Franz Bopp (September 14, 1791–October 23, 1867) was a German linguist known for extensive comparative work on Indo-European languages. Events 81 - Domitian becomes Emperor of the Roman Empire upon the death of his brother Titus. Year 1791 ( MDCCXCI) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Events 4004 BC - Creation of the world begins according to the calculations of Archbishop James Ussher 42 BC - Year 1867 ( MDCCCLXVII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Linguistics is the scientific study of Language, encompassing a number of sub-fields
He was born at Mainz, but owing to the political disarray of the time, his parents moved to Aschaffenburg in Bavaria. Mainz (ˈmaɪ̯nʦ (Mayence is a City in Germany and the capital of the German federal state of Rhineland-Palatinate. Aschaffenburg (aˈʃafənbʊɐ̯k dialect) is a large town in northwest Bavaria, Germany. Bavaria ( German:, with an area of 70553 Km² (27241 square miles and almost 12 There, he received a liberal education at the Lyceum, and Karl J Windischmann drew his attention to the languages and literature of the East (Windischmann, along with GF Creuzer, JJ Görres, and the brothers Schlegel, expressed great enthusiasm for Indian wisdom and philosophy). Karl Joseph Hieronymus Windischmann (b Mainz, 25 August, 1775; d Georg Friedrich Creuzer ( 10 March, 1771 &ndash 6 February, 1858) was a German Philologist and Archaeologist Johann Joseph von Görres ( January 25 1776 – January 29 1848) was a German writer Moreover, Friedrich Schlegel's book, Über die Sprache und Weisheit der Indier (On the Speech and Wisdom of the Indians, Heidelberg, 1808), which had just begun to exert a powerful influence on the minds of German philosophers and historians, could not fail to stimulate also Bopp's interest in the sacred language of the Hindus. Karl Wilhelm Friedrich (later von) Schlegel ( March 10, 1772 - January 12, 1829) was a German Poet A Hindu ( Devanagari: हिन्दू is an adherent of the philosophies and scriptures of Hinduism, a set of religious, Philosophical
In 1812, he went to Paris at the expense of the Bavarian government, with a view to devoting himself vigorously to the study of Sanskrit. Year 1812 ( MDCCCXII) a leap year started on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city Sanskrit (sa संस्कृता वाक् saṃskṛtā vāk, for short sa संस्कृतम् saṃskṛtam) is a historical There he enjoyed the society of such eminent men as AL Chézy, S de Sacy, LM Langlès, and, above all, of Alexander Hamilton (1762–1824), who had acquired, when in India, an acquaintance with Sanskrit, and had brought out, along with Langlès, a descriptive catalogue of the Sanskrit manuscripts of the Imperial library. Antoine-Léonard de Chézy ( January 15, 1773 &ndash 1832 was a French Orientalist. Antoine Isaac Baron Silvestre de Sacy ( September 21, 1758 &ndash February 21, 1838) was a French linguist and orientalist Louis-Mathieu Langlès ( 1763 - 28 January 1824) was a French orientalist translator and linguist India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country In the library, Bopp had access not only to the rich collection of Sanskrit manuscripts (mostly brought from India by Father Pons in the early 18th century) but also to the Sanskrit books which had up to that time been issued from the Calcutta and Serampore presses. The 18th century lasted from 1701 to 1800 in the Gregorian calendar, in accordance with the Anno Domini / Common Era numbering system WikipediaWikiProject Indian cities for details --> Serampore (also called Serampur Srirampur is a city and a Municipality in Hooghly district
The first paper from his four years' study in Paris appeared in Frankfurt am Main in 1816, under the title of Über das Conjugationssystem der Sanskritsprache in Vergleichung mit jenem der griechischen, lateinischen, persischen und germanischen Sprachen (On the Conjugation System of Sanskrit in comparison with that of Greek, Latin, Persian and Germanic) (Windischmann contributed a preface). Year 1816 ( MDCCCXVI) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year In this first book Bopp entered at once the path on which he would focus the philological researches of his whole subsequent life. He did not need to prove the common parentage of Sanskrit with Persian, Greek, Latin and German, for previous scholars had long established that; but he aimed to trace the common origin of those languages' grammatical forms, of their inflections from composition – a task which no predecessor had attempted. Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. The German language (de ''Deutsch'') is a West Germanic language and one of the world's major languages. Grammar is the field of Linguistics that covers the Rules governing the use of any given natural language. In Grammar, inflection or inflexion is the way language handles grammatical relations and relational categories such as tense, mood, voice By a historical analysis of those forms, as applied to the verb, he furnished the first trustworthy materials for a history of the languages compared.
After a brief sojourn in Germany, Bopp travelled to London where he made the acquaintance of Sir Charles Wilkins and HT Colebrooke. Sir Charles Wilkins, KH (1749 &ndash 1836 was an English Typographer and Orientalist, notable as the first translator of Bhagavad Gita Henry Thomas Colebrooke ( June 15, 1765 - March 18, 1837) was an English Orientalist. He also became friends with Wilhelm von Humboldt, then Prussian ambassador at the Court of St. James's, to whom he taught in Sanskrit. Friedrich Wilhelm Christian Karl Ferdinand Freiherr von Humboldt ( June 22, 1767 April 8, 1835) government functionary Prussia ( Latin: Borussia, Prutenia; Prūsija Prūsija Prusy Old Prussian: Prūsa) was most recently a historic state The Court of St James's is the name of the Royal court of the United Kingdom. He brought out, in the Annals of Oriental Literature (London, 1820), an essay entitled, "Analytical Comparison of the Sanskrit, Greek, Latin and Teutonic Languages", in which he extended to all parts of the grammar what he had done in his first book for the verb alone. He had previously published a critical edition, with a Latin translation and notes, of the story of Nala and Damayanti (London, 1819), the most beautiful episode of the Mahabharata. Other episodes of the Mahabharata – Indralokâgama, and three others (Berlin, 1824); Diluvium, and three others (Berlin, 1829); a new edition of Nala (Berlin, 1832) – followed in due course, all of which, with AW Schlegel's edition of the Bhagavad Gita (1823), proved excellent aids in initiating the early student into the reading of Sanskrit texts. August Wilhelm (later von) Schlegel ( September 8, 1767 &ndash May 12, 1845) was a German Poet, On the publication, in Calcutta, of the whole Mahabharata, Bopp discontinued editing Sanskrit texts and confined himself thenceforth exclusively to grammatical investigations.
After a short residence at Göttingen, Bopp gained, on the recommendation of Humboldt, appointment to the chair of Sanskrit and comparative grammar at Berlin in 1821, and became a member of the Royal Prussian Academy the following year. The University of Göttingen ( German: Georg-August-Universität Göttingen) is a University in the city of Göttingen, Germany. Historical linguistics (also called diachronic linguistics) is the study of language change For other universities in Berlin see List of Universities in Berlin. He brought out in 1827 his Ausführliches Lehrgebäude der Sanskritsprache, on which he had worked since 1821. Bopp started work on a new edition in Latin, for the following year, completed in 1832; a shorter grammar appeared in 1834. At the same time he compiled a Sanskrit and Latin glossary (1830) in which, more especially in the second and third editions (1847 and 1867), he also took account of the cognate languages. His chief activity, however, centred on the elaboration of his Comparative Grammar, which appeared in six parts at considerable intervals (Berlin, 1833, 1835, 1842, 1847, 1849, 1852), under the title Vergleichende Grammatik des Sanskrit, Zend, Griechischen, Lateinischen, Litauischen, Gotischen und Deutschen (Comparative Grammar of Sanskrit, Zend, Greek, Latin, Lithuanian, Gothic and German).
How carefully Bopp matured this work emerges from the series of monographs printed in the Transactions of the Berlin Academy (1824–1831), which preceded it. They bear the general title, Vergleichende Zergliederung des Sanskrits und der mit ihm verwandten Sprachen (Comparative Analysis of Sanskrit and its related Languages). Two other essays (on the "Numerals", 1835) followed the publication of the first part of the Comparative Grammar. Old Slavonian began to take its stand among the languages compared from the second part onwards. EB Eastwick translated the work into English in 1845. Edward Backhouse Eastwick (1814 &ndash July 16, 1883) British orientalist diplomat and Member of Parliament. A second German edition, thoroughly revised (1856–1861), also covered Old Armenian. The Armenian language (hy հայերեն լեզու hajɛɹɛn lɛzu —, conventional short form) is an Indo-European language spoken by the Armenian
In his Comparative Grammar Bopp set himself a threefold task:
The first and second points remained dependent upon the third. As Bopp based his research on the best available sources and incorporated every new item of information that came to light, his work continued to widen and deepen in the making. Witness his monographs on the vowel system in the Teutonic languages (1836), on the Celtic languages (1839), on the Old Prussian (1853) and Albanian languages (Über das Albanesische in seinen Verwandtschaftliche Beziehungen, Wien, 1854), on the accent in Sanskrit and Greek (1854), on the relationship of the Malayo-Polynesian with the Indo-European languages (1840), and on the Caucasian languages (1846). The Germanic languages are a group of related languages that constitute a branch of the Indo-European (IE Language family. The Celtic languages are descended from Proto-Celtic, or "Common Celtic" a branch of the greater Indo-European Language family. Prussian is an extinct Baltic language once spoken by the inhabitants of the area that later became East Prussia (now north-eastern Poland Albanian (sq ''Gjuha shqipe'' ˈɟuha ˈʃcipɛ is an Indo-European language spoken by nearly 6 million peoplewhile others claim that it derives from Daco - In Linguistics, stress is the relative emphasis that may be given to certain Syllables in a word The Malayo-Polynesian languages are a subgroup of the Austronesian languages, with approximately 351 million speakers The languages of the Caucasus are a large and extremely varied array of languages spoken by more than ten million people in and around the Caucasus Mountains which lie between In the two latter, the impetus of his genius led him on a wrong track.
Critics have charged Bopp with neglecting the study of the native Sanskrit grammars, but in those early days of Sanskrit studies the great libraries of Europe did not hold the requisite materials; if they had, those materials would have demanded his full attention for years, while such grammars as those of Wilkins and Henry Thomas Colebrooke, from which Bopp derived his grammatical knowledge, had all used native grammars as a basis. Henry Thomas Colebrooke ( June 15, 1765 - March 18, 1837) was an English Orientalist. The further charge that Bopp, in his Comparative Grammar, gave undue prominence to Sanskrit stands disproved by his own words; for, as early as the year 1820, he gave it as his opinion that frequently the cognate languages serve to elucidate grammatical forms lost in Sanskrit (Annals of Or. Lit. i. 3), – an opinion which he further developed in all his subsequent writings.