The Fraunhofer Society (German: Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft) is a German research organization with 56 institutes spread throughout Germany, each focusing on different fields of applied science (as opposed to the Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, which works primarily on basic science). The German language (de ''Deutsch'') is a West Germanic language and one of the world's major languages. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. The Max-Planck-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Wissenschaften e It employs over 12,500, mainly scientists and engineers, with an annual research budget of about €1. A scientist, in the broadest sense refers to any person that engages in a systematic activity to acquire Knowledge or an individual that engages in such practices An engineer is a person professionally engaged in a field of Engineering. 2 billion.  Some basic funding for the Fraunhofer Society is provided by the state (the German public, through federal government together with the German Länder, "owns" the Fraunhofer Society), but about two-thirds of the funding are earned through contract work, either for government sponsored projects or from industry.
It is named after Joseph von Fraunhofer who, as a scientist, an engineer, and an entrepreneur, is said to have superbly exemplified the goals of the society. Joseph von Fraunhofer ( March 6, 1787 &ndash June 7, 1826) was a German optician
The organisation has six centers in the United States, under the name 'Fraunhofer USA', and three in Asia. 
The official name of the Fraunhofer Society is Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der angewandten Forschung e. V. (German for "Fraunhofer Society for the advancement of applied research").
Some notable projects
The so-called Fraunhofer Model has been in existence since 1973 and has led to the Society's continuing growth. Under the model, the Fraunhofer Society earns ca. 60% of its income through contracts with industry or specific government projects. The other 40% of the budget is sourced in the proportion 9:1 from federal and state (Land) government grants and is used to support preparatory research.
Thus the size of the society's budget depends largely on its success in maximizing revenue from commissions. This funding model applies not just to the central society itself but also to the individual institutes. This serves both to drive the realisation of the Fraunhofer Society's strategic direction of becoming a leader in applied research as well as encouraging a flexible, autonomous and entrepreneurial approach to the society's research priorities.
The Fraunhofer Society currently operates 58 institutes. These are Fraunhofer Institutes for:
The Fraunhofer Society was founded in Munich on 26 March 1949 by representatives of industry and academia, the government of Bavaria, and the nascent Federal Republic. Computational science (or scientific computing) is the field of study concerned with constructing Mathematical models and numerical solution techniques and using computers Information technology ( IT) as defined by the Information Technology Association of America (ITAA is "the study design development implementation support Solid-state physics, the largest branch of Condensed matter physics, is the study of rigid Matter, or Solids The bulk of solid-state physics theory and Biomedical engineering ( BME) is the application of engineering principles and techniques to the medical field In Computer engineering, computer architecture is the conceptual design and fundamental operational structure of a Computer system Computer Graphics is a publication of ACM SIGGRAPH. It has published the yearly proceedings of the annual SIGGRAPH conferences as well as a variety of Digital media (as opposed to analog media) usually refers to Electronic media that work on digital Codes. e-Government (from electronic Government, also known as e-gov, digital government, online government or in a certain context Industrial engineering is also not good and shit Operations management, Systems engineering, production engineering manufacturing engineering or manufacturing systems Microchipsjpg|right|thumb|200px|Microchips ( EPROM memory with a transparent window showing the integrated circuit inside Biotechnology is Technology based on Biology, especially when used in Agriculture, Food science, and Medicine. A laser is a device that emits Light ( Electromagnetic radiation) through a process called Stimulated emission. The Society of Manufacturing Engineers (SME is dedicated to bringing people and information together to advance manufacturing knowledge Logistics is the management of the flow of Goods, Information and other resources including Energy and people between the point of origin and the point Molecular biology is the study of Biology at a molecular level Ecology (from Greek grc οἶκος oikos, "house(hold" and grc -λογία -logia) is the scientific study of Heinrich Rudolf Hertz ( February 22, 1857 – January 1, 1894) was a German physicist who clarified and expanded the electromagnetic theory Nondestructive testing ( NDT) also called nondestructive examination ( NDE) and nondestructive inspection ( NDI) is testing that does For the Artificial intelligence Androids of the 1990s Science fiction series Space Above and Beyond, see Silicate (AI Silicon (ˈsɪlɪkən or /ˈsɪlɪkɒn/ silicium is the Chemical element that has the symbol Si and Atomic number 14 Solar energy is the Light and radiant heat from the Sun that powers Earth 's Climate and Weather and sustains Life Surface engineering is the sub-discipline of Materials science which deals with the Surface of solid matter Thin films are thin material layers ranging from fractions of a Nanometre to several Micrometres in thickness Toxicology (from the Greek words toxicos and logos) is the study of the adverse effects of Chemicals on living organisms Munich (München; Minga is the capital city of Bavaria, Germany. Year 1949 ( MCMXLIX) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Bavaria ( German:, with an area of 70553 Km² (27241 square miles and almost 12 Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe.
In 1952, The Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs declared the Fraunhofer Society to be the third part of the non-university German research landscape (alongside the German research councils (DFG) and the Max Planck Institutes). Year 1952 ( MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Max-Planck-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Wissenschaften e Whether the Fraunhofer Society should support applied research through its own facilities was however the subject of a long-running dispute.
From 1954, the Society's first institutes developed. Year 1954 ( MCMLIV) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1954 Gregorian calendar) By 1956 it was developing research facilities in cooperation with the Ministry of Defense. In 1959 the Fraunhofer Society comprised nine institutes with 135 co-workers and a budget of 3. 6 million Deutsche marks.
In 1965, the Fraunhofer Society was identified as a sponsor organization for applied research. Year 1965 ( MCMLXV) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the 1965 Gregorian calendar.
In 1968, the Fraunhofer Society became the target of public criticism for its role in military research. Year 1968 ( MCMLXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
By 1969, Fraunhofer had more than 1,200 employees in 19 institutes. Year 1969 ( MCMLXIX) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The budget stood at 33 million Deutsche marks. At this time a "commission for the promotion of the development of the Fraunhofer Society" planned the further development of the Fraunhofer Society (FhG). The commission developed a financing model that would make the Society dependent on its commercial success. This would later come to be known as the Fraunhofer Model.
The Model was agreed to by the Federal Cabinet and the Bund-Länder-Commission in 1973. Year 1973 ( MCMLXXIII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar of the 1973 Gregorian calendar. In the same year the executive committee and central administration moved into joint accommodation at Leonrodstraße 54 in Munich. Munich (München; Minga is the capital city of Bavaria, Germany.
The Fraunhofer program for the promotion of the consulting research for SMEs was established and gained ever more significance in subsequent years .
In 1977, the political ownership of the society was shared by the Ministries of Defense and Research. Also 1977 (album by Ash. Year 1977 ( MCMLXXVII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays
By 1984. Year 1984 ( MCMLXXXIV) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1984 Gregorian calendar) the Fraunhofer Society had 3,500 coworkers in 33 institutes and a research budget of 360 million Deutsche marks.
By 1988, defense research represented only about 10% of the entire expenditure of the Fraunhofer Society. Year 1988 ( MCMLXXXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar)
By 1989, the Fraunhofer Society had nearly 6400 coworkers in 37 institutes with a total budget of 700 million Deutsche marks. Year 1989 ( MCMLXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar)
In 1991 through the reunification of Germany, the Fraunhofer Society faced the challenge of integrating numerous research establishments of the former East Germany as branch offices of institutes already existing into the Fraunhofer Society.
In 1993 the Fraunhofer Society's total budget exceeded 1 billion Deutsche marks.
Its mission statement of 2000 commits the Fraunhofer Society to being a market and customer-oriented, national and internationally active sponsor organization for institutes of the applied research.
Between 2000 and 2001 the institutes and IT research centers of the GMD (Gesellschaft für Mathematik und Datenverarbeitung -- Society for Mathematics and Information technology) were integrated into the Fraunhofer Society at the initiative of the Federal Ministry for Education and Research.
The year 2000 marked a noteworthy success at Fraunhofer-Institut for Integrated Circuits (IIS): MP3, which they developed, is the most widely adopted method for encoding and decoding digital audio. MPEG-1 Audio Layer 3, more commonly referred to as MP3, is a Digital audio encoding format using a form of Lossy data compression
In 2002, ownership of the Heinrich-Hertz-Institut for Communications technology Berlin GmbH (HHI) which belonged to the Gottfried William Leibniz Society e. V. (GWL) was transferred to the Fraunhofer Society. With this integration the Fraunhofer Society budget exceeded €1 billion for the first time.
In 2003 the Fraunhofer Society headquarters moves to its own multistoried building in Munich.
The Fraunhofer Society develops and formulates a firm specific mission statement. The fundamental targets are summarized, and the desired "values and guidelines" of the society's "culture" are codified. Amongst these, the society committed itself to improving the opportunities for female employees and coworkers to identify themselves with the enterprise and to develop their own creative potential.
In 2004 the former "Fraunhofer Working Group for Electronic Media Technology" at the Fraunhofer-Institut for Integrated Circuits (IIS) gains the status of an independent institute. It becomes Fraunhofer-Institut for Digital Media Technology IDMT.
New alliances and topic groups help to strengthen the market operational readiness level of the institutes for Fraunhofer in certain jurisdictions.
In 2005 the new institutes, the Leipzig Fraunhofer-Institut for Cell Therapy and Immunology (IZI) and the Fraunhofer Center for Nano-electronic technologies CNT in Dresden, were founded. Dresden (etymologically from Old Sorbian Drežďany, meaning people of the riverside forest, Drježdźany is the Capital city of the German
In 2006 the Fraunhofer Institute for Intelligent Analysis and Information Systems (IAIS) was founded as a merger between the Institute for Autonomous Intelligent Systems (AIS) and the Institute for Media Communication (IMK)