, the de was mistakenly adopted by some non-nobles (like Honoré de Balzac) in an attempt to appear noble. The 19th century of the Common Era began on January 1, 1801 and ended on December 31, 1900, according to the Gregorian calendar
Each rank of nobility — royal prince, prince belonging to collateral lines of the royal family ("prince du sang"), duc, marquis, comte, vicomte, baron, etc. — conferred its own privileges (dukes for example could enter royal residences in a carriage, duchesses could sit on a stool with the queen). Dukes in France — the most important group after the princes — were further divided into those who were also "peers" ("Duc et Pair") and those who were not. Dukes without a peerage fell into one of two groups: those without peerage fiefs, or those for whom the Parlement refused to register the "lettres patentes" conferring a peerage on them.
Noble hierarchies were further complicated by the creation of knightly orders — the "Chevaliers du Saint-Esprit" (Knights of the Holy Spirit) created by Henry III of France in 1578; the "Ordre de Saint-Michel" created by Louis XI of France in 1469; the "Order of Saint Louis" created by Louis XIV of France in 1696 — by official posts, and by positions in the Royal House (the Great Officers of the Crown of France), such as "grand maître de la garde robe" (the grand master of the royal wardrobe, being the royal dresser) or "Grand panetier" (the "royal bread server") which had long ceased to be actual functions and had become nominal and formal positions with their own privileges. military order is a Christian Order of knighthood that is founded for crusading, i Not to be confused with the Congregation of the Holy Ghost (Spiritans. Henry III of France (Henri III Henryk ( September 19 1551 – August 2, 1589) The Order of Saint Michael (Ordre de Saint-Michel was the first French chivalric order, founded by Louis XI of France in 1469 in competitive response Louis XI ( July 3, 1423 – August 30, 1483) called the Prudent (le Prudent and the Universal Spider ( Middle The Royal and Military Order of Saint Louis (Ordre Royal et Militaire de Saint-Louis was a military Order of Chivalry founded on April 5, 1693 by Early years Birth and ancestry Louis XIV was born in the Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye on September 5 1638 and bore the Heir apparent The Great Officers of the Crown were the most important officers of state of the royal court in France during the Ancien Régime and Bourbon Restoration The Grand Panetier (roughly "Great Breadmaster" sometimes rendered as Panter) was one of the Great Officers of the Crown of France, a member of the The 17th and 18th centuries saw nobles and the "noblesse de robe" battle each other for these positions and any other sign of royal favor.
Attending the ceremony of the king's waking at Versailles (the smaller and intimate "petit lever du roi" and the more formal "grand lever du roi"), being asked to cross the barriers that separated the royal bed from the rest of the room, being invited to talk to the king, or to have a comment said by the king about a noble. Versailles (vɛʀsaj in French) formerly de facto capital of the kingdom of France, is now a wealthy suburb of Paris and is still an important . . all were signs of favor and actively sought after.
Economic studies of nobility in France reveal great differences in financial status. At the end of the 18th century, a well-off family could earn 100,000 - 150,000 livres by year, although the most prestigious families could gain twice or three times that much. For provincial nobility, yearly earnings of 10,000 livres permitted a minimum of provincial luxury, but most earned far less.  The ethics of noble expenditure, the financial crises of the century and the inability of nobles to participate in most fields without losing their nobility contributed to their poverty.
In the 18th century, the Comte de Boulainvilliers, a rural noble, posited the belief that French nobility had descended from the victorious Franks, while non-nobles descended from the conquered Gauls. Henri de Boulainvilliers ( October 21, 1658, St Saire, Normandy - January 23, 1722, Paris) was a French The Franks or Frankish people (Franci or gens Francorum) were West Germanic tribes first identified in the 3rd century as an Ethnic group Gaul (Gallia was the Roman name for the region of Western Europe comprising present day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western The theory had no validity, but offered a myth for an impoverished noble class. 
The idea of what it meant to be noble went through a radical transformation from the 16th to the 17th centuries. Through contact with the Italian Renaissance and their concept of the perfect courtier (Baldassare Castiglione), the rude warrior class was remodeled into what the 17th century would come to call "l'honnête homme" or "the honest or upright man", among whose chief virtues were eloquent speech, skill at dance, refinement of manners, appreciation of the arts, intellectual curiosity, wit, a spiritual or platonic attitude in love, and the ability to write poetry. The Italian Renaissance began the opening phase of the Renaissance, a period of great cultural change and achievement in Europe that spanned the period from the end of the 14th Baldasare Castiglione, count of Novellata ( December 15, 1478 &ndash February 28, 1529) was an Italian Courtier,
Certain values of the early modern noble classes are no longer readily comprehensible to modern observers who may see them in a negative light. Most notable of these values are the aristocratic obsession with "glory" ("la gloire") and majesty ("la grandeur") and the spectacle of power, prestige, and luxury.  For example, Pierre Corneille's noble heroes have been criticised by modern readers who have seen their actions as vainglorious, criminal, or hubristic; aristocratic spectators of the period would have seen many of these same actions as representative of their noble station. Pierre Corneille ( June 6, 1606 – October 1, 1684) was a French tragedian who was one of the three great seventeenth Century French
The château of Versailles, court ballets, noble portraits, triumphal arches. Versailles (vɛʀsaj in French) formerly de facto capital of the kingdom of France, is now a wealthy suburb of Paris and is still an important A triumphal arch is a structure in the shape of a monumental Archway, in theory built to celebrate a victory in war actually used to celebrate a ruler . . all of these were representations of glory and prestige. The notion of glory (military, artistic, etc. ) was seen in the context of the Roman Imperial model; it was not seen as vain or boastful, but as a moral imperative to the aristocratic classes. Nobles were required to be "generous" and "magnanimous", to perform great deeds disinterestedly (i. e. because their status demanded it —whence the expression noblesse oblige— and without expecting financial or political gain), and to master their own emotions (especially fear, jealousy, and the desire for vengeance). In French, " noblesse oblige " means literally " Nobility obligates"
One's status in the world demanded appropriate externalisation (or "conspicuous consumption"). Conspicuous consumption is a term used to describe the lavish spending on goods and services acquired mainly for the purpose of displaying Income or Wealth. Nobles indebted themselves to build prestigious urban mansions ("hôtels particuliers") and to buy clothes, paintings, silverware, dishes, and other furnishings befitting their rank. They were also required to show liberality by hosting sumptuous parties and by funding the arts.  Conversely, social parvenues who took on the external trappings of the noble classes (such as the wearing of a sword) were severely criticised, sometimes by legal action (laws on sumptuous clothing worn by bourgeois existed since the Middle Ages).
These aristocratic values began to be criticised in the mid 17th century: Blaise Pascal, for example, offered a ferocious analysis of the spectacle of power and François de la Rochefoucauld posited that no human act — however generous it pretended to be — could be considered disinterested. Blaise Pascal (blɛz paskal (June 19 1623 &ndash August 19 1662 was a French Mathematician, Physicist, and religious Philosopher François VI duc de La Rochefoucauld le Prince de Marcillac ( September 15, 1613 &ndash March 17, 1680) was a noted French
By relocating the French royal court to Versailles in the 1680s, Louis XIV of France further modified the role of the nobles. Versailles (vɛʀsaj in French) formerly de facto capital of the kingdom of France, is now a wealthy suburb of Paris and is still an important Early years Birth and ancestry Louis XIV was born in the Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye on September 5 1638 and bore the Heir apparent Versailles became a gilded cage: to leave spelled disaster for a noble, for all official charges and appointments were made there. A strict etiquette was imposed: a word or glance from the king could make or destroy a career. Etiquette is a code that governs the expectations of Social behavior, according to the contemporary conventional norm within a Society, The king himself followed a strict daily program, and there was little privacy. Louis was also proficient at playing nobles off against each other and against the newer "noblesse de robe".
Provincial nobles who refused to join the Versailles system were locked out of important positions in the military or state offices, and lacking royal subsides (and unable to keep up a noble lifestyle on seigneural taxes), these rural nobles ("hobereaux") often went into debt.
Before Louis XIV imposed his will on the nobility, the great families of France often maintained as one of their fundamental rights, the right to rebel against unacceptable royal abuse. The Wars of Religion, the Fronde, the civil unrest during the minority of Charles VIII of France and the regencies of Anne of Austria and Marie de Medici are all linked to these perceived loss of rights at the hand of a centralizing royal power. The French Wars of Religion (1562 to 1598 between French Catholics and Protestants ( Huguenots involved both civil infighting La Fronde (1648–1653 was a Civil war in France, occurring in the midst of the Franco-Spanish War, which had begun in 1635 Charles VIII, called the Affable (l'Affable 30 June 1470 &ndash 7 April 1498 was King of France from 1483 to his death For the queen consort of Sigismund III of Poland see Anna of Austria (1573-1598 For the queen consort of Philip II of Spain see Anna of Austria Marie de' Medici ( April 26, 1575 &ndash July 3, 1642) was Queen consort of France.
Much of the power of nobles in these periods of unrest comes from their "clientel system". Like the king, nobles granted the use of fiefs, and gave gifts and other forms of patronage to other nobles to develop a vast system of noble clients. Lesser families would send their children to be squires and members of these noble houses, and to learn in them the arts of court society and arms.
The elaboration of the Ancien Régime state was made possible only by redirecting these clientel systems to a new focal point (the king and the state), by creating contervaling powers (the bourgeoisie, the "noblesse de robe"). Ancien Régime ( pronounced: /ɑ̃sjɛ̃ ʁeʒim/ refers primarily to the aristocratic social and political system established in  By the late 17th century, any act of explicit or implicit protest was treated as a form of "lèse-majesté" and harshly repressed. Lèse majesté ( French expression from the Latin Laesa maiestas or Laesae maiestatis (crimen, (crime of injury to the Majesty in English
Many key Enlightenment figures were French nobles, such as Montesquieu, whose full name was Charles de Secondat, baron de Montesquieu. Charles-Louis de Secondat baron de La Brède et de Montesquieu (Eng
At the beginning of the French Revolution, on August 4, 1789, feudal rights (such as the "banalités", etc. The French Revolution (1789–1799 was a period of political and social upheaval in the History of France, during which the French governmental structure previously an Events 70 - The Destruction of the Second Temple in Jerusalem by the Romans. Year 1789 ( MDCCLXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common ) and seigneurial dues were abolished by the National Constituent Assembly; noble lands were stripped of their special status as fiefs; the nobility were subjected to the same taxation as their co-nationals, and lost their privileges (the hunt, seigneurial justice, funeral honors), but retained their titles. The National Constituent Assembly (Assemblée nationale constituante was formed from the National Assembly on 9 July 1789, during the first stages of the These feudal privileges are termed "droits de feodalité dominante".
Nevertheless, it was decided that certain annual financial payments which were owed the nobility and which were considered "contractual" (i. e. not stemming from an usurpation of feudal power, but from a contract between a landowner and a tenant) such as annual rents (the "cens" and the "champart") needed to be bought back by the tenant for the tenant to have clear title to his land; these are called "droits de féodalité contractante". The rate set (May 3, 1790) for purchase of these contractual debts was 20 times the annual monetary amount (or 25 times the annual amount if given in crops or goods); peasants were also required to pay back any unpaid dues over the past thirty years. Unfortunately, no system of credit was established for small farmers, and only well-off individuals could take advantage of the ruling. This created a massive land grab by well-off peasants and members of the middle-class who became absentee land owners and had their land worked by share-croppers and poor tenants. 
The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen had been voted on by the Assembly on August 26, 1789, but the abolition of nobility did not occur at that time. The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen (Déclaration des droits de l'Homme et du citoyen is a fundamental document of the French Revolution, defining Events 1071 - Battle of Manzikert: The Seljuk Turks defeat the Byzantine Army at Manzikert. Year 1789 ( MDCCLXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common The Declaration declared in its first article that "Men are born free and equal in rights; social distinctions may be based only upon general usefulness. " Presumably nobility was still considered to have social utility. It was not until June 19, 1790, that hereditary titles of nobility were abolished. Events 1179 - The Norwegian Battle of Kalvskinnet outside Nidaros. Year 1790 ( MDCCXC) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year The notions of equality and fraternity would triumph over some nobles such as the Marquis de Lafayette who supported the abolition of legal recognition of nobility, but other liberal nobles who had happily sacrificed their fiscal privileges saw this as an attack on the culture of honor.
Despite the abolition of nobility at the French Revolution and the loss of their privileged juridical status ("all men are equal citizens"), the nobility continued to exist throughout the 19th century. Nobles of the First French Empire were created by Napoleon Bonaparte to institute a stable elite in the First French Empire after the instability resulting from the French Revolution The 19th century of the Common Era began on January 1, 1801 and ended on December 31, 1900, according to the Gregorian calendar
Napoléon Bonaparte established his own aristocracy and titles during the Empire, and these new nobles maintained the use of their titles even after Napoleon's overthrow. Napoleon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821 was a French military and political leader who had a significant impact on the History of Europe. In all, about 2200 titles were created by Napoleon I:
(There were 239 remaining families holding First Empire titles in 1975. Of those, perhaps 130-140 were titled. Only one title of prince and seven titles of duke remain. ) Napoleon also established a new knightly order in 1802, the Légion d'honneur, which is still in existence today. Year 1802 ( MDCCCII) was a Common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar or a Common year starting on Wednesday of the
The Restoration of Louis XVIII of France saw the return of the old nobility to power (while ultra-royalists clamored for a return of lost lands) and the electoral laws of 1817 limited suffrage to only the wealthiest or most prestigious members (less than . Following the ousting of Napoleon I of France in 1814 the Allies restored the Bourbon Dynasty to the French throne Louis XVIII (17 November 1755 – 16 September 1824 Louis Stanislas Xavier de France, was a King of France and Navarre. Year 1817 ( MDCCCXVII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common 5%) of the population, which included many of the old nobility. The Second Empire of Napoleon III also saw the granting of noble titles. The Second French Empire or Second Empire was the Imperial Bonapartist regime of Napoleon III from 1852 to 1870 between the Second Napoléon III, also known as Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte (full name Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte) (20 April 1808 9 January 1873 was the first President
If the Third Republic returned once again to the principles of equality espoused by the Revolution (at least among the political Radical party), in practice the upper echelons of French nobility maintained their notion of social distinction well into the 20th century (as witnessed by the presence of nobility and noble class distinctions in the works of Marcel Proust) and the use of their titles was officially sanctioned. The French Third Republic (in French, La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe The twentieth century of the Common Era began on Valentin Louis Georges Eugène Marcel Proust (maʁsɛl pʁust (10 July 1871 &ndash 18 November 1922 was a French Novelist Essayist and Critic
Titles were abolished by the Revolutions of 1789 and 1848, and restored by decree in 1852 (and never officially abolished since) and now can only be lawfully used and given to their bearers in official acts with a decree by the Minister of Justice. The French Revolution (1789–1799 was a period of political and social upheaval in the History of France, during which the French governmental structure previously an The February 1848 Revolution in France ended the reign of King Louis-Philippe, and led to the creation of the French Second Republic (1848-1852 Year 1852 ( MDCCCLII) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year Anyone who has a legitimate claim to a title can ask the Minister of Justice to confirm this claim, the bearer can then legally use the title in legal documents such as birth certificates (about 400 such confirmations were made since 1872). Year 1872 ( MDCCCLXXII) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap year
The following are administrative or official titles used in France in the Medieval and Early Modern periods. Certain positions may imply or confer nobility (see under each).
In France, the signet ring (Fr. A seal can mean a wax seal bearing an impressed figure or an embossed figure in paper with the purpose of authenticating a document but the term can also mean any device for : la chevalière) bearing the coat of arms is traditionally worn by French noblemen on the ring finger of their left hand, contrary to usage in most other European countries (where it is worn on the little finger of either the right or left hand, depending on the country); French noble women however wear it on their little finger. The chevalière may either be worn facing up (en baise-main) or facing toward the palm (en bagarre). In contemporary usage, the inward position is increasingly common, although for some noble families the inward position is traditionally used to indicate that the wearer is married.
The Association d'entraide de la Noblesse Française ("Association for the mutual assistance of French nobility", or "ANF") exists today; it is open exclusively to French nobles.