The Frankfurt Parliament (German: Frankfurter Nationalversammlung, literally Frankfurt National Assembly) was the first freely elected parliament for all of Germany. The Paulskirche is a church in Frankfurt am Main with important political symbolism in Germany. The German language (de ''Deutsch'') is a West Germanic language and one of the world's major languages. TalkParliament#Screen-size. -->A  parliament is a Legislature, especially in those Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. It was in session from 18 May 1848 until 31 May 1849 in the Paulskirche at Frankfurt am Main. Events 1152 - Henry II of England marries Eleanor of Aquitaine. Year 1848 ( MDCCCXLVIII) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap Events 1279 BC - Rameses II (The Great (19th dynasty becomes pharaoh of Ancient Egypt. Year 1849 ( MDCCCXLIX) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common The Paulskirche is a church in Frankfurt am Main with important political symbolism in Germany. Its existence was both part and result of the "March Revolution" in the states of the German Confederacy. " Germany " at the time of the Revolutions of 1848 had been a collection of 39 States loosely bound together in the German Confederation. The German Confederation (Deutscher Bund was the association of Central European states created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to serve as the successor to
Through long and controversial debates, the assembly produced the so-called Paulskirche Constitution (Paulskirchenverfassung, actually Verfassung des Deutschen Reiches) which proclaimed a German Empire based on the principles of parliamentary democracy. The so-called Paulskirchenverfassung ( Constitution of St Paul's Church Frankfurt) of 1849 was the first constitution of a German Empire ( German The so-called Paulskirchenverfassung ( Constitution of St Paul's Church Frankfurt) of 1849 was the first constitution of a German Empire ( German A parliamentary system, also known as parliamentarianism (and parliamentarism in American English) is a System of government in which This constitution fulfilled the main demands of the liberal and nationalist movements of the Vormärz, both of which stood in opposition to Metternich's system of Restoration. A constitution is a system for government often Codified as a written document that establishes the rules and principles of an autonomous political entity Liberalism is a broad array of related ideas and theories of Government that consider individual Liberty to be the most important political goal For the online game see Jennifer Government NationStates. The nation-state is a certain form of State that derives its legitimacy Social movements are a type of group action. They are large informal groupings of Individuals and/or Organizations focused on specific Vormärz, or the pre-March era is the time period leading up to the failed March 1848 revolution in the German Confederation. In Politics, the opposition comprises one or more political parties or other organized groups that are opposed to the Government, party or group The Carlsbad Decrees were a set of social restrictions introduced in the German Confederation by Prince Klemens Wenzel von Metternich on 20 September Marked by revolt revolution, and the rise of the Middle class, the period of European restoration (1814-1848 refers to the Monarchical struggle for legitimacy against It would have provided for a catalogue of basic rights and a constitutional monarchy headed by a hereditary emperor (Kaiser). Human rights refers to the "basic Rights and freedoms to which all humans are entitled A constitutional monarchy, or a limited monarchy, is a form of Constitutional Government, wherein either an elected or hereditary Monarch is A hereditary monarchy is the most common style of Monarchy and is the form that is used by almost all of the world's existing monarchies
The Frankfurt Parliament and the constitution it approved failed due to the Prussian king Friedrich Wilhelm IV's refusal to accept the office of emperor when it was offered to him. Prussia ( Latin: Borussia, Prutenia; Prūsija Prūsija Prusy Old Prussian: Prūsa) was most recently a historic state Life Frederick William was educated by private tutors many of whom were experienced civil servants such as Friedrich Ancillon. In the 20th century, however, major elements of the Frankfurt constitution became models for the Weimar Constitution of 1919 and the Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany of 1949. For a detailed discussion of the English translation of Reich, see Reich. The Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany (Grundgesetz für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland is the Constitution of Germany.
In 1806, the Emperor, Francis II had relinquished the crown of the Holy Roman Empire and dissolved the Empire. The Holy Roman Emperor (Römischer Kaiser or Römisch-Deutscher Kaiser Romanorum Imperator was the elected monarch ruling over the many varying numbers of states Francis II (Franz II Heiliger Römischer Kaiser ( 12 February 1768 &ndash 2 March 1835) was the last Holy Roman Emperor, ruling The Imperial Crown (Reichskrone is the crown of the King of the Romans, the rulers of the German Kingdom since the High Middle Ages. The Holy Roman Empire ( HRE; German Heiliges Römisches Reich (HRR, Latin Sacrum Romanum Imperium (SRI was a union of territories in This was the result of the Napoleonic Wars and of direct military pressure from Napoléon Bonaparte. The Napoleonic Wars (1803-1815 involved Napoleon's French Empire and a shifting set of European allies and opposing coalitions Napoleon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821 was a French military and political leader who had a significant impact on the History of Europe.
After the victory of Prussia, the United Kingdom, Russia and other states over Napoléon in 1816, the Vienna Congress created the German Confederation (Deutscher Bund). Prussia ( Latin: Borussia, Prutenia; Prūsija Prūsija Prusy Old Prussian: Prūsa) was most recently a historic state The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The Russian Empire ( Pre-reform Russian: Pоссійская Имперія Modern Russian: Российская Империя translit: Rossiyskaya The Congress of Vienna was a conference of ambassadors of the major powers of Europe, chaired by the Austrian statesman Clemens Wenzel von Metternich The German Confederation (Deutscher Bund was the association of Central European states created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to serve as the successor to This was a system of independent states, only loosely connected, and dominated by its two most powerful members, Austria and Prussia. For the history of these states before 1804 see Holy Roman Empire, Habsburg Monarchy, and articles on each of the component countries. Prussia ( Latin: Borussia, Prutenia; Prūsija Prūsija Prusy Old Prussian: Prūsa) was most recently a historic state After the so-called "Wars of Liberation" (Befreiungskriege, the German term for the German part of the War of the Sixth Coalition), many contemporaries had expected a nation-state solution and thus considered the subdivision of Germany as unsatisfactory. In the War of the Sixth Coalition (1812–1814 a coalition of Austria, Prussia, Russia, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and a number
Apart from this nationalist component, political discourse was also dominated by the call for the granting of civic rights. 'City rights' redirects here See also Municipal charter. Town privileges were important features of European Towns during Influenced by the French Revolution, the Napoleonic Code Civil had led to the introduction of civic rights in some German states in the early 19th century. The French Revolution (1789–1799 was a period of political and social upheaval in the History of France, during which the French governmental structure previously an The Napoleonic Code, or Code Napoléon (originally called the Code civil des Français) is the French Civil code, established under Furthermore, some German states had adopted constitutions after the foundation of the German Confederacy. Between 1819 and 1830, the Carlsbad Decrees and other instances of Restoration politics had cut back on such developments. The Carlsbad Decrees were a set of social restrictions introduced in the German Confederation by Prince Klemens Wenzel von Metternich on 20 September Marked by revolt revolution, and the rise of the Middle class, the period of European restoration (1814-1848 refers to the Monarchical struggle for legitimacy against The unrest that resulted from the 1830 French July Revolution led to a temporary reversal of that trend. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. The French Revolution of 1830, also known as the July Revolution, saw the overthrow of King Charles X, the French But after the demonstration for civic rights and national unity at the 1832 Hambach Festival, and the abortive attempt at an armed rising in the 1833 Frankfurter Wachensturm, the pressure on representatives of constitutional or democratic ideas was raised through measures such as censorship and bans on public assemblies. The Hambacher Fest was a German national democratic festival celebrated from May 27 to May 30 1832 at Hambach Castle near Neustadt an der The Frankfurter Wachensturm (German charge of the Frankfurt guard house on April 3rd 1833 was a failed attempt to start a revolution in Germany Censorship is the suppression of speech or deletion of communicative material which may be considered objectionable harmful or sensitive as determined by a censor
In the mid-1840s there was a renewed increase of the frequency of internal crises. This was partially the result of large-scale political developments, such as the escalation of the Schleswig-Holstein Question and the erection of Bundesfestungen (large scale fortifications controlled by the German Confederation) at Rastatt and Ulm. The Schleswig-Holstein Question was the name given to the whole complex of diplomatic and other issues arising in the 19th century out of the relations of the two duchies Schleswig Rastatt is a city in the District of Rastatt, Baden-Württemberg, Germany. Ulm (ˈʊlm is a City in the German Bundesland of Baden-Württemberg, situated on the River Danube. Additionally, a series of bad harvests in part of Germany led to famine-related unrest. In Agriculture, the harvest is the process of Gathering mature crops from the fields Reaping is the cutting of Grain The changes caused by the beginnings of industrialisation exacerbated social and economic tensions considerably. The Industrial Revolution was a period in the late 18th and early 19th centuries when major changes in agriculture manufacturing and transportation had a profound effect on the
Meanwhile, in reform-oriented states, such as Baden, a lively scene of Vereine (clubs or voluntary associations) had developed, providing an organisational framework for democratic opposition. Baden is a historical state in the southwest of Germany, on the right bank of the Rhine. A club is an association of people united by a common interest or goal A voluntary association or union (also sometimes called a voluntary organization, unincorporated association, or just an association) is a group Especially in south west Germany, the press could not be suppressed effectively any longer. At rallies by radical democrats, especially the Offenburg Popular Assembly of September 1847, there were calls to overthrow the status quo. Radical democracy as an Ideology was articulated by Ernesto Laclau and Chantal Mouffe in their book Hegemony and Socialist Strategy Towards a Radical At the same time, the bourgeois (here used to describe the Middle Class) opposition had increased its networking activities and began coordinating its activities in the individual chamber parliaments more and more confidently. The middle class, in colloquial usage consists of those who have some economic independence but not a great deal of social Influence or power. In Government, bicameralism (bi + Latin la ''camera'' chamber is the practice of having two legislative or Parliamentary chambers Thus a bicameral Thus, at the Heppenheim Conference on 10 October 1847, eighteen liberal members from a variety of German states met to discuss common motions for a German nation-state. Events 680 - Battle of Karbala: Shia Imam Husayn bin Ali, the grandson of the Prophet Muhammad, is decapitated Year 1847 ( MDCCCXLVII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common
Around the turn of 1847 and 1848, this internal tension was aggravated by international developments. The first climax was the February Revolution in France, which deposed the Citizen King Louis-Philippe and resulted in the declaration of the Second Republic. The February Revolution (Февральская революция in 1917 in Russia was the first stage of the Russian Revolution of 1917. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Louis Philippe ( 6 October 1773 &ndash 26 August 1850) was King of the French from 1830 to 1848 in what was known as the History Revolution of 1848 See also Mid-nineteenth century France The industrial population of the Faubourgs In many European states, the resistance against Restoration policies increased and led to revolutionary unrest. In several parts of the Austrian Empire, namely in Hungary, Bohemia and Northern Italy, there were bloody revolts, calls for local or regional autonomies and even for national independence. Hungary (Magyarország 'mɔɟɔrorsaːg) officially in English the Republic of Hungary ( Magyar Köztársaság, literally Magyar (Hungarian Republic Bohemia (Čechy; Bohemia Czechy is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western two-thirds of the traditional Czech Lands, currently the Related categories Central Italy Southern Italy Insular Italy Northeast Italy Independence is the Self-government of a Nation, Country, or State by its residents and population or some portion thereof generally exercising
The final impulse for the election of a pan-German assembly (or parliament) was triggered by Friedrich Daniel Bassermann, a liberal deputy in the second chamber of the parliament of Baden. Baden is a historical state in the southwest of Germany, on the right bank of the Rhine. On 12 February 1848, referring to his own motion (Motion Bassermann) in 1844 and a comparable one by Carl Theodor Welcker in 1831, he called for a representation, elected by the people, at the Bundestag in Frankfurt am Main. Events 1429 - English Forces under Sir John Fastolf defend a supply convoy carrying rations to the army besieging Orleans from attack by the Year 1848 ( MDCCCXLVIII) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap The Federal Assembly (Bundesversammlung was the only central institution of the German Confederation from 1815 until 1848 and from 1850 until 1866 The Bundestag (or Bundesversammlung), made up of representatives of the individual princes, was the only institution representing all of Germany. Two weeks later, news of the successful coup in France fanned the flames of the revolutionary mood. The revolution on German soil began in Baden, with the occupation of the Ständehaus at Karlsruhe. Karlsruhe (ˈkaɐ̯lsʁuːə population 285812 in 2006 is a city in the south west of Germany, in the Bundesland Baden-Württemberg, located near This was followed in April by the Heckerzug (named after its leader, Friedrich Hecker), the first of three revolutionary risings in the Grand Duchy. Friedrich Franz Karl Hecker ( September 28, 1811 &ndash March 24, 1881) was a German lawyer politician and revolutionary Within a few days and weeks, the revolts spread to the other German principalities. A principality (or princedom) is a monarchical feudatory or Sovereign state, ruled or reigned over by a monarch with the title of Prince
The central demands of the German opposition(s) were the granting of basic and civic rights, the appointment of liberal governments in the individual states and most importantly the creation of a German nation-state, with a pan-German constitution and a popular assembly. " Germany " at the time of the Revolutions of 1848 had been a collection of 39 States loosely bound together in the German Confederation. On 5 March 1848, opposition politicians and state deputies met at the Heidelberg Assembly to discuss these issues. Events 363 - Roman Emperor Julian moves from Antioch with an army of 90000 to attack the Sassanid Empire, in a Year 1848 ( MDCCCXLVIII) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap They resolved the formation of a Vorparlament (a pre-parliament), which was to prepare the elections for a national constitutional assembly. They also elected a "Committee of Seven" (Siebenerausschuss), which proceeded to invite 500 individuals to Frankfurt.
This development was accompanied and supported since early March by protest rallies and risings in many German states, including Baden, the Kingdom of Bavaria, the Kingdom of Saxony, the Kingdom of Württemberg, Austria and Prussia. The Kingdom of Bavaria (Königreich Bayern was a German state that existed from 1806&ndash1918 The Kingdom of Saxony (Königreich Sachsen lasting between 1806 and 1918 was an independent member of a number of historical confederacies in Napoleonic through post-Napoleonic The Kingdom of Württemberg (Königreich Württemberg was a state that existed from 1806 to 1918 and is currently located in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. Under such pressure, the individual princes recalled the existing conservative governments and replaced them with more liberal committees, the so-called "March Governments" (Märzregierungen). On 10 March 1848, the Bundestag of the German Confederation appointed a "Committee of Seventeen" (Siebzehnerausschuss) to prepare a draft constitution; on 20 March, the Bundestag urged the states of the confederation to call elections for a constitutional assembly. Events 241 BC - First Punic War: Battle of the Aegates Islands - The Romans sink the Carthaginian fleet bringing Year 1848 ( MDCCCXLVIII) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap Events 1600 - The Linköping Bloodbath takes place on Maundy Thursday in Linköping, Sweden. After bloody streetfights (Barrikadenaufstand) in Prussia, a Prussian National Assembly was also convened, with the task of preparing a constitution for that kingdom.
The Vorparlament was in session at the Paulskirche (St. The Paulskirche is a church in Frankfurt am Main with important political symbolism in Germany. Paul's Church) in Frankfurt from 31 March to 3 April, chaired by Carl Joseph Anton Mittermaier. Events 307 - After divorcing his wife Minervina, Constantine marries Fausta, the daughter of the retired Roman Emperor Events 1043 - Edward the Confessor is crowned King of England. It decided, with the support if the moderate liberals and against the opposition of the radical democrats, to cooperate with the Bundestag, now willing to support reforms, so as to form a national constitutional assembly to compile a new constitution. The Federal Assembly (Bundesversammlung was the only central institution of the German Confederation from 1815 until 1848 and from 1850 until 1866 For the transitional period until the actual formation of that assembly, the Vorparlament formed the Committee if Fifty (Fünfzigerausschuss), as a representation to face the German Confederation.
The electoral law for the new national assembly was up to the individual states of the confederation, who chose different solutions. While Württemberg, Holstein, the Electorate of Hesse-Kassel and the four remaining free cities (Hamburg, Lübeck, Bremen and Frankfurt) had direct elections, most states chose an indirect procedure, usually involving a first round, voting to constitute an Electoral college which chose the actual deputies in a second round. Holstein (ˈhɔlʃtain ( Low German: Holsteen, Danish: Holsten, Latin and historical English: Holsatia) In the Holy Roman Empire, a free imperial city (in German: freie Reichsstadt) was a City formally ruled by the Emperor only &mdash Hamburg (English, German: ˈhambʊɐk local pronunciation Low German / Low Saxon: Hamborg) is the second-largest city in Germany Lübeck ( is the second largest City in Schleswig-Holstein, in Northern Germany, and one of the major Bremen (ˈbʁeːmən is a Hanseatic city in northwestern Germany (official name Stadtgemeinde Bremen / City Municipality of Bremen An electoral college is a set of many electors who are empowered to elect a candidate to a particular Office. There also were different arrangements regarding the right to vote, as the Frankfurt guidelines only referred to be limited to adult general and equal vote by independent (selbständig) adult males. The definition of independence was handled differently from state to state and was frequently the subject of vociferous protests. Usually, it was interpreted so as to exclude the recipients of any poverty-related support, but in some areas it also barred any person who did not have a household of their own, including apprentices living at their masters' homes. It is estimated that about 85 % of the male population could vote. In Prussia, the definition used would have pushed this up to 90%, whereas the laws were much more restrictive in Saxony, Baden or Hanover. The Kingdom of Hanover (Königreich Hannover was established in October of 1814 by the Congress of Vienna, with the restoration of George III to his Hanoverian Originally, 649 electoral districts had been agreed upon, but eventually only circa 585 members were elected. The discrepancy was caused by boycotts in several Austrian constituencies with non-German populations, and by the situation in Tiengen (Baden), where the leader of the Heckerzug rebellion, Freidrich Hecker, who was in exile in Switzerland, was elected in two rounds. A boycott is a form of Consumer activism involving the act of voluntarily abstaining from using buying or dealing with someone or some other organization as an expression of Waldshut-Tiengen is a city in southwestern Baden-Württemberg right at the Swiss border Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation
The social make-up of the total of 809 or 812 (replacements included) members of the Frankfurt National Assembly (see list on German wikipedia) was very homogeneous throughout the session. The parliament mostly represented the educated bourgeoisie (Middle Class). 95 % of deputies had the abitur, more than three quarters had been to university, half of which had studied jurisprudence. Abitur (from Latin abire = go away go off is a designation used in Germany and Finland for final exams that young adults take at the end of Jurisprudence is the Theory and Philosophy of Law. Scholars of jurisprudence or legal philosophers hope to obtain a deeper understanding of the nature  A considerable number of deputies were members of a Corps or a Burschenschaft. Corps (" das ~ " ( n) koːr ( sg) ( pl) are the oldest still-existing kind of Studentenverbindung German Burschenschaften (abbreviated B!, plural B!B!) are a special type of Studentenverbindungen In terms of profession, upper-level civil servants formed the majority: this group included a total of 436 deputies, including 49 university lecturers or professors, 110 judges or prosecutors, and 115 high administrative clerks and district administrators (Landräte).  Due to their oppositional views, many of them had already been in conflict with their princes for several years, including professors such as Jacob Grimm, Friedrich Christoph Dahlmann, Georg Gottfried Gervinus and Wilhelm Eduard Albrecht (all counted among the Göttingen Seven, and politicians such as Welcker and Itzstein who had been champions of constitutional rights for two decades. Jacob Ludwig Carl Grimm ( Hanau, January 4, 1785 &ndash September 20, 1863 in Berlin) German Philologist Friedrich Christoph Dahlmann ( May 13, 1785 - December 5, 1860) was a German Historian and Politician. Georg Gottfried Gervinus ( May 20, 1805 &ndash March 18, 1871) was a German literary and political Historian. Wilhelm Eduard Albrecht ( March 4, 1800 &ndash May 22, 1876) was a German Constitutional lawyer jurist and Docent The Göttingen Seven (German Göttinger Sieben; also known in English as the Göttinger filters) were a group of seven professors from Göttingen. Among the professors, besides lawyers, experts in German Studies and historians were especially common, due to the fact that under the sway of restoration politics, academic meetings in such disciplines, eg. German studies is the field of Humanities that researches documents and disseminates German language and literature in both its historic and present forms the Germanisten-Tage of 1846 and 1847, were often the only occasions were national themes could be dsicussed freely. Apart fron those mentioned above, the academic Ernst Moritz Arndt, Johann Gustav Droysen, Carl Jaup, Friedrich Theodor Vischer and Georg Waitz are especially notable. Ernst Moritz Arndt ( December 26, 1769 - January 29, 1860) was a German patriotic author and Poet. Johann Gustav Droysen ( July 6, 1808 – June 19, 1884) was a German Historian. Friedrich Theodor Vischer ( 30 June 1807 - 14 September 1887) was a German writer on the Philosophy of art. Georg Waitz ( October 9, 1813 - May 24, 1886) was a German Historian and politician
Because of this composition, the National Assembly was later often dismissively dubbed the Professorenparlament ("Professors' parliament") and ridiculed with verses such as „Dreimal 100 Advokaten – Vaterland, du bist verraten; dreimal 100 Professoren – Vaterland, du bist verloren!“ ("Three times 100 advocates - Fatherland, you are betrayed; three times 100 professors - Fatherland, you are doomed".
149 deputies were self-employed bourgeois professionals, such as lawyers, doctors, journalists or clergymen, including well-known politicians such as Alexander von Soiron, Johann Jacoby, Karl Mathy, Johann Gustav Heckscher, Wilhelm Emmanuel von Ketteler and Wilhelm Murschel. The middle class, in colloquial usage consists of those who have some economic independence but not a great deal of social Influence or power. Johann Jacoby ( May 1 1805, Königsberg - March 6 1877, Königsberg) was a Left-wing Prussian Jewish Karl Mathy ( March 17, 1807 - February 3, 1868) was a Badensian statesman Wilhelm Emmanuel Freiherr von Ketteler ( 25 December 1811 &ndash 13 July 1877) was a German Theologian and Politician
The economically active Middle Class was represented by only about 60 deputies, including many publishers, including Bassermann and Georg Friedrich Kolb, but also businessmen, industrialists and bankers, such as Hermann Henrich Meier, Ernst Merck, Hermann von Beckerath, Gustav Mevissen and Carl Mez.
Tradesmen and representatives of agriculture were very poorly represented - the latter were mostly represented by big landowners from east of the Elbe, accompanied by only three farmers. The Elbe ( die Elbe Low German: de Ilv) is one of the major Rivers of Central Europe. Craftsmen like Robert Blum or Wilhelm Wolff were associated almost exclusively with the radical democratic Left, as they knew the social problems of the underprivileged classes from personal observations. Robert Blum ( 10 November 1807 - 9 November 1848) was a German politician and member of the National Assembly of 1848 Wilhelm Friedrich Wolff ( June 21 1809 – May 9 1864) was a German Schoolmaster from Tarnau (Tarnów, A few of them, e. g. . Wolff, already saw themselves as explicit socialists. Socialism refers to a broad set of economic theories of social organization advocating state or collective ownership and administration of the Means of production and distribution
A further striking aspect is the large number of well-known writers among the deputies, including Anastasius Grün, Johann Ludwig Uhland, Heinrich Laube and Victor Scheffel. Johann Ludwig Uhland ( April 26, 1787 &ndash November 13, 1862) was a German Poet. Heinrich Laube ( September 18, 1806 - August 1, 1884) German Dramatist, Novelist and theatre-director was born Joseph Victor von Scheffel
On 18 May 1884, circa 330 deputies assembled in the Kaisersaal and walked solemnly to the Paulskirche to hold the first session of the German national assembly, under its chairman (by seniority) Friedrich Lang. Events 1152 - Henry II of England marries Eleanor of Aquitaine. Year 1884 ( MDCCCLXXXIV) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year Römer is also a surname. Römer is also a company dedicated to child road products Major Friedrich Lang ( 12 January, 1915 &ndash 29 December, 2003) was a German World War II Luftwaffe Heinrich von Gagern, one of the best-known liberals throughout Germany, was elected president of the parliament. Heinrich Wilhelm August Freiherr von Gagern ( August 20, 1799 - May 22, 1880) was a statesman who argued for the unification of Germany
In his opening speech on 19 May 1848, Gagern defined the main tasks of the national assembly as the creation of a "constitution for Germany" and the achievement of German unification. Events 1535 - French explorer Jacques Cartier sets sail on his second voyage to North America with three ships 110 men and Year 1848 ( MDCCCXLVIII) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap This was followed by a total of 230 sessions, supported by 26 committees and five commissions, in the course which the deputies developed the imperial constitution.
While the opening session had generally been quite chaotic, the deputies seated haphazardly, independent of their political affiliations, ordered parliamentary procedures developed quickly. Soon, deputies started assembling in Klubs (clubs), which served as discussion groups for kindred spirits and led to the development of Fraktionen (Parliamentary groups), a necessary prerequisite for the development of political majorities. Parliamentary group and parliamentary party are terms used to refer to the representation of a Political party or Electoral fusion of parties in a These Fraktionen were perceived as clubs and thus usually named after the location of their meetings; generally, they were quite unstable. According to their stances, especially on the constitution, on the powers of parliament and of central government as opposed to individual states, they are broadly divided in three basic camps:
The largest groupings in numerical terms were the Casino, the Württemberger Hof and since 1849 the combined left, appearing as the Centralmärzverein ("Cental March Club").
In his memoirs, the deputy Robert Mohl wrote about the formation and functioning of the Clubs:
Since the national assembly had not been initiated by the German Confederation, it was lacking not only major constitutional bodies, such as a head of state and a government, but also legal legitimation. A modification of the Bundesakte, the constitution of the German Confederation could have brought about such legitimation, but was practically impossible to achieve, as it would have required the unanimous support of all 38 signatory states. Partially for this reason, influential European powers, including France and Russia, declined to recognize the Parliament.
While the left demanded to solve this situation by creating a revolutionary parliamentary government, on 24 June 1848, the Paulskirche parliament voted, with a 450 votes against 100, for a so-called Provisional Central Power (Provisorische Zentralgewalt). Events 972 - Battle of Cedynia, the first documented victory of Polish forces takes place Year 1848 ( MDCCCXLVIII) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap This newly-created provisional government was headed by Archduke Johann of Austria as regent (Reichsverweser), i. Archduke Johann (or John of Austria ( January 20, 1782 - May 11, 1859) was the 13th child of Leopold, Grand Duke Leopold of Tuscany A regent, from the Latin regens "who reigns" is a person selected to act as Head of state (ruling or not because the ruler is a minor e. as a temporary head of state. Head of state is the generic term for the individual or collective office that serves as the chief public representative of a Monarchic or Republican Nation-state The practical task of government was performed by a cabinet, consisting of a college of ministers under the leadership of a prime minister (Ministerpräsident). At the same time, the Provisional Central Power built a government apparatus, made up of specialised ministries and special envoys, employing, for financial reasons, mainly deputies of the assembly. After the Bundesversammlung of the German Confederation had declared the end of its work and delegated its responsibilities to the provisional government on 12 July 1848, Archduke Johann appointed his first government, under Ministerpräsident Prince Karl zu Leiningen, on 15 July. Events 1191 - Saladin 's garrison surrenders ending the two-year Siege of Acre. Year 1848 ( MDCCCXLVIII) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap Events 1099 - First Crusade: Christian soldiers take the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem after the final
Influenced by the general nationalist atmosphere, the political situation in Schleswig and Holstein became especially explosive. The First Schleswig War (Schleswig-Holsteinischer Krieg or Three Years' War (Treårskrigen was the first round of military conflict in southern Denmark and northern The Schleswig-Holstein Question was the name given to the whole complex of diplomatic and other issues arising in the 19th century out of the relations of the two duchies Schleswig Holstein (ˈhɔlʃtain ( Low German: Holsteen, Danish: Holsten, Latin and historical English: Holsatia) According to the 1460 Treaty of Ribe, the two duchies were to remain eternally undivided and stood in personal union with Denmark. The Treaty of Ribe (Ribe-brevet Vertrag von Ripen was a proclamation at Ribe made by King Christian I of Denmark to a number of German nobles A personal union is the combination by which two different States are governed by the same Monarch, while their boundaries their laws and their interests remain distinct The Kingdom of Denmark ( ˈd̥ænmɑɡ̊ (archaic ˈd̥anmɑːɡ̊ commonly known as Denmark, is a country in the Scandinavian region of northern Europe Nonetheless, only Holstein was part of the German Confederation, whereas Schleswig, with a mixed population of German-speakers and Danish speakers, formed a Danish fiefdom. Under the system of Feudalism, a fiefdom, fief, feud, feoff, or fee, often consisted of inheritable lands or revenue-producing German national liberals and the left demanded that Schleswig be admitted to the German Confederation and be represented at the national assembly, while Danish national liberals wanted to incorporate Schleswig into a new Danish national state.
The Danish Navy started a blockade of German harbours, which the parliament tried to counter by founding a German Reichsflotte Navy on 14 June 1848. The Reichsflotte (Imperial Fleet was the first all- German Navy. Then, under orders from the German Confederation, Prussian troops occupied Schleswig-Holstein. The Prussian Army (Preußische Armee was the Army of the Kingdom of Prussia. On 26 August Prussia and Denmark, under pressure from Britain, Russia and France, signed a ceasefire in Malmö (Sweden). Events 1071 - Battle of Manzikert: The Seljuk Turks defeat the Byzantine Army at Manzikert. A ceasefire (or truce) is a temporary stoppage of a War or any Armed conflict, where each side of the conflict agrees "Sverige" redirects here For other uses see Sweden (disambiguation and Sverige (disambiguation. Its terms included the withdrawal of all soldiers from Schleswig-Holstein and a shared administration of the land.
On 5 September 1848, at Dahlmann's instigation, the Frankfurt Assembly initially rejected the Malmö Treaty, which had been signed without consulting the assembly. Events 1590 - Alexander Farnese 's army forces Henry IV of France to raise the siege of Paris. Year 1848 ( MDCCCXLVIII) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap It was defeated with 238 against 221 votes. After that, Leiningen resigned as Ministerpräsident. As Dahlmann was unable to form a new government, Anton von Schmerling succeeded Leiningen. Anton Ritter von Schmerling ( August 23, 1805 &mdash May 23, 1893) Austrian Statesman, was born at Vienna, where
In a second vote, on 16 September 1848, the Assembly accepted the de facto position and accepted the Treaty with a narrow majority. Events 1400 - Owain Glyndŵr is declared Prince of Wales by his followers Year 1848 ( MDCCCXLVIII) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap In Frankfurt this led to the Septemberunruhen ("September unrest"), a popular rising that entailed the murder of parliamentarians from the Casino faction, Lichnowsky and Auerswald. The National Assembly was forced to call for the support of Prussian and Austrian troops serving the Confederation at the confederate fortification of Mainz. Mainz (ˈmaɪ̯nʦ (Mayence is a City in Germany and the capital of the German federal state of Rhineland-Palatinate.
Henceforth, the radical democrats, whose views were both leftist and nationalist, ceased to accept their representation through the National Assembly. In several states of the German Confederation, they resorted to individual revolutionary activities. For example, on 21 September, Gustav Struve declared a German republic at Lörrach, thus starting the second democratic rising in Baden. Events 1217 - The Estonian tribal leader Lembitu of Lehola was killed in a battle against Teutonic Knights. Gustav Struve, known as Gustav von Struve until he gave up his title ( 11 October 1805 in Munich, Germany – 21 August Lörrach is a city in southwest Germany, in the valley of the Wiese, close to the French and the Swiss border The nationalist unrest in Hungary spread to Vienna in early October, leading to a third revolutionary wave, the Wiener Oktoberaufstand ("Vienna October rising"), which further impeded the work of the Assembly. Hungary (Magyarország 'mɔɟɔrorsaːg) officially in English the Republic of Hungary ( Magyar Köztársaság, literally Magyar (Hungarian Republic Vienna ( in Wien; see also other names) is the Capital of Austria, and is also one of the nine States of Austria.
Thus, the acceptance of the Treaty of Malmö marks the latest possible date of the final breach of cooperation between the liberal and the radical democratic camps. Radical democratic politicians saw it as final confirmation that the bourgeois politicians, as Hecker had said in spring 1848, "negotiate with the princes" instead of "acting in the name of the sovereign people", thus becoming traitors to the cause of the people. In contrast, the bourgeois liberals saw the unrests as further proof for what they saw as the short-sighted and irresponsible stance of the left, and of the dangers of a "left-wing mob" spreading anarchy and murder. Anarchy (from αναρχία anarchía, "without ruler " may refer to any of the following "Absence of government a state of lawlessness This early divide of its main components was of major importance for the later failure of the National Assembly, as it caused lasting damage not only to the esteem and acceptance of the parliament, but also to the cooperation among its factions.
After the October Rising at Vienna had escalated, forcing the Austrian government to flee the city, the National Assembly, instigated by left-wing deputies, attempted to mediate between the Austrian government and the revolting revolutionaries. In the meantime, the Austrian government violently suppressed the rising. In the course of events, the deputy Robert Blum, one of the figureheads of the democratic left was arrested, court-martialled and executed by shooting on 9 November, ignoring his parliamentary immunity. Robert Blum ( 10 November 1807 - 9 November 1848) was a German politician and member of the National Assembly of 1848 Events 694 - Egica, a king of the Visigoths of Hispania, accuses Jews of aiding Muslims sentencing all Parliamentary immunity, also known as legislative immunity is a system in which members of the Parliament or Legislature are granted partial immunity from This highlighted the powerlessness of the National Assembly and its dependence on the goodwill of the governments of the individual states of the German Confederation. In Revolution and Counter-Revolution in Germany (1852), Friedrich Engels wrote:
The execution also indicated that the force of the March Revolution was beginning to flag by the autumn of 1848. This did not apply only to Austria. The power of the governments appointed in March was eroding. In Prussia, the Prussian National Assembly was disbanded and its draft constitution rejected.
The definition of the national unity of German was a major difficulty for the Frankfurt National Assembly. The still open question regarding the national affiliation of Schleswig turned out to be a smaller problem. Of much more weight was the fact that large portions of the two most powerful states in the German Confederacy, Prussia and especially Austria, lay outside the area where the German language was spoken. The German language (de ''Deutsch'') is a West Germanic language and one of the world's major languages. The incorporation of such areas into a German nation-state did not only raise questions regarding the national identity of their inhabitants, but also regarding power politics between the German states. In spite of all Czech efforts, the delegates declared Bohemia and Moravia as part of the German Confederacy. Bohemia (Čechy; Bohemia Czechy is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western two-thirds of the traditional Czech Lands, currently the Moravia (Morava; Morawy Moravie Moravia is a historical region in central Europe in the east of the Czech Republic, one of the former Czech lands. Similarly, they decided to incorporate the (mainly Polish-inhabited) Prussian Province of Posen, thereby refusing the wish of the local Polish population not to form part of a German nation-state. The Province of Posen (Provinz Posen Prowincja Poznańska was a province of Prussia from 1848-1918 and as such part of the German Empire from 1871 to 1918 the whole
Regarding the borders of a future German nation-state, only two solutions were basically possible: The Kleindeutsche Lösung ("Smaller German Solution") aimed for a Germany under the leadership of Prussia and excluding imperial Austria, so as to avoid becoming embroiled in the problems of that multi-cultural state. The Kleindeutsche Lösung ("Lesser German Solution" was a 19th century political idea postulating the idea of a unified Germany consisting of the members The supportes of the Großdeutsche Lösung ("Greater German Solution"), however, supported the incorporation of Austria. Großdeutschland ( German for "Greater Germany" or "Large Germany" is a term referring to the concept of one German Nation-state Some of those deputies expected the integration of all the Habsburg monarchy's territories, while other Greater German supporters called for a variant only including areas settled by Germans within a German state. Habsburg Monarchy (alternatively Habsburg Empire) refers to the territories ruled by the Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg, and then by the successor
While the majority of the radical left voted for the Greater German variant, accepting the possibility, as formulated by Carl Vogt of a "holy war for western culture against the barbarism of the East", ie. Carl Christoph Vogt ( July 5, 1817 in Gießen, Germany – May 5, 1895 in Geneva, Switzerland was a German against Poland and Hungary, whereas the liberal centre supported a more pragmatic stance. On the 27th of October 1848, the National Assembly voted for a Greater German Solution, but incorporating only "Austria's German lands".
The Austrian emperor Ferdinand I was, however, not willing to break up his state. Ferdinand ( April 19, 1793 &ndash June 29, 1875) was Emperor of Austria as Ferdinand I, King of Hungary and Croatia and Archduke On 27 November 1848, only a few days before the coronoation of his successor, Franz Joseph I, he had his Prime Minister Schwarzenberg declare the indivisibility of Austria. Events 1095 - Pope Urban II declares the First Crusade at the Council of Clermont Year 1848 ( MDCCCXLVIII) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap Franz Joseph I Karl (- German, in English Francis Joseph I Charles, see the name in other languages) (18 August 1830 &ndash 21 November Thus, it became clear that, at most, the National Assembly could achieve national unity within the smaller German solution, with Prussia as the sole major power. Although Schwarzenberg demanded the incorporation of the whole of Austria into the new state once more in March 1849, the dice had fallen in favour of a Smaller German Empire by December 1848, when the irreconcilable differences between the position of Austria and that of the National Assembly had forced the Austrian, Schmerling, to resign from his role as Ministerpräsident of the provisional government. He was succeedded by Heinrich von Gagern.
Nonetheless, the Paulskirche Constitution was designed so as to allow a later accession of Austria, by referring to the territories of the German Confederation and formulating special arrangements for states with German and non-German areas. The allocation of votes in the Staatenhaus (§ 87 ) also allowed for a later Austrian entry. 
On 24 May 1848, the National Assembly appointed a three-person constitutional committee, chaired by Bassermann and charged with preparing and coordinating the drafting of a Reichsverfassung ("Imperial Constitution"). Events 1218 - The Fifth Crusade leaves Acre for Egypt. 1276 - Magnus Ladulås is crowned Year 1848 ( MDCCCXLVIII) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap The so-called Paulskirchenverfassung ( Constitution of St Paul's Church Frankfurt) of 1849 was the first constitution of a German Empire ( German It could make use of the preparatory work done by the Committee of Seventeen appointed earlier by the Bundesversammlung.
On 28 December, the Assembly's press organ, the Reichsgesetzblatt published the Reichsgesetz betreffend die Grundrechte des deutschen Volkes ("Imperial law regarding the basic rights of the German people") of 27th December 1848, declaring the basic rights as immediately applicable. Events 1065 - Westminster Abbey is Consecrated. 1308 - The reign of Emperor Hanazono, Emperor of .
The catalogue of basic rights included Freedom of Movement, Equal Treatment for all Germans in all of Germany, the abolishment of class-based privileges and medieval burdens, Freedom of Religion, Freedom of Conscience, the abolishment of capital punishment, Freedom of Research and Education, Freedom of Assembly, basic rights in regard to police activity and judicial proceedings, the inviolability of the home, Freedom of the Press, independence of judges, Freedom of Trade and Freedom of Establishment. Freedom of movement, mobility rights or the right to travel is a Human rights concept which is respected in the Constitutions of numerous Egalitarianism (derived from the French word égal, meaning equal) is a political doctrine that holds that all people should be treated as equals and have Freedom of religion is the freedom of an individual or community in public or private to manifest religion or belief in teaching practice worship and observance Freedom of thought (also called freedom of conscience and freedom of ideas) is the freedom of an individual to hold or consider a fact viewpoint Capital punishment, the death penalty or execution, is the Killing of a person by judicial process as Punishment. Academic freedom is the belief that the freedom of inquiry by students and faculty members is essential to the mission of the academy Freedom of assembly, sometimes used interchangeably with the Freedom of association, is the Individual right to come together with other individuals and collectively Freedom Constitutional or statutory protections pertaining to freedom of the press Free trade is a system in which the trade of goods and services between or within countries flows unhindered by government-imposed restrictions
After long and controversial negotiations, the parliament passed the complete Imperial Constitution on 28 March 1849. Events 37 - Roman Emperor Caligula accepts the titles of the Principate, entitled to him by the Senate. Year 1849 ( MDCCCXLIX) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common It was carried narrowly, by 267 against 263 votes. The version passed included the creation of a hereditary emperor (Erbkaisertum), which had been favoured mainly by the erbkaiserliche group around Gagern, with the reluctant support of the Westendhall group around Heinrich Simon. A hereditary monarchy is the most common style of Monarchy and is the form that is used by almost all of the world's existing monarchies On the first reading, such a solution had been dismissed. The change of mind came about because all alternative suggestions, such as an elective monarchy, or a Directory government under an alternating chair were even less practicable and unable to find broad support, as was the radical left's demand for a republic, modelled on the United States. An elective monarchy is a Monarchy ruled by someone generally from a Royal house, who is elected by a group In political history the term directory, in French directoire, applies to high collegial institutions of state composed of members styled director (French directeur A republic is a State or Country that is not led by a hereditary Monarch, but in which the people (or at least a part of its people have impact on its The United States of America —commonly referred to as the
The people were to be represented by a bicameral parliament, with a directly elected Volkshaus and a Staatenhaus of representatives sent by the individual confederated states. Half of each Staatenhaus delegation was to be appointed by the respective state government, the other by the state parliament.
As the near-inevitable result of having chosen the Smaller German Solution and the constitutional monarchy as form of government, the Prussian king was elected as hereditary head of state on 28 March 1849. Events 37 - Roman Emperor Caligula accepts the titles of the Principate, entitled to him by the Senate. Year 1849 ( MDCCCXLIX) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common The vote was carried by 290 votes against 248 abstentions, embodying resistance primarily by all left-wing, southern German and Austrian deputies. The deputies knew that Frederick William IV held strong prejudices against the work of the Frankfurt Parliament, but on 23 January, the Prussian government had informed the states of the German Confederation that Prussia would accept the idea of a hereditary emperor. Life Frederick William was educated by private tutors many of whom were experienced civil servants such as Friedrich Ancillon. Events 393 - Roman Emperor Theodosius I proclaims his nine year old son Honorius co-emperor
Further, Prussia, unlike eg. Bavaria, Württemberg, Saxony and Hanover, had indicated its support of the draft constitution in a statement made after the first reading. Additionally, the representatives of the provisional government had attempted through innumerable meetings and talks to build an alliance with the Prussian government, especially by creating a common front against the radical left and by arguing that the monarchy could only survive if it accepted a constitutional-parliamentary system. The November 1848 discussion of Bassermann and Hergenhahn with Friedrich Wilhelm IV were also aiming in the same direction.
On 3 April 1849, the Kaiserdeputation ("Emperor Deputation"), a group of deputies chosen by the National Assembly, offered Friedrich Wilhelm the office of emperor. Events 1043 - Edward the Confessor is crowned King of England. Year 1849 ( MDCCCXLIX) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common He declined, arguing that he could not accept the crown without the agreement of the princes and Free Cities. In reality, Friedrich Wilhelm insisted in the principle of the Divine Right of Kings and thus did not want to accept a crown touched by "the hussy smell of revolution". The Divine Right of Kings is a general term that refers to the philosophy and ideas used to justify the authority and legitimacy of Monarchs in Medieval and  This spelled the final failure of the Frankfurt Parliament's constitution and thus of the German March revolution. The rejection of the crown was understood by the other princes as a signal that the political scales had tipped against the liberals. Mainly smaller states accepted the constitution reluctantly, Württemberg was the only kingdom to do so after much hesitation.
On 5 April 1849, all Austrian deputies left Frankfurt. A dragoon is a soldier intended primarily to fight on foot but trained also in Horse riding and cavalry combat especially Events 456 - St Patrick returns to Ireland as a missionary bishop Year 1849 ( MDCCCXLIX) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common On the 14th of May, the Prussian pariamentarians also resigned their mandates. The new elections called for by gagern did not take place, further weakening the assembly. In the following, nearly all conservative and bourgeois-liberal deputies left the parliament. The remaining left-wing forces insisted that 28 states had accepted the Franfurt Constitution and began the Reichsverfassungskampagne, an all-out call for resistance against the existing governments, escalating the political situation. The supporters of the campaign did not feel as revolutionaries, since in their view they represented a legitimate national executive power, acting against states that had breached the constitution. Nonetheless, only the radical democratic left was willing to use force to support the constitution, notwithstanding their original reservations against it. In view of their failure, the bourgeoisie and the leading liberal politicians of the faction of the Halbe ("half ones") rejected a renewed revolution and withdraw - most of them disappointed - from their hard work in the Frankfurt Parliament.
In the meantime, the Reichsverfassungskampagne had not achieved any success regarding acceptance of the constitution, but had managed to mobilise those elements of the population that were willing to support a revolution. In Saxony, this led to the May Uprising in Dresden, in the Bavarian part of the Rhenish Palatinate to the Pfälzer Aufstand, a rising during which revolutionaries gained the de facto governmental power. The May Uprising took place in Dresden, Germany in 1849; it was one of the last of the series of events known as the Revolutions of 1848. The Palatinate of the Rhine (Pfalzgrafschaft bei Rhein later the Electoral Palatinate (Kurpfalz was a historical territory of the Holy Roman Empire On 14 May the Grandduke of Baden, Leopold had to flee the country after a mutiny of the Rastatt garrison. Events 1264 - Battle of Lewes: Henry III of England is captured in France making Simon de Montfort the Leopold I Grand Duke of Baden ( 29 August 1790 &ndash 24 April 1852) succeeded in 1830 as the fourth Grand Duke of Baden. The insurrectionists declared a Baden Republic and formed a revolutionary government headed by the Paulskirche deputy Lorenz Brentano. Together with Baden soldiers that had joined their side, they formed an army under the leadership of the Polish general Mieroslawski. Ludwik Adam Mierosławski (1814-1878 was a Polish general writer poet historian and political activist While the Prussian military, under orders from the German Confederation, began to crush the revolutionary troops, the Prussian government prepaed the expulsion of the remaining deputies from the Free City of Frankfurt in late May. For almost five centuries the German city of Frankfurt am Main was a city-state within two major Germanic states The Holy Roman Empire as the Free Further deputies that were not willing to align with radical democratic left resigned their mandates, or gave it up when asked to by their home governments. On 26 May, due to the enduring low presence of deputies, had to lower its quorum to a mere hundred. Events 451 - The Battle of Avarayr between Armenian rebels and the Sassanid Empire takes place In Law, a quorum is the minimum number of members of a Deliberative body necessary to conduct the business of that group On 31 May, the remaining deputies decided to escape from the Prussian sphere of influence by moving the parliament to Stuttgart in Württemberg. Events 1279 BC - Rameses II (The Great (19th dynasty becomes pharaoh of Ancient Egypt. Stuttgart (ˈʃtʊtgaɐ̯t is the capital of the state of Baden-Württemberg in southern Germany. This had been suggested by the deputy Friedrich Römer, who was also prime minister and minister of justice of the Württemberg government. Essentially, the Frankfurt National Assembly was dissolved at this point. From 6 June 1849 onwards, its remainder of 154 deputies met at Stuttgart. Events 1508 - Maximilian I Holy Roman Emperor, is defeated in Friulia by Venetian forces; he is forced to sign a three-year Year 1849 ( MDCCCXLIX) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common This convention was dismissivley called the Rumpfparlament ("rump parliament").
Since the provisional government and the regent did not recognise the rump parliament, it celraed both as dismissed and proclaimed a new provisional regency led by the deputies Franz Raveaux, Carl Vogt, Heinrich Simon, Friedrich Schüler and August Becher. Following its view of itself as the legitimate German parliament, the rump parliemant called for tax resistance and military resistance against those states that did not accept the Paulskirche Constitution. A tax resister resists or refuses payment of a Tax because of opposition to the institution collecting the tax or to some of that institution’s policies Since this view also diminished the autonomy of Württemberg, and the Prussian army was successfully crushing the rebellions in the nearby Baden and the Palatinate, Römer and the Württemberg government rapidly distanced themselves from the rump parliament.
On 17 June, Römer informed the presidemt of the parliament " that the Württemberg government was no longer in a position to tolerate the meetings of the National Assembly that had moved to its territory, nor the activities of the regency elected on the 6th, anywhere in Stuttgart or Württemberg". Events 1462 - Vlad III the Impaler attempts to assassinate Mehmed II ( The Night Attack) forcing him to retreat  At this point, the rump parliament had only 99 deputies and did not reach a quorum according to its own rules. On 18 June, the Württemberg army occupied the paliemanetary chamber before the session started. Events 618 - Coronation of the Chinese governor Li Yuan as Emperor Gaozu of Tang, the new Emperor of China, initiating three centuries The deputies reacted by organising an impromptu protest march which was promptly squahed by the soldiers without bloodshed. Those deputies that were not from Württemberg were expelled.
Subsequent plans to move the parliament (or what was left of it) to Karlsruhe in Baden could not be implemented due to the looming defeat of the Baden revolutionaries, which was comnpleted five weeks later. Karlsruhe (ˈkaɐ̯lsʁuːə population 285812 in 2006 is a city in the south west of Germany, in the Bundesland Baden-Württemberg, located near
After the dissolution of the National Assembly, Prussia chose to support the so-called Unionspolitik ("union policy"), strongly designed by the conservative Paulskirche deputy Joseph von Radowitz, aiming for a Smaller German Solution under Prussian leadership. Joseph Maria Ernst Christian Wilhelm von Radowitz ( February 6, 1797 &ndash 25 December 1853) was a conservative Prussian Statesman This essentially entailed a modification of the Frankfurt Parliament's conclusions, with a stronger role for the Prussian hereditary monarch and imposed "from above". The Erbkaiserliche around Gagern supported this policy in the Gotha Post-Parliament and the Erfurt Union Parliament. The Erfurt Union (Erfurter Union was a short-lived union of German states under a Federation, proposed by the Kingdom of Prussia at Erfurt, These efforts were ended by the 1850 Punctuation of Olmütz which forced Prussia to abandon that policy. The Punctation of Olmütz (Olmützer Punktation also called the Agreement of Olmütz, was a treaty between Prussia and Austria, dated November 29 Nevertheless, the March Revolution led to a major increase of Prussia's political importance. On the one hand, through its leading role in suppressing the revolution, Prussia had demonstrated its indispensability as main player in German politics anmd demonstrated its superiority over small and medium states. On the other hand, the Prussian kingdom was now in a far better strategic position. For example, it had won the gratitude of the princely family of the Grand Duchy of Baden as a first important ally in southern Germany. Also, the Smaller German Solution had gained much popularity throughout tha nation. This political pass led to the adoption of the Smaller German Solution after the Prussian victory in the face-off between Prussia and Austria in the 1866 Austro-Prussian War which led to the foundation of the North German Confederation. The Austro-Prussian The North German Confederation (Norddeutscher Bund came into existence in August 1866 as a military alliance of 22 states of northern Germany with the Kingdom of The Smaller German Solution was implemented after the 1870/71 Franco-Prussian War in the form of Prussian-dominated unification "from above", namely the 1871 proclamation of the German Empire. The Franco-Prussian War or Franco-German War, often referred to in France as the 1870 War ( 19 July, 1870 — 10 May, 1871 The German Empire is the name commonly used in English to describe Germany from 1871 to 1918 when it was a semi- Constitutional monarchy: beginning with the Unification
Looking for explanations for the German Sonderweg of the 20th century, some historians have suggested the discreditation of democrats and liberals, the estrangement of the aforementioned groups, and the unfulfilled desire for a nation-state, which had led to separation of the national question from the assertion of civic rights, as major factors. Sonderweg (literally "special path" is a controversial theory in German Historiography that considers the German -speaking lands or the country
The work of the National Assembly and more generally of the March revolution was judged very negatively in its immediate aftermath. Authors like Ludwig Häuser classed the ideas of the radical democratic left as irresponsible and naive foolishness. The bourgeois liberals were also discredited; many of them left politics disappointed and under great hostility from their fellow citizens in the individual states. It is probably partially due to this that Bassrmann commoitted suicide in 1855. A positive reception of the National Assembly's work only came about in the Weimar Republic and more so after World War II, when both the East German Democratic Republic and the Western Federal Republic of Germany competed for the use of the democratic Paulskirche heritage as specific traditions of the separate states. The term Weimar Republic ( ˈvaɪmarɐ repuˈbliːk is used by historians to signify the democratic and Republican period of Germany from 1919 to 1933 World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including The German Democratic Republic ( GDR; Deutsche Demokratische Republik DDR; commonly known in English as East Germany) was a Socialist state Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe.
The German Federal Archives or Bundesarchiv ( BArch) are the National Archives of Germany The Neue Rheinische Zeitung ("New Rhenish Newspaper" was a German (specifically Rhenish from the Rhineland) daily Newspaper, published