A man free running in Brazil.
Free running is a physical art, in which participants (free runners) use the urban and rural areas to perform movements through its structures focused on freedom and beauty. The performing arts are those forms of Art which differ from the Plastic arts insofar as the former uses the artist's own Body, Face and presence Rural areas can be large and isolated (also referred to as "the country" and/or "the countryside over the course of time It incorporates efficient movements from parkour, adds aesthetic vaults and other acrobatics, such as tricking and street stunts, creating an athletic and aesthetically pleasing way of moving. Parkour (sometimes abbreviated to PK) or l'art du déplacement (the art of movement is an activity with the aim of moving from one point to another as efficiently Acrobatics (from Greek Akros, high and bat, walking is one of the Performing arts, and is also practiced as a Sport. Tricking (Martial Arts Tricking is the informal name Street Stunts consists of executing any acrobatic movements and techniques on a urban environment varying from Tumbling moves and Gymnastics techniques to Circus related activities It is commonly practiced at gymnasiums and in urban areas that are cluttered with obstacles.
The term free running was coined during the filming of Jump London, as a way to present parkour to the English-speaking world. Jump London is a documentary first broadcast by Channel 4 about Parkour and Free running in September However, free running and parkour are separate, distinct concepts — a distinction which is often missed due to the aesthetic similarities. Parkour as a discipline comprises efficiency, whilst free running embodies complete freedom of movement — and includes many acrobatic manoeuvres. Although often the two are physically similar, the mindsets of each are vastly different.  The founder Sébastien Foucan defines free running as a discipline to self development, following your own way. Sébastien Foucan (born May 24 1974 in Paris, France) is a French actor of Guadeloupean descent 
Heavily influenced by Sébastien Foucan and inspired by the similar art of displacement (parkour) which was founded by Foucan's childhood colleague David Belle, free running embraces elements of tricking and street stunts, which are considered by the parkour community to be inefficient and not parkour. Sébastien Foucan (born May 24 1974 in Paris, France) is a French actor of Guadeloupean descent Parkour (sometimes abbreviated to PK) or l'art du déplacement (the art of movement is an activity with the aim of moving from one point to another as efficiently David Belle (born 29 April 1973 in Fécamp, France) is the founder of Parkour. Tricking (Martial Arts Tricking is the informal name Street Stunts consists of executing any acrobatic movements and techniques on a urban environment varying from Tumbling moves and Gymnastics techniques to Circus related activities Initially, the term free running was used interchangeably with parkour. However, as free runners became interested in aesthetics as well as useful movement, the two became different disciplines. Aesthetics or esthetics ( also spelled æsthetics) is commonly known as the study of sensory or sensori-emotional values sometimes called The term free running was created by Guillaume Pelletier and embraced by Foucan to describe his "way" of doing parkour.  Foucan summarizes the goals of free running as using the environment to develop yourself and to always keep moving and not go backwards.
While free running and parkour share many common techniques, they have a fundamental difference in philosophy and intention. The aims of parkour are reach, the ability to quickly access areas that would otherwise be inaccessible, and escape, the ability to evade pursuers, which means the main intention is to clear their objects as efficiently as they can, while free running emphasizes self development by "following your way".  Foucan frequently mentions "following your way" in interviews, and the Jump documentaries. He explains that everyone has their way of doing parkour and they shouldn't follow someone else's way of doing it, instead they should do it their way. Free running is commonly misinterpreted as being solely focused on aesthetics and the beauty of the certain vault, jump, etc. Although a lot of free runners choose to focus on aesthetics, that is just "their way", the goal however is still self development.
The easiest way to explain the differences between the two activities is that in parkour you try to get from A to B in the most efficient and natural way, which could be exercised in case of a real threat, whereas in free running you may employ movements of your choosing. You might also do certain movements solely for their aesthetic value and the challenge of execution. Free running is essentially complete freedom of movement.
Sébastien Foucan used the term "free running" to describe a form of physical exercise that he practised which was showcased in the Channel 4 documentaries Jump London and Jump Britain. Sébastien Foucan (born May 24 1974 in Paris, France) is a French actor of Guadeloupean descent Channel 4 is a public-service Television and Radio broadcaster in the United Kingdom centred around a television channel of the same name which began Jump London is a documentary first broadcast by Channel 4 about Parkour and Free running in September Jump Britain is a 2005 documentary about Free running. Directed by Mike Christie and produced by Carbon Media, it is a The term has been in use since at least the early 1980s when it was used to describe a more adventurous form of jogging where the runner would incorporate a variety of movements transforming a jogging session into a more demanding, enjoyable and expressive physical experience. Jumping and tac-ing obstacles, rolling, and a variety of stretching movements would be used to break the regulated physical patterns of movement involved in basic running/jogging.
- See also: List of flips
Moves specific to free running are not easy to define, as most free runners use a combination of street stunts and parkour techniques. This is a list of Gymnastics flips. Gymnastics flips are acrobatic moves in which a person executes a complete rotation of the body while in mid air with hips passing over Street Stunts consists of executing any acrobatic movements and techniques on a urban environment varying from Tumbling moves and Gymnastics techniques to Circus related activities Parkour (sometimes abbreviated to PK) or l'art du déplacement (the art of movement is an activity with the aim of moving from one point to another as efficiently Free running focuses on freedom and beauty of movements, so many parkour techniques, such as vaults, may be carried out in a more aesthetically pleasing way, despite the fact that it may decrease the efficiency of the move.
Street stunts tend to be performed on flat ground or off a height, whereas free running movements tend to involve the use of obstacles or the general idea of movement from one place to another.
Examples of movements which are more likely to be classed as free running moves than parkour or street stunts include:
- Reverse Vault - Instead of vaulting over a railing with a monkey vault, which may be the most efficient way, the athlete adds a 360 degree spin along the horizontal axis to make the movement more aesthetically pleasing, as well as increasing their coordination.
- Superman Frontflip - A frontflip is executed over a wall or other obstacle, usually with a large drop on the other side. A front flip (also known as a front tuck and a front somersault) is a movement where the body spins or rotates around your center of gravity in mid-air by utilizing It is referred to as a superman frontflip because the athlete is required to dive over the obstacle in a superman style position before initiating the tuck to make sure that they clear it. Superman is a fictional Comic book Superhero widely considered to be one of the most recognized of such characters and an American Cultural icon
- 360 Wallrun - This is similar to the wallrun parkour technique, in which the athlete runs at a tall wall and pushes against the wall with their foot to propel themselves up the wall. The only difference between this movement and the 360 wallrun is that a 360 degree spin is carried out after kicking off the wall and before grabbing the top of the wall. .
In popular culture
- See also: Parkour in popular culture
- The French film Taxi (1998), produced by Luc Besson, features the first on-screen appearance of free running/parkour. Parkour (an activity with the aim of moving from one point to another as efficiently and quickly as possible using principally the abilities of the human body has appeared in various Luc Besson (lyk bɛsɔ̃ born 18 March 1959 is a French Film director, writer and producer. Parkour (sometimes abbreviated to PK) or l'art du déplacement (the art of movement is an activity with the aim of moving from one point to another as efficiently
- The French film Yamakasi (2001) is about a group of seven free-running specialists (the Yamakasi of the film's title) who resolve to use their skills in order to undertake some highly energetic burglaries as a way to raise money to save a kid. Yamakasi - Les samouraïs des temps modernes is a 2001 French movie written by Luc Besson.
- The 2003 documentary Jump London follows French free runners (Sébastien Foucan, Johann Vigroux and Jérôme Ben Aoues) as they demonstrate their skills on the landmarks of London. Jump London is a documentary first broadcast by Channel 4 about Parkour and Free running in September Jerome Ben Aoues has been practising Parkour since he met Sebastien Foucan, almost immediately after the creation of the popular movement art Parkour
- The French film Banlieue 13 (2004), produced by Luc Besson, features a large amount of free running, in addition to parkour. District 13 is the English -language release title of the 2004 French Action film, Banlieue 13, directed by Luc Besson (lyk bɛsɔ̃ born 18 March 1959 is a French Film director, writer and producer.
- In the 2004 sequel to Yamakasi, Les Fils Du Vent, the Yamakasi move to Bangkok and battle the Yakuza and their Thai associates who are attempting to take over the city.
- In 2005 Jump Britain was produced as a follow-up to Jump London. Jump Britain is a 2005 documentary about Free running. Directed by Mike Christie and produced by Carbon Media, it is a The free runners from the original documentary were joined by those from the Urban Freeflow team.
- An action sequence near the beginning of the James Bond film Casino Royale (2006) features Sébastien Foucan being chased across a construction site, using free running to escape. James Bond 007 is a Fictional character created in 1953 by writer Ian Fleming, who featured him in twelve Novels and two Short story Casino Royale ( 2006) is the twenty-first film in the James Bond series; it is directed by Martin Campbell and the first to star (A few stunts were performed by a professional stuntman. )
- In the 2007 film Live Free or Die Hard, there are two scenes in the beginning and end of the movie where French actor, martial artist and traceur Cyril Rafaelli is shown using motions from both free running and parkour. Live Free or Die Hard, released as Die Hard 40 outside the United States is a 2007 Action film, and the fourth installment in
- In the 2008 film You Don't Mess with the Zohan, there are two free running sequences, one towards the beginning, and one towards the ending. You Don't Mess with the Zohan is a 2008 Comedy film about Zohan Dvir ( Hebrew: זוהאן דביר) Israel 's hero and These sequences include vaults and flips.
- Æon Flux has some free running movements. Æon Flux is the Video game Adaptation of the 2005 Science fiction Film of the same name, with elements of the
- Core Design released a "free running" game, under the same name in 2007, for the platform PS2.
- Assassin's Creed, a game by developer Ubisoft Entertainment, features character movements and gameplay based on free running and parkour. Assassin's Creed is a Video game developed by Ubisoft Montreal and published by Ubisoft. Ubisoft Entertainment (formerly Ubi Soft) ( is a French computer and Video game publisher and developer with headquarters in
- In Activision's Tony Hawk's American Wasteland, the character has the ability to leave the skateboard and perform some limited free running techniques — although in the game they are referred to as parkour techniques. Activision Inc is an American Video game developer and publisher. The Tony Hawk series is a computer and Video game series endorsed by Tony Hawk and is created by games developer Neversoft and published by Parkour (sometimes abbreviated to PK) or l'art du déplacement (the art of movement is an activity with the aim of moving from one point to another as efficiently A character with a French accent teaches how to wallflip, climb up the wall, and do multiple flips.
- In Ninja Gaiden, Ryu Hayabusa performs some parkour movements and some free running. is the protagonist and the Player character of the Ninja Gaiden series Personality Ryu has the demeanor and wisdom of a man far older than himself due to his
- In Rayman DS, the Rayman character can perform several free running moves. } Rayman 2 The Great Escape is a platforming Video game. It is considered to have raised standards regarding 3D, level design and Rayman is an Anthropomorphic Video game character and is the official mascot of the video game publisher Ubisoft.
- Prince of Persia has extensive free running moves that are performed by the main character. Prince of Persia is an action-adventure Video game series created by Jordan Mechner. These slowly evolved from parkour to free running over the course of the game sequels.
- In the zombie game Urban Dead, free running is a survivor skill that allows players to move between buildings without having to go outside, significantly lowering the chances of being attacked or being trapped outside. Urban Dead is an HTML/text-based Massively multiplayer online role-playing game created by Kevan Davis
- In Mirror's Edge, an upcoming game that is currently in development at Digital Illusions CE, the player character utilizes free running to navigate the environment. Mirror's Edge is an upcoming first person action-adventure Video game being developed by EA Digital Illusions CE (DICE due for release EA Digital Illusions Creative Entertainment AB (EA DICE is a Swedish Video game developer, wholly owned by Electronic Arts, best known A player character or playable character (PC is a Fictional character in a Video game or Role playing game who is controlled or controllable 
- Madonna has released a video for her song "Jump", which features parkour and free running extensively throughout. Madonna Louise Ciccone Ritchie (born August 16 1958 known as Madonna, is an American  Also her music video "Hung Up" contains some clips of free running. " Hung Up " is a pop song written by American singer-songwriter Madonna, Stuart Price, Benny Andersson and Björn Ulvaeus For Madonna's Confessions tour, free running is heavily used for the choreography of the single "Jump". Madonna herself performs much of the free running choreography towards the end of the piece.
- David Guetta has released a music video for his song "Love Don't Let Me Go (Walking Away)", which features free running extensively throughout. David Guetta (born November 7 1967 in Paris) is a French DJ. Guetta began mixing his first vinyls at home at age 13 and
- Eric Prydz has released a video for his song "Proper Education", which features free runner Daniel Ilabaca. Eric Prydz (born July 19 1979) is a Swedish DJ and producer. Music career In 2004 Prydz released the single
- Fort Minor has a video for their song "Remember the Name" that features several fans free running. Fort Minor is a Hip hop music side project of Mike Shinoda, vocalist of the rock band Linkin Park.
- 3 Doors Down have a free runner prevent a car accident in the video "It's Not My Time. 3 Doors Down is an American rock band formed in 1994 in by Brad Arnold ( Vocals and drums) Matt Roberts ( Guitar "
- In 2006, two free runners, John Kerr and Daniel Ilabaca, appeared on the British automotive show Top Gear. Top Gear is a BAFTA, multi- NTA and International Emmy Award -winning BBC Television series about motor vehicles mainly It featured a race between the free runners and a Peugeot 207. The Peugeot 207 is a supermini produced by the French automaker Peugeot and unveiled in January 2006
- On Saturday 9 June 2007, the free runners appeared on Britain's Got Talent, and made it through to the next round with their free-running display. Events 53 - Roman Emperor Nero marries Claudia Octavia 62 - Claudia Octavia commits Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Britain's Got Talent is a British television show on ITV (also on TV3 in Ireland and part of the Got Talent series
- In 2007 an advert for The Friday Night Project featured two free runners from urban freeflow acting as stunt doubles for the hosts. Urban Freeflow (often abbreviated to UF or U$F) is a company that was started in 2003.
- In a 2007 Modern Marvels episode, "Sticky Stuff", free running is shown while the show features "Stealth Rubber". Modern Marvels is a documentary Television series on History that answers the question of how many things in the Modern world are
- In a Heroes episode, one of the heroes learns how to do a free-running stunt to break into a house. Heroes is an American Science fiction television drama series created by Tim Kring, which premiered on NBC on September
- A group of free runners performed at the 2007 Taurus World Stunt Awards. The Taurus World Stunt Awards is a yearly ceremony Award that honors Stunt performers in movies
- On January 16, 2008 free runner Chase Armitage played the stunt double for an actor on The Bill who used free running (or parkour) techniques to evade police officers. Events 27 BC - The title Augustus is bestowed upon Gaius Julius Caesar Octavian by the Roman Senate. 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common The Bill is a long-running British Television Police procedural, named after a slang term for the police. Parkour (sometimes abbreviated to PK) or l'art du déplacement (the art of movement is an activity with the aim of moving from one point to another as efficiently On January 19, he appeared on Harry Hill's TV Burp in which he performed as a stunt double for Harry Hill in a spoof of The Bill's chase scene. Events 1419 - Hundred Years' War: Rouen surrenders to Henry V of England completing his reconquest of Normandy. Harry Hill's TV Burp is a popular BAFTA award -winning British Television comedy programme produced by Avalon Television for ITV,
- Free running founder Sébastien Foucan helped K-Swiss develop the Ariake, the first free-running and parkour shoe in a line of five models. K-Swiss, Inc is an American Footwear company based in Westlake Village CA. He appears in a commercial for K-Swiss, free running.
- Free runner Levi Meuwenberg participated in the 2008 20th Ninja Warrior anniversary,making it to the third stage,where he was eliminated by the cliffhanger.
- In John Twelve Hawks' Book Two of the Fourth Realm trilogy, Dark River, free running and runners are featured as part of the story. John Twelve Hawks (also known as J12H or JXIIH to his fans is the author of the 2005 Dystopian novel The Traveler and the 2007 novel The Dark
- In the William Gibson novel Spook Country, one of the main characters, a young Cuban named Tito, practices free running. William Ford Gibson (born March 17 1948 is an American - Canadian writer who has been called the "noir prophet" of the Cyberpunk subgenre He also had elements of Systema and a reference to the Orisha that mixed with the free walking mindset. Systema ( Russian: Система "The System" is a Russian martial art. An Orisha (also spelled Orisa or Orixa) is a spirit or deity that reflects one of the manifestations of Olodumare (God in the Yoruba spiritual
There has been a clash between the parkour and free running communities over the use of different terms for the same vaults. The parkour community generally refers to the vaults by their French terms or the English translation while the free running community headed by the Urban Freeflow website have created new terms such as the "Kong", "Monkey", etc. Urban Freeflow (often abbreviated to UF or U$F) is a company that was started in 2003. For example, the vault where one jumps putting his legs between his arms is known in French as the "Saut de Cat", while the English translation is "Cat Jump". But the Urban Freeflow site has renamed this vault the "kong" vault.
Another contentious issue that may either begin to make a rift between the parkour and free running communities or may actually strengthen their bond is the idea of professional and amateur competition. From the start the parkour community has been always against the idea of serious competition as it violates the foundations of the philosophy of parkour. The free running community is not as strongly decided as a group as to its position on the matter although Sébastien Foucan's thoughts were revealed. He mentions in an interview with Urban Freeflow that he doesn't like competition and it's not "his way", but it may be someone else's "way".  The conflict between free running and parkour occurred when the founder of parkour, David Belle, and his colleague Sébastien Foucan, split up and went their separate ways. David Belle (born 29 April 1973 in Fécamp, France) is the founder of Parkour. David Belle mainly stuck to parkour as efficiency while Sébastien Foucan focused on the freedom of movement, self-development and aesthetic aspects of parkour thus making free running more popular. Although both activities may be defined differently, still there is a lot of discussion on what is free running and confusion in its definition. 
- ^ Urban Freeflow Team. Sebastian Foucan interview. Archived from the original on 2006-05-08. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Events 589 - Reccared summons the Third Council of Toledo 1450 - Jack Cade's Rebellion: Kentishmen Retrieved on 2007-06-19. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Events 1179 - The Norwegian Battle of Kalvskinnet outside Nidaros.
- ^ Sébastien Foucan (10/06/06). Sébastien Foucan (born May 24 1974 in Paris, France) is a French actor of Guadeloupean descent FREERUNNING. Retrieved on 2007-06-22. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Events 217 BC - Battle of Raphia: Ptolemy IV of Egypt defeats Antiochus III the Great of the Seleucid kingdom.
- ^ a b Sébastien Foucan (10/06/06). FREERUNNING. worldwidejam. tv. Retrieved on 2007-07-29. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Events 1014 - Byzantine-Bulgarian Wars: Battle of Kleidion: Byzantine emperor Basil II inflicts a decisive defeat
- ^ a b ez. Sébastien Foucan interview. urbanfreeflow. com. Retrieved on 2007-07-29. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Events 1014 - Byzantine-Bulgarian Wars: Battle of Kleidion: Byzantine emperor Basil II inflicts a decisive defeat
- ^ Curtis - Sébastien's stunt double. www. theurbanheroes. com (2006-11-29). Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Events 1777 - San Jose California, is founded as el Pueblo de San José de Guadalupe Retrieved on 2007-05-14. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Events 1264 - Battle of Lewes: Henry III of England is captured in France making Simon de Montfort the “Curtis was hired to be a stunt double in the recent James Bond film Casino Royale. He was on location in the Bahamas for 13 weeks working closely with Gary Powell, the stunt coordinator, to help plan and execute the opening chase scene. ”
- ^ Lemne, Bengt (Interviewer), O'Brien, Owen (Interviewee). (2008-02-29). 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Leap years Although the modern calendar counts a year as 365 days a complete revolution around the sun takes approximately 365 days and 6 hours GDC 08 Mirror's Edge Interview (WMV). Windows Media Video ( WMV) is a compressed Video file format for several proprietary Codecs developed by Microsoft. San Francisco, CA: Gamereactor. Retrieved on 2008-05-12. 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Events 1191 - Richard I of England marries Berengaria of Navarre. "We took a lot of inspiration from parkour and free running because we wanted to do quite acrobatic moves, not just running, so that's basically where the original idea came from. "
- ^ YouTube: Madonna's video for "Jump"
- ^ kaos (2007-07-31). Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Events 30 BC - Battle of Alexandria: Mark Antony achieves a minor victory over Octavian 's forces but most of his army subsequently The Public Misconception of Parkour. neparkour. com. Retrieved on 2007-09-11. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Events 9 - The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest ends 506 - The Bishops of Visigothic Gaul
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- The activity of combining parkour with gymnastics to pass obstacles and demonstrate athletic talent. Most often used in urban environments.
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