Francia or Frankia, later also called the Frankish Empire (Latin: imperium Francorum), Frankish Kingdom (Latin: regnum Francorum, "Kingdom of the Franks"), Frankish Realm or occasionally Frankland, was the territory inhabited and ruled by the Franks from the 3rd to the 10th century. Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. The Franks or Frankish people (Franci or gens Francorum) were West Germanic tribes first identified in the 3rd century as an Ethnic group The 3rd century is the period from 201 to 300 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian / Common Era. The Frankish realm was ruled as one polity subdivided into several regna (kingdoms or subkingdoms). The geography and number of subkingdoms varied over time, but the term Francia eventually came to refer to just one regnum, that of Austrasia, centred on the Rhine river. Austrasia (rarely Austria, both meaning "eastern land" formed the north-eastern portion of the Kingdom of the Merovingian Franks, comprising The Rhine (Rhein Rijn Rhin Reno Rain Rhenus is one of the longest and most important Rivers in Europe at 1320 kilometres (820 mi with an average discharge Sometimes the term was used to encompass Neustria north of the Loire and west of the Seine as well, but in time the designation settled on the region of the Seine basin around Paris, which still bears the name today as Île-de-France and which gave the name to the entire Kingdom of France. The territory of Neustria or Neustrasia, meaning "new land" originated in 511 made up of the regions from Aquitaine to the English Channel, Loire ( Arpitan: Lêre, Occitan: Léger) is an administrative department in the east-central part of France occupying the The Seine (sɛn in French) is a slow flowing major River and commercial waterway within the regions of Île-de-France and Haute-Normandie The Seine (sɛn in French) is a slow flowing major River and commercial waterway within the regions of Île-de-France and Haute-Normandie Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city Île-de-France ( pronounced /il d̪ə fʁɑ̃s/ literally "Island of France" is one of the twenty-six administrative regions of France.
The first time that Francia is named is in the Panegyrici Latini in the early 3rd century. The Panegyrici Latini or Latin Panegyrics is a collection of twelve ancient Roman Panegyric orations At the time it described the area north and east of the Rhine, roughly in the triangle between Utrecht, Bielefeld, and Bonn. The Rhine (Rhein Rijn Rhin Reno Rain Rhenus is one of the longest and most important Rivers in Europe at 1320 kilometres (820 mi with an average discharge Bielefeld (ˈbiːləfɛlt is a district-free town in the Regierungsbezirk Detmold in the north-east of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. Bonn is the 19th largest city in Germany. Located about 20 kilometres south of Cologne on the river Rhine in the Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia It corresponded with the joint lands of Frankish tribes of the Sicambri, Salians, Bructeri, Ampsivarii, Chamavi and Chattuarii. The Sicambri (var Sicambers Sicambres Sigambrer Sugumbrer or Sugambri) were a Germanic people living in what is now called the Netherlands Salians redirects here for the eleventh-century dynasty see Salian dynasty, for Roman priests see Salii. The Bructeri were a Germanic tribe located in northwestern Germany (Soester Börde between the Lippe and Ems rivers south of the Teutoburg The Ampsivarii, sometimes referenced by modern writers as Ampsivari (a simplification not warranted by the sources were a Germanic tribe mentioned by ancient authors The Chamavi were a Germanic tribe of Late Antiquity and the European Dark Age. The Chattuarii ot Attoarii are a tribe of the Franks. They lived originally east of the northern Rhine and west of the Chatti, that later were Some of these peoples like the Sicambri and Salians already had lands in the Roman Empire and delivered troops to Roman forces at the border. The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial In 357 the Salian king entered the Roman Empire and made a permanent footprint there by a treaty granted by Julian the Apostate, who forced back the Chamavi to Hamaland. Flavius Claudius Julianus, known also as Julian or Julian the Apostate (331 or 332 to 26 June 363) was Roman Emperor (Caesar Hamaland is a non-administrative region in the east of the Netherlands that is named after the Frankish Chamavi -tribe
As Frankish territory expanded, the meaning of "Francia" expanded with it. While many Franks operating on Roman soil, like Bauto and Arbogastes, were committed to the cause of the Romans, other Frankish kings, like Mallobaudes, were active on Roman soil for other reasons. Flavius Bauto (died c 385 was a Romanised Frank who served as a Magister militum of the Western Roman Empire. Flavius Arbogastes (died September 6 394) or Arbogast was a Frankish general in the Roman Empire. Mallobaudes was a 4th-century Frankish king who also held the Roman title of comes domesticorum. After the fall of Arbogastes, his son Arigius succeeded in establishing a hereditary countship at Trier and after the fall of the usurper Constantine III some Franks supported the usurper Jovinus (411). You may be looking for Aredius of Limoges Aredius of Gap (Arigius Arey (c Trier (Trèves Luxembourgish: Tréier; Augusta Treverorum is a City in Germany on the banks of the Moselle River. Constantine III may refer to Constantine III (western emperor, governor of Britain and self-proclaimed western Roman Emperor 407 &ndash 411 Constantine Jovinus is a Roman Cognomen, most often used for a 5th century Roman usurper emperor Although Jovinus was dead by 413, the Romans could no longer manage the Franks within their borders.
The Frankish king Theudemer was executed by the sword, but to no avail. Theudemeres (Theudemer was a Frankish king He was the son of the Roman commander Richomeres and his wife Ascyla Around 428 the Salian king Chlodio, whose kingdom included Toxandria and the civitatus Tungrorum (Tongeren), launched an attack on Roman territory and extended his realm as far as Camaracum (Cambrai) and the Somme. Chlodio (395-448 was a king of the Salian Franks from the Merovingian Dynasty. Toxandria is the classical name for a region between the Meuse and the Scheldt rivers in The Netherlands and Belgium. Tongeren ( French: Tongres, German: Tongern) is a City and municipality located in the province of Limburg Cambrai (Dutch Kamerijk; old spelling Cambray) is a French town and commune, in the Nord département, The Somme is a department of France, located in the north of the country and named after the Somme river. Though Sidonius Apollinaris relates that Flavius Aëtius fought the Franks and temporarily drove them back (c. For the Franco-Irish saint see Sidonius of Saint-Saëns. Gaius Sollius (Modestus Apollinaris Sidonius or Saint Sidonius Apollinaris Aëtius is also the name of several other persons Flavius Aëtius or simply Aëtius, (c 431), this period marks the beginning of a situation that would endure for many centuries: the Germanic Franks ruled over an increasing number of Gallo-Roman subjects. This article covers the culture of Romanized areas of Gaul. For the political history of the brief "Gallic Empire" of the 3rd century see Gallic Empire
The kingdom of Chlodio changed the borders and the meaning of the word "Francia" permanently. Francia was no longer barbaricum trans Rhenum (barbarians across the Rhine), but a landed political power on both sides of the river, deeply involved in Roman politics. Chlodio's family, the Merovingians, extended Francia even further south. The Merovingians (also Merovings) were a Salian Frankish dynasty that came to rule the Franks in a region (known as Francia in Latin Due to pressure from the Saxons, the northeastern borders of Francia were pressed southwest so that most of the original Frankish people came to live more southwesterly, roughly between the Somme and Münster. The Saxons or Saxon people were a Confederation of Old Germanic tribes. Münster ( is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It is located in the northern part of the state and is considered to be the cultural centre of the
Chlodio's successors are obscure figures, but what can be certain is that Childeric I, possibly his grandson, ruled a Salian kingdom from Tournai as a foederatus of the Romans. Childeric I (c 440– c 481 was the Merovingian king of the Salian Franks from 457 until his death and the father of Clovis. Tournai (in Dutch Doornik, in Latin: Tornacum) is a Walloon City and municipality of Belgium Foederatus (pl foederati) is a Latin term whose definition and usage drifted in the time between the early Roman Republic and the Childeric is chiefly important to history for bequeathing the Franks his son Clovis, who began an effort to extend his authority over the other Frankish tribes and to expand their territorium south and west into Gaul. Clovis I (c 466 &ndash 27 November 511) was the first King of the Franks to unite all the Frankish tribes under one ruler Gaul (Gallia was the Roman name for the region of Western Europe comprising present day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Clovis converted to Roman Catholicism and put himself on good terms with the powerful Church and with his Gallo-Roman subjects. In a thirty-year reign (481–511) he defeated the Roman general Syagrius and conquered the Roman enclave of Soissons, defeated the Alemanni (Tolbiac, 504) and established Frankish hegemony over them, defeated the Visigoths (Vouillé, 507) and conquered their entire kingdom (save Septimania) with its capital at Toulouse, and conquered the Bretons (according to Gregory of Tours) and made them vassals of Francia. Flavius Afranius Syagrius (born 430 died 486 or 487 was the son of Aegidius, the last Roman Magister militum per Gallias In the Late Antique period two states in the area of modern-day northwest France were termed the Domain of Soissons. The Alamanni, Allemanni, or Alemanni were originally an alliance of Germanic tribes located around the upper Main river ( Germany The Battle of Tolbiac was fought between the Franks under Clovis I and the Alamanni, traditionally set in 496. The Visigoths (Visigothi, Wisigothi, Vesi, Visi, Wesi, or Wisi were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East The Battle of Vouillé or Campus Vogladensis was fought in the northern Marches of Visigothic territory at a small place near Poitiers ( Gaul Septimania was the western region of the Roman province of Gallia Narbonensis that passed under the control of the Visigoths in 462 when Septimania was ceded to Toulouse ( pronounced in standard French, and in the local accent ( Occitan: Tolosa, pronounced) is a city in southwest The Bretons are a distinct Ethnic group located in the region of Brittany in France. Saint Gregory of Tours ( November 30, c 538 &ndash November 17, 594) was a Gallo-Roman historian and bishop of Tours He conquered most or all of the neighbouring Frankish tribes along the Rhine and incorporated them into his kingdom. He also incorporated the various Roman military settlements (laeti) scattered over Gaul: the Saxons of Bayeux, the Alans of Armorica, and the Taifals of Poitou to name a few prominent ones. Laeti, the plural form of laetus, was a term used in the late Roman empire to denote communities of barbari (" Barbarians " literally Bayeux (bajø is a commune in the Calvados département, in Normandy in northwestern France. The Alans or Alani (occasionally but more rarely termed Alauni or Halani) were an Iranian nomadic group among the Sarmatian people Armorica or Aremorica is the name given in ancient times to the part of Gaul that includes the Brittany Peninsula and the territory between the The Taifals, Taifali, Taifalae, Tayfals, or Theifali were a Barbarian people settled by the late Roman Empire in Poitou Poitou was a province of west-central France whose capital city was Poitiers. By the end of his life, he ruled all of Gaul save the Gothic province of Septimania and the Burgundian kingdom in the southeast. Burgundy is a region of Western Europe which has existed as a political entity in a number of forms with very different boundaries
The Merovingians were a hereditary monarchy. A hereditary monarchy is the most common style of Monarchy and is the form that is used by almost all of the world's existing monarchies The Frankish kings adhered to the practice of partible inheritance: dividing their lands among their sons. Partible inheritance is a general term applied to systems of Inheritance in which property may be apportioned among Heirs It contrasts in particular Even when multiple Merovingian kings ruled, the kingdom—not unlike the late Roman Empire—was conceived of as a single realm ruled collectively by several kings and the turn of events could result in the reunification of the whole realm under a single king. The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial The Merovingian kings ruled by divine right and their kingship was symbolised daily by their long hair and initially by their acclamation, which was carried out by raising the king on a shield in accordance with the ancient Germanic practice of electing a war-leader at an assembly of the warriors. At the death of Clovis, his kingdom was divided territorially by his four adult sons in such a way that each son was granted a comparable portion of fiscal land, which was probably land once part of the Roman fisc, now ceased by the Frankish government. Under the Merovingians and Carolingians the fisc (Root word of "fiscal" applied to the royal Demesne which paid taxes entirely in kind
Clovis' sons made their capitals near the Frankish heartland in northeastern Gaul. Theuderic I made his capital at Reims, Chlodomer at Orléans, Childebert I at Paris, and Chlothar I at Soissons. Theuderic I (or Theuderich, Theoderic, or Theodoric; in French, Thierry) (484 &ndash 533 or 534 was the Merovingian king Reims (alternative English spelling Rheims; riːmz in English and /ʁɛ̃s/ in French) is a city of the Champagne-Ardenne région of northern Chlodomer, also spelled Clodomir or Clodomer (born c 495 was the second of the four sons of Clovis I, King of the Franks. This article is about the French city of Orléans for other meanings see Orleans (disambiguation. Childebert I ( Rheims, c496 &ndash 13 December 558) was the Frankish king of Paris, a Merovingian dynast one of the four Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city Chlothar I (or Chlothachar, Chlotar, Clothar, Clotaire, Chlotochar, or Hlothar, giving rise to Lothair; 497 Soissons is a commune in the Aisne department in Picardie in northern France, located on the Aisne River, about 100 During their reigns, the Thuringii (532), Burgundes (534), and Saxons and Frisians (c. The Thuringii or Toringi were a Germanic tribe which appeared late during the Völkerwanderung in the Harz Mountains of central The Burgundians or Burgundes were an East Germanic tribe which may have emigrated from mainland Scandinavia to the island of Bornholm, whose The Frisians are an ethnic group of Germanic people living in coastal parts of The Netherlands and Germany. 560) were incorporated into the Frankish kingdom. The outlying trans-Rhenish tribes were loosely attached to Frankish sovereignty, and though they could be forced to contribute to Frankish military efforts, in times of weak kings they were uncontrollable and liable to attempt independence. The Romanised Burgundian kingdom, however, was preserved in its territoriality by the Franks and converted into one of their primary divisions, incorporating the central Gallic heartland of Chlodomer's realm with its capital at Orléans.
The fraternal kings, however, showed only intermittent signs of friendship and were often in rivalry. On the early death of Chlodomer, his brother Chlothar had his young sons murdered in order to take a share of his kingdom, which was, in accordance with custom, divided between the surviving brothers. Theuderic died in 534, but his adult son Theudebert I was capable of defending his inheritance, which formed the largest of the Frankish subkingdoms and the kernel of the later kingdom of Austrasia. Theudebert I ( French: Thibert or Théodebert) (c 500 &ndash 547 or 548 was the Merovingian king of Austrasia from 533 to his death Austrasia (rarely Austria, both meaning "eastern land" formed the north-eastern portion of the Kingdom of the Merovingian Franks, comprising Theudebert was the first Frankish king to formally sever his ties to the Byzantine Empire by striking gold coins with his own image on them and calling himself magnus rex (great king) because of his supposed suzerainty over peoples as far away as Pannonia. Pannonia is an ancient province of the Roman Empire bounded north and east by the Danube, coterminous westward with Noricum and upper Italy, Theudebert interfered in the Gothic War on the side of the Gepids and Lombards against the Ostrogoths, receiving the provinces of Rhaetia, Noricum, and part of Venetia. See Gothic War (376-382 for the war on the Danube The Gothic War was a war fought in Italy and the adjoining regions of Dalmatia, Sardinia The Gepids (Gepidae Gifðas ( Beowulf, Widsith) - possibly from * Gibiðos, "givers" or gepanta, see below were The Lombards ( Latin Langobardi, whence the alternative names Langobards and Longobards) were a Germanic people originally from The Ostrogoths (Ostrogothi or Austrogothi were a branch of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe that played a major role in the political events of the late Raetia (so always in inscriptions classical manuscripts usually use the form Rhaetia) was a province of the Roman Empire, bounded on the west by the country Noricum, in ancient Geography, was a Celtic kingdom (perhaps better described as a federation of by tradition twelve tribes stretching over the area of His son and successor, Theudebald, was unable to retain them and on his death all of his vast kingdom passed to Chlothar. Theudebald or Theodebald (in Modern English, Theobald; in French, Thibaud or Théodebald; in German, Theudowald In 558, with the death of Childebert, the entire Frankish realm was reunited under the rule of one king, Chlothar.
In 561 Chlothar died and his realm was divided, in a replay of the events of fifty years prior, between his four sons, with the chief cities remaining the same. The eldest son, Charibert I, inherited the kingdom with its capital at Paris and ruled all of western Gaul. Charibert I (c 517&ndashNovember or December 567 was the Merovingian King of Paris, the second-eldest son of Chlothar I and Ingund. The second eldest, Guntram, inherited the old kingdom of the Burgundians, augmented by the lands of central France around the old capital of Orléans, which became his chief city, and most of Provence. Saint Guntram (c 532 – 592 (also called Gontram, Gontran, Gunthram, or Gunthchramn) was the king of Burgundy from 561 to 592 Provence ( Provençal Occitan: Provença in classical norm or Prouvènço in Mistralian norm is a region of southeastern France The rest of Provence, the Auvergne, and eastern Aquitaine were assigned to the third son, Sigebert I, who also inherited Austrasia with its chief cities of Reims and Metz. Auvergne ( Occitan: Auvèrnhe/Auvèrnha) was the name of an historically independent county in the center of France, as well as later a Province of Sigebert I (535-575 was the king of Austrasia from the death of his father in 561 to his own death Metz (mɛs in French) is a city in the northeast of France, capital of the Lorraine région and Préfecture The smallest kingdom was that of Soissons, which went to the youngest son, Chilperic I. Chilperic I (c 539 &ndash September 584 was the king of Neustria (or Soissons) from 561 to his death The kingdom Chilperic ruled at his death (584) became the nucleus of later Neustria. The territory of Neustria or Neustrasia, meaning "new land" originated in 511 made up of the regions from Aquitaine to the English Channel,
This second fourfold division was quickly ruined by fratricidal wars, waged largely over the murder of Galswintha, the wife of Chilperic, allegedly by his mistress (and second wife) Fredegunda. Galswintha (540-568 was the daughter of Athanagild, Visigothic king of Hispania (the Iberian Peninsula, comprising modern Spain and Fredegund or Fredegunda (also Latin Fredegundis or French Frédégonde; died 597 was the Queen consort of Chilperic Galswintha's sister, the wife of Sigebert, Brunhilda, incited her husband to war and the conflict between the two queens continued to plague relations until the next century. Guntram sought to keep the peace, though he also attempted twice (585 and 589) to conquer Septimania from the Goths, but was defeated both times. All the surviving brothers benefited at the death of Charibert, but Chilperic was also able to extend his authority during the period of war by bring the Bretons to heel again. After his death, Guntram had to again force the Bretons to submit. In 587, the Treaty of Andelot — the text of which explicitly refers to the entire Frankish realm as Francia — between Brunhilda and Guntram secured his protection of her young son Childebert II, who had succeeded the assassinated Sigebert (575). The Treaty of Andelot (or the Pact of Andelot) was signed at Andelot-Blancheville in 587 between King Guntram of Burgundy and Queen Childebert II (570-595 was the Merovingian king of Austrasia, which included Provence at the time from 575 until his death in 595 the eldest and succeeding son Together the territory of Guntram and Childebert was well over thrice as large as the small realm of Chilperic's successor, Chlothar II. Chlothar II (or Chlotar, Clothar, Clotaire, Chlotochar, or Hlothar, giving rise to Lothair; 584 &ndash 629 called During this period Francia took on the tripartite character it was to have throughout the rest of its history, being composed of Neustria, Austrasia, and Burgundy.
When Guntram died in 592, Burgundy went to Childebert in its entirety, but he died in 595. His two sons divided the kingdom, with the elder Theudebert II taking Austrasia plus Childebert's portion of Aquitaine, while his younger brother Theuderic II inherited Burgundy and Guntram's Aquitaine. Theudebert II ( French: Thibert or Théodebert; 586 &ndash 612 King of Austrasia (595 &ndash 612 AD) was the son and Heir Theuderic II (also Theuderich, Theoderic, or Theodoric; in French, Thierry) (587-613 king of Burgundy (595-613 and United, the brothers sought to remove their cousin Chlothar from power and they did succeed in conquering most of his kingdom, reducing him to only a few cities, but they failed to capture him. In 599 they routed his forces at Dormelles and seized the Dentelin, but they then fell foul of each other and the remainder of their time on the thrones was spent in infighting, often incited by their grandmother Brunhilda, who, angered over her expulsion from Theudebert's court, convinced Theuderic to unseat him and kill him. Dormelles is a French commune located in the Seine-et-Marne département, in the Île-de-France région Dentelin was a region of the Frankish Empire disputed between Austrasia and Neustria. In 612 he did and the whole realm of his father Childebert was once again ruled by one man. This was shortlived, however, as he died on the eve of preparing an expedition against Chlothar in 613, leaving a young son named Sigebert II. See Sigeberht II of Essex for the Saxon ruler by that name Sigebert II (601-613 was king of Burgundy and Austrasia (613 During their reigns, Theudebert and Theuderic campaigned successfully in Gascony, where they had established the Duchy of Vasconia and brought the Basques to submission (602). Gascony (Gascogne gaskɔɲ Gascon Occitan: Gasconha, pronounced) is an area of southwest France that constituted a province of France The Duchy of Vasconia (also Wasconia, later the Duchy of Gascony) was originally a Frankish march formed in the seventh century to protect the Aquitanian The Basques (Euskaldunak are a people who inhabit a region spanning over parts of north-central Spain and southwestern France. This original Gascon conquest included lands south of the Pyrenees, namely Biscay and Guipúzcoa, but these were lost to the Visigoths in 612. The Pyrenees (Pirineos French: Pyrénées; Catalan: Pirineus; Occitan: Pirenèus; Aragonese: Perinés Population Of the 1133444 people who live in Biscay about 35% live in the capital Bilbao and 88% in its metropolitan area. Guipúzcoa ( Spanish) or Gipuzkoa ( Basque and official is a province of the Basque Country, in Spain. On the opposite end of his realm, the Alemanni had defeated Theuderic in a rebellion and the Franks were losing their hold on the trans-Rhenish tribes. In 610 Theudebert had extorted the Duchy of Alsace from Theuderic, beginning a long period of conflict over which kingdom was to have the region of Alsace, Burgundy or Austrasia, which was only terminated in the late seventh century. The Duchy of Alsace was a large political subdivision of the Frankish Empire during the last decade and a half of Merovingian rule
During the brief minority of Sigebert II, the office of the mayor of the palace, which had for sometime been visible in the kingdoms of the Franks, came to the fore in its internal politics, with a faction of nobles coalescing around the persons of Warnachar, Rado, and Pepin of Landen, to give the kingdom over to Chlothar in order to remove Brunhilda, the young king's regent, from power. Mayor of the Palace was an early medieval Title and Office, also called Majordomo, from the Latin title Maior domus ("superior Warnachar (sometimes numbered Warnachar II; in modern French, Warnachaire or Garnier) was the Mayor of the palace of Burgundy Rado or Radon was the Mayor of the palace of Burgundy from 613 to 617 Pepin (also Peppin, Pipin, or Pippin) of Landen (c 580 &ndash 27 February 640) also called the Elder or Warnachar was himself already the mayor of the palace of Austrasia, while Rado and Pepin were to find themselves rewarded with mayoral offices after Chlothar's coup succeeded and Brunhilda and the ten-year old king were killed.
Immediately after his victory, Chlothar II promulgated the Edict of Paris (614), which has generally been viewed as a concession to the nobility, though this view has come under recent criticism. The Edict of Paris of Clotaire II, the Merovingian King of the Franks, promulgated October 18 614 (or perhaps 615) is The Edict primarily sought to guarantee justice and end corruption in government, but it also entrenched the regional differences between the three kingdoms of Francia and probably granted the nobles more control over judicial appointments. By 623 the Austrasians had begun to clamour for a king of their own, since Chlothar was so often absent from the kingdom and, because of his upbringing and previous rule in the Seine basin, was more or less an outsider there. Chlothar thus granted that his son Dagobert I would be their king and he was duly acclaimed by the Austrasian warriors in the traditional fashion. Dagobert I (c 603 &ndash 19 January 639) was the king of Austrasia (623&ndash634 king of all the Franks (629&ndash634 and king of Nonetheless, though Dagobert exercised true authority in his realm, Chlothar maintained ultimate control over the whole Frankish kingdom.
During the joint reign of Chlothar and Dagobert, who have been called "the last ruling Merovingians", the Saxons, who had been loosely attached to Francia since the late 550s, rebelled under Duke Berthoald and were defeated and reincorporated into the kingdom by the joint action of father and son. When Chlothar died in 628, Dagobert, in accordance with his father's wishes, granted a subkingdom to his younger brother Charibert II. Charibert II (c 608 &ndash 8 April 632) a son of Clotaire II and his second wife Sichilde, was briefly King of Aquitaine This subkingdom, commonly called Aquitaine, was a new creation. It corresponded to the southern half of the old Roman province of Aquitaine and its capital was at Toulouse. Toulouse ( pronounced in standard French, and in the local accent ( Occitan: Tolosa, pronounced) is a city in southwest The other cities of his kingdom were Cahors, Agen, Perigueux, Bordeaux, and Saintes; the duchy of Vasconia was also part of his allotment. Cahors (kaɔʁ Occitan: Caors pronounced kaˈurs ˈkɔws ˈkɔw is the principal town and commune in south west France capital of the Agen (aʒɛ̃ is a commune in the Lot-et-Garonne department in the Aquitaine region in southwestern France. Périgueux ( (in Occitan: Peireguers or Periguers) is a commune in the Dordogne department in Aquitaine ( Gascon: Bordèu) is a port city in southwest France, with one million inhabitants in its metropolitan area at a 2008 estimate Saintes may refer to the following places Saintes Belgium Saintes Charente-Maritime, a commune of France in the Charente-Maritime department Charibert campaigned successfully against the Basques, but after his death they revolted again (632). At the same time the Bretons rose up against Frankish suzerainty. The Breton leader Judicael ap Hoel relented and made peace with the Franks and paid tribute after Dagobert threatened to lead an army against him (635). Saint Judicael ap Hoel (c 590 &ndash 16 or 17 December 658) was the King of Domnonia and a Breton High king in the mid-seventh century That same year Dagobert sent an army to subdue the Basques, which it did.
Meanwhile, Dagobert had had Charibert's infant successor Chilperic assassinated and reunited the entire Frankish realm again (632), though he was forced by the strong Austrasian aristocracy to grant his own son Sigebert III to them as a subking in 633. Chilperic (sometimes Childeric in the chronicles of the time was the infant son of Charibert II, and briefly king of Aquitaine in 632 Sigebert III (c 630&ndash656/660 was the king of Austrasia from 634 to his death probably on 1 February 656, or maybe as late as 660 This act was precipitated largely by the Austrasians desire to be self-governing at a a time when Neustrians dominated at the royal court. Chlothar had been the king at Paris for decades before becoming the king at Metz as well and the Merovingian monarchy was ever after him to be a Neustrian monarchy first and foremost. Indeed, it is in the 640s that "Neustria" first appears in writing, its late appearance relative to "Austrasia" probably due to the fact that Neustrians (who formed the bulk of the authors of the time) called their region simply "Francia". Burgundia too defined itself in opposition to Neustria at about this time. However, it was the Austrasians, who had been seen as a distinct people within the realm since the time of Gregory of Tours, who were to make the most strident moves for independence. Dagobert, in his dealings with the Saxons, Alemans, and Thuringii, as well as the Slavic peoples beyond the borders of Francia, upon whom he tried to force tribute but who instead defeated him under their king Samo at the Battle of Wogastisburg, made all the far eastern peoples subject to the court of Neustria and not of Austrasia. Samo (died 658 was a Frankish merchant from the "Senonian country" ( Senonago) probably modern Sens, France. According to the contemporary Chronicle of Fredegar, the battle of Wogastisburg was a battle between Slavs ( Sclav cognomento Winidi) under This, first and foremost, incited the Austrasians to request a king of their own from the royal household.
The young Sigebert was dominated during his minority by the mayor Grimoald I, who convinced the childless king to adopt his own Merovingian-named son Childebert as his son and heir. Grimoald I (616-656 called the Elder (in French, Grimaud) was the Mayor of the Palace of Austrasia from 643 to 656 When King Sigebert III died in 656 Grimoald the Elder had Sigebert's son Dagobert II shorn of hair and packed off to an Irish Monastery and After Dagobert's death in 639, the duke of Thuringia, Radulf, rebelled and tried to make himself king. This is a list of the rulers of Thuringia, an historical and political region of Central Germany. Radulf was the Duke of Thuringia ( dux Thoringiae) from 632 or 633 (certainly before 634 until his death after 642 He defeated Sigebert in what was a serious reversal for the ruling dynasty (640). The king lost the support of many magnates while on campaign and the weakness of the monarchic institutions by that time are evident in his inability to effectively make war without the support of the magnates; in fact, he could not even provide his own bodyguard without the loyal aid of Grimoald and Adalgisel. Adalgisel or Adalgis ( Adalgyselus ducis in contemporary Latin) was a Frankish duke and the Mayor of the palace of He is often regarded as the first roi fainéant: "do-nothing king", not insofar as he "did nothing", but insofar as he accomplished little. Roi fainéant is a French language phrase meaning "do-nothing king"
Clovis II, Dagobert's successor in Neustria and Burgundy, which were thereafter attached yet ruled separately, was a minor for almost the whole of his reign. Clovis II (637&ndash 27 November 655 or 658 succeeded his father Dagobert I in 639 as King of Neustria and Burgundy. He was dominated by his mother Nanthild and the mayor of the Neustrian palace, Erchinoald. Nanthild (c 610 &ndash 642 (also known as Nantéchilde, Nanthechilde, Nanthildis, Nanthilde, or Nantechildis) was the third of Erchinoald (also Erkinoald and in French, Erchenout) succeeded Aega as the Mayor of the palace of Neustria in 641 and Erchinoald's successor, Ebroin, dominated the kingdom for the next fifteen years of near-constant civil war. Ebroin (died 680 or 681 was the Frankish Mayor of the palace of Neustria on two occasions firstly from 658 to his deposition in 673 and secondly from On his death (656), Sigbert's son was shipped off to Ireland while Grimoald's son Childebert reign in Austrasia. Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world Ebroin eventually reunited the entire Frankish kingdom for Clovis' successor Chlothar III by killing Grimoald and removing Childebert in 661. Chlothar III (or Chlotar, Clothar, Clotaire, Chlotochar, or Hlothar, giving rise to Lothair; 652 &ndash 673 was the eldest However, the Austrasian demanded a king of their own again and Chlothar installed his younger brother Childeric II. Childeric II (c 653 &ndash 675 was the king of Austrasia from 662 and of Neustria and Burgundy from 673 until his death making him sole King of During Chlothar's reign, the Franks had made an attack on northwestern Italy, but were driven off by the Lombard king Grimoald near Rivoli. Grimoald I (c 610 - 671 was duke of Benevento (651-662 and king of the Lombards (662-671
In 673, Chlothar III died and some Neustria and Burgundian magnates invited Childeric to become king of the whole realm, but he soon upset some Neustrian magnates and he was assassinated (675). The reign of Theuderic III was to prove the end of the Merovingian dynasty's power. Theuderic III (or Theuderich, Theoderic, or Theodoric; in French, Thierry) (654 – 691 was the king of Neustria (including Thoroughly Neustrian in outlook, he allied with his mayor Berthar and made war on the Austrasian who had installed Dagobert II, Sigebert III's son, in their kingdom (briefly in opposition to Clovis III). Berthar was the Mayor of the palace of Neustria and Burgundy from 686 to 687 Dagobert II (c 650 &ndash December 23, 679) was the king of Austrasia (676 &ndash 679 the son of Sigebert III and Chimnechild of Burgundy Clovis III was the king of Austrasia from 675 to 676 Perhaps the son of Theuderic III or Clovis II, the Austrasian magnates who proclaimed him called In 687 he was defeated by Pepin of Heristal, the Arnulfing mayor of Austrasia and the real power in that kingdom, at the Battle of Tertry and was forced to accept Pepin as sole mayor and dux et princeps Francorum: "Duke and Prince of the Franks", a title which signifies, to the author of the Liber Historiae Francorum, the beginning of Pepin's "reign". Pepin (also Pippin, Pipin, or Peppin) of Herstal (c 635 &ndash 16 December 714) was the Mayor of the Palace The Pippinids or Arnulfings are the members of a family of Frankish nobles whose select scions served as Mayor of the Palace, de facto rulers of the Frankish kingdoms The Battle of Tertry was an important engagement in Merovingian Gaul between the forces of Austrasia on one side and those of Neustria and Liber historiae Francorum ("The book of the history of the Franks " is a book that briefly starts as secondary source for early Franks in the Thereafter the Merovingian monarchs showed only sporadically, in our surviving records, any activities of a non-symbolic and self-willed nature.
During the period of confusion in the 670s and 680s, attempts had been made to re-assert Frankish suzerainty over the Frisians, but to no avail. In 689, however, Pepin launched a campaign of conquest in Western Frisia (Frisia Citerior) and defeated the Frisian king Radbod near Dorestad, an important trading centre. West Friesland (also West Frisia; Dutch: West-Friesland; West Frisian language: West-Fryslân) is a historical region in the the first historically verifiable rulers of Frisia, whether they are called Dukes or kings the last royal Dynasty below is established by the Radbod or Redbad (died 719 was the duke (or king of Frisia from c In the Early Middle Ages, Dorestad was the biggest most important and flourishing city of West Europe All the land between the Scheldt and the Vlie was incorporated into Francia. The Scheldt (Dutch Schelde, French Escaut, Latin Scaldis) is a 350 km[http //www The Vlie or Vliestroom is the seaway between the Dutch islands of Vlieland and Terschelling. Then, circa 690, Pepin attacked central Frisia and took Utrecht. In 695 Pepin could even sponsor the foundation of the Archdiocese of Utrecht and the beginning of the conversion of the Frisians under Willibrord. Saint Willibrord (c 658 – November 7, 739) was a Northumbrian missionary known as the "Apostle to the Frisians " in the modern However, Eastern Frisia (Frisia Ulterior) remained outside of Frankish suzerainty. East Frisia or Eastern Friesland ( Low Saxon: Oostfreesland, German Ostfriesland) is a coastal region in the northwest of the
Having achieved great successes against the Frisians, Pepin turned towards the Alemanni. In 709 he launched a war against Willehari, duke of the Ortenau, probably in an effort to force the succession of the young sons of the deceased Gotfrid on the ducal throne. Willehari or Willihari ( Latin: Vilarius, Wilharius, Willeharius, or Willicharius) was an Alemannic duke ( Ortenaukreis is a district ( Kreis) in the west of Baden-Württemberg, Germany. Gotfrid, Gotefrid, or Gottfried ( Latin: Gotfridus or Cotefredus; died 709 was the Duke of Alemannia in the late seventh This outside interference led to another war in 712 and the Alemanni were, for the time being, restored to the Frankish fold. However, in southern Gaul, which was not under Arnulfing influence, the regions were pulling away from the royal court under leaders such as Savaric of Auxerre, Antenor of Provence, and Odo of Aquitaine. Savaric (died 715 was the Bishop of Auxerre from 710 until his death Antenor was the Patrician of Provence in the last years of the seventh and first years of the eighth century For the later duke of Aquitaine and also Gascony with the same name see Odo of Gascony. The reigns of Clovis IV and Childebert III from 691 until 711 have all the hallmarks of those of rois fainéants, though Childebert is founding making royal judgements against the interests of his supposed masters, the Arnulfings. Clovis IV (sometimes Clovis III if the other Clovis III is considered a usurper (682-695 son of Theuderic III, was the sole king of the Childebert III, called the Just (le Juste (670 or probably 683 &ndash 23 April 711) son of Theuderic III and Clotilda (or Doda and sole
When Pepin died in 714, however, the Frankish realm plunged into civil war and the dukes of the outlying provinces became de facto independent. Pepin's appointed successor, Theudoald, under his widow, Plectrude, initially opposed an attempt by the king, Dagobert III, to appoint Ragenfrid as mayor of the palace in all the realms, but soon there was a third candidate for the mayoralty of Austrasia in Pepin's illegitimate adult son, Charles Martel. Theudoald or Theodald was the Mayor of the palace, briefly unopposed in 714 until Ragenfrid was acclaimed in Neustria and Plectrude or Plectrudis (d717 was the wife of Pepin of Herstal, the Mayor of the palace and Duke of the Franks, from about 670 Dagobert III (699-715 was Merovingian king of the Franks (711-715 Ragenfrid (also Ragenfred, Raganfrid, or Ragamfred) (d731 was the Mayor of the palace of Neustria and Burgundy from 715 Charles "The Hammer" Martel (Carolus Martellus Charles "the Hammer" (ca After the defeat of Plectrude and Theudoald by the king (now Chilperic II) and Ragenfrid, Charles briefly raised a king of his own, Chlothar IV, in opposition to Chilperic. Chilperic II (c 672 &ndash 13 February 721) born Daniel, the youngest son of Childeric II, was king of Neustria from 715 and sole Chlothar IV (or Chlotar, Clothar, Clotaire, Chlotochar, or Hlothar, giving rise to Lothair; died ca 719 king Finally, at a battle near Soisson, Charles definitively defeated his rivals and forced them into hiding, eventually accepting the king back on the condition that he receive his father's positions (718). The Battle of Soissons of 718 was the last of the great pitched battles of the civil war between the heirs of Pepin of Heristal. There were no more active Merovingian kings after that point and Charles and his Carolingian heirs ruled the Franks. The Carolingian dynasty (known variously as the Carlovingians, Carolings, or Karlings) was a Frankish noble family with its origins in the
After 718 Charles Martel embarked on a series of wars intended to strengthen the Franks' hegemony in western Europe. In 718 he defeated the rebellious Saxons, in 719 he overran Western Frisia, in 723 he suppressed the Saxons again, and in 724 he defeated Ragenfrid and the rebellious Neustrians, ending the civil war phase of his rule. In 720, when Chilperic II died, he had appointed Theuderic IV king, but this last was a mere puppet of his. Theuderic IV (or Theuderich, Theoderic, or Theodoric; in French, Thierry) was the Merovingian King of the Franks In 724 he forced his choice of Hugbert for the ducal succession upon the Bavarians of Hugbert and forced the Alemanni to assist him in his campaigns in Bavaria (725 and 726), where laws were promulgated in Theuderic's name. Hugbert (also Hukbert of the Agilolfings was duke of Bavaria from 724 to 736. Hugbert (also Hukbert of the Agilolfings was duke of Bavaria from 724 to 736. In 730 Alemannia had to be subjugated by the sword and its duke, Lantfrid, was killed. Lantfrid (also Landfrid or Lanfred, Latinised Lantfridus or Lanfredus, died 730 was duke of Alamannia under Frankish In 734 Charles fought against Easterb Frisia and finally subdued it.
In the 730s the Arab conquerors of Spain, who had also subjugated Septimania, began advancing northwards into central Francia and the Loire valley. The Umayyad conquest of Hispania ( 711 – 718) began as an army of the Umayyad Caliphate consisting largely of Berbers inhabitants Septimania was the western region of the Roman province of Gallia Narbonensis that passed under the control of the Visigoths in 462 when Septimania was ceded to Loire Valley (Vallée de la Loire is known as the Garden of France and the Cradle of the French Language. It was at this time (circa 736) that Maurontus, the dux of Provence, called in the Arabs to aid him in resisting the expanding influence of the Carolingians. Maurontus or Maurontius was the Duke or Patrician of Provence in the early eighth century (720s and 730s However, Charles invaded the Rhone valley with his brother Childebrand and a Lombard army and devastated the region. The Rhône wine region in Southern France is situated in the Rhône river valley and produces numerous wines under various Appellation d'origine contrôlée Childebrand (678 Heristal -751 was a Frankish duke ( dux) son of Pepin of Heristal and Alpaida, brother of Charles Martel It was because of the alliance against the Arabs that Charles was unable to support Pope Gregory III against the Lombards. Gregory III (died November 29, 741) was Pope from 731 to 741 A Syrian by birth he succeeded Gregory II in March 731 In 732 or 737—modern scholars have debated over the date—Charles marched against an Arab army between Poitiers and Tours and defeated it in a watershed battle that turned back the tide of the Arab advance north of the Pyrenees; but Charles' real interests lay in the northeast, primarily with the Saxons, from whom he had to extort the tribute which for centuries they had paid to the Merovingians. Poitiers is a town on the Clain River in west central France. Tours is a city in France the Préfecture (capital city of the Indre-et-Loire département, on the lower reaches of the river The Battle of Tours (October 10 732 also called the Battle of Poitiers and in معركة بلاط الشهداء (ma‘arakat Balâṭ ash-Shuhadâ’ Battle of Court
Shortly before his death in October 741, Charles divided the realm as if he were king between his two sons by his first wife, marginalising his younger son Grifo, who did receive a small portion (it is unknown exactly what). Grifo (726&ndash753 was the son of the Frankish Major domo Charles Martel and his second wife Swanahild. Though there had been no king since Theuderic's death in 737, Charles' sons Pepin the Short and Carloman were still only mayors of the palaces. Pepin or Pippin (714 &ndash 24 September 768) called the Short, and often known as Pepin the Younger or Pepin III, was Carloman (between 706 and 716 &ndash 17 August 754 was the eldest son of Charles Martel, Major domo or Mayor of the palace and duke The Carolingians had assumed the regal status and practice, though not the regal title, of the Merovingians. The division of the kingdom gave Austrasia, Alemannia, and Thuringia to Carloman and Neustria, Provence, and Burgundy to Pepin. Alamannia or Alemannia was the territory inhabited by the Alamanni after they broke through the Roman limes in 213 The Free State of Thuringia (Freistaat Thüringen is located in central Germany. It is indicative of the de facto autonomy of the duchies of Aquitaine (under Hunoald) and Bavaria (under Odilo) that they were not included in the division of the regnum. Hunald (also known as Hunoald, Hunuald, Chunoald, Chunold, Hunold, or Hunaud) Duke of Aquitaine (735-744 or Odilo (d 18 January 748) a son of Gotfrid of the house of Agilolfing, ruled Bavaria from 736 until his death in 748 succeeding Duke
After Charles Martel was buried, in the Abbey of Saint-Denis alongside the Merovingian kings, conflict immediately erupted between Pepin and Carloman on one side and Grifo their younger brother on the other. The Basilica of Saint Denis ( French: Basilique de Saint-Denis, or simply Basilique Saint-Denis) is the burial site of almost all the French Though Carloman captured and imprisoned Grifo, it may have been enmity between the elder brothers that caused Pepin to release Grifo while Carloman was on a pilgrimage to Rome. Perhaps in an effort to neutralise his brother ambitions, Carloman initiated the appointment of a new king, Childeric III, drawn from a monastery, in 743. Childeric III (died about 753 was the last King of the Franks in the Merovingian dynasty from 743 to his deposition in 751 Others have suggested that perhaps the position of the two brothers was weak or challenged, or perhaps there Carloman was merely acting for a loyalist or legitimist party in the kingdom.
In 743 Pepin campaigned against Odilo and forced him to submit to Frankish suzerainty. Carloman also campaigned against the Saxons and the two together defeated a rebellion led by Hunoald at the head of the Basques and another led by Alemanni, in which Liutfrid of Alsatia probably died, either fighting for or against the brothers. The Basques (Euskaldunak are a people who inhabit a region spanning over parts of north-central Spain and southwestern France. Liutfrid, Leodefred, Leudefred, or Leudefrid (died probably 742 was the Duke of Alsace, the third in a line of Etichonid dukes dating In 746, however, the Frankish armies were still, as Carloman was preparing to retire from politics and enter the monastery of Mount Soracte. The Monte Soratte (ancient Soracte) is a mountain ridge in the Province of Rome, Italy. Pepin's position was further stabilised and the path was laid for his assumption of the crown in 751.
Pippin reigned as an elected king. Carolingian Empire is a historiographical term sometimes used to refer to the realm of the Franks under the Carolingian dynasty. Although such elections happened infrequently, a general rule in Germanic law stated that the king relied on the support of his leading men. The word leadership can refer to Those entities that perform one or more acts of leading These men reserved the right to choose a new "kingworthy" leader out of the ruling clan if they felt that the old one could not lead them in profitable battle. While in later France the kingdom became hereditary, the kings of the later Holy Roman Empire proved unable to abolish the elective tradition and continued as elected rulers until the empire's formal end in 1806. The Holy Roman Empire ( HRE; German Heiliges Römisches Reich (HRR, Latin Sacrum Romanum Imperium (SRI was a union of territories in The Prince-Electors (or simply Electors) of the Holy Roman Empire ( German: Kurfürst ( pl Year 1806 ( MDCCCVI) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common
Pippin solidified his position in 754 by entering into an alliance with Pope Stephen II, who presented the king of the Franks a copy of the forged "Donation of Constantine" at Paris and in a magnificent ceremony at Saint-Denis anointed the king and his family and declared him patricius Romanorum ("protector of the Romans"). Events By Place Asia Al-Mansur, the second Abbasid Caliph, starts to rule In sources prior to the 1960s this pope is sometimes called Stephen III and Pope-elect Stephen is sometimes called Stephen II. The Donation of Constantine ( Latin, Donatio Constantini) is a forged Roman imperial edict devised probably between 750 and 775, the The Basilica of Saint Denis ( French: Basilique de Saint-Denis, or simply Basilique Saint-Denis) is the burial site of almost all the French The following year Pippin fulfilled his promise to the pope and retrieved the Exarchate of Ravenna, recently fallen to the Lombards, and returned it to the Papacy. The Exarchate of Ravenna or of Italy was a centre of Byzantine power in Italy, from the end of the 6th century to 751, when the The Lombards ( Latin Langobardi, whence the alternative names Langobards and Longobards) were a Germanic people originally from Pippin donated the re-conquered areas around Rome to the Pope, laying the foundation for the Papal States in the "Donation of Pippin" which he laid on the tomb of St Peter. The Papal States, State(s of the Church or Pontifical States (in Italian Stato Ecclesiastico, Stato della Chiesa, Stati della Chiesa See also Donation of Constantine The "Donation of Pepin" in 756 provided a legal basis for the erection of the Papal States, which extended The papacy had good cause to expect that the remade Frankish monarchy would provide a deferential power base (potestas) in the creation of a new world order, centred on the Pope.
Upon Pippin's death in 768, his sons, Charles and Carloman, once again divided the kingdom between themselves. Events By Place Europe Pepin the Short ( 714 — 768 king of the Franks since 751, dies he is succeeded Carloman I ( 28 June, 751 – December 4, 771) was the King of the Franks from 768 until his death in 771 However, Carloman withdrew to a monastery and died shortly thereafter, leaving sole rule to his brother, who would later become known as Charlemagne or Charles the Great, a powerful, intelligent, and modestly literate figure who became a legend for the later history of both France and Germany. Charlemagne (ˈʃɑrlɨmeɪn Carolus Magnus or Karolus Magnus meaning Charles the Great) (747 – 28 January 814 was King of the Franks from 768 to his Charlemagne restored an equal balance between emperor and pope.
From 772 onwards, Charles conquered and eventually defeated the Saxons to incorporate their realm into the Frankish kingdom. Events By Place Europe Charlemagne starts fighting the Saxons and the Frisians; Saxony is subdued and converted The Saxons or Saxon people were a Confederation of Old Germanic tribes. This campaign expanded the practice of non-Roman Christian rulers undertaking the conversion of their neighbours by armed force; Frankish Catholic missionaries, along with others from Ireland and Anglo-Saxon England, had entered Saxon lands since the mid-8th century, resulting in increasing conflict with the Saxons, who resisted the missionary efforts and parallel military incursions. Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world The History of Anglo-Saxon England covers the history of Early medieval England from the end of Roman Britain and the establishment of Anglo-Saxon The 8th century is the period from 701 to 800 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian / Common Era. Charles' main Saxon opponent, Widukind, accepted baptism in 785 as part of a peace agreement, but other Saxon leaders continued to fight. Blessed Widukind or Wittekind (c 730&ndash808 was a Saxon leader Duke of Saxony (corresponding to modern-day Westphalia and the chief antagonist Events By Place Europe Widukind and many other Saxons are baptized Upon his victory in 787 at Verdun, Charles ordered the wholesale killing of thousands of pagan Saxon prisoners. Events By Place Europe Canual succeeds Talorgen as king of the Picts. Verdun (medieval Wirten official name before 1970 Verdun-sur-Meuse) is a city and commune Paganism (from Latin paganus, meaning "country dweller rustic" is a word used to refer to various religions and religious beliefs from across the world After several more uprisings, the Saxons suffered definitive defeat in 804. This article is about the year AD 804 For other uses of the term see 804 (disambiguation. This expanded the Frankish kingdom eastwards as far as the Elbe river, something the Roman empire had only attempted once, and at which it failed in the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest (9 AD). The Elbe ( die Elbe Low German: de Ilv) is one of the major Rivers of Central Europe. The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest took place in the year 9 A Year 9 ( IX) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Julian calendar. In order to more effectively Christianize the Saxons, Charles founded several bishoprics, among them Bremen, Münster, Paderborn, and Osnabrück. The Archdiocese of Bremen is a historical Roman Catholic diocese and a former eccesiastical state in the Holy Roman Empire. Münster ( is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It is located in the northern part of the state and is considered to be the cultural centre of the Paderborn (paːdɐˈbɔʁn is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, capital of the Paderborn district. Osnabrück (ɔsnaˈbʁʏk is a City in Lower Saxony, Germany, some 80 km NNE of Dortmund, 45 km NE of Münster, and some 100 km due
At the same time (773–774), Charles conquered the Lombards and thus included northern Italy in his sphere of influence. Events By Place Europe Charlemagne crosses the Alps and invades the kingdom of the Lombards. Events By Place Europe Charlemagne conquers the kingdom of the Lombards, and takes title King of the Lombards The Lombards ( Latin Langobardi, whence the alternative names Langobards and Longobards) were a Germanic people originally from He renewed the Vatican donation and the promise to the papacy of continued Frankish protection.
In 788, Tassilo, dux (duke) of Bavaria rebelled against Charles. Events By Place Europe Charlemagne conquers Bavaria. Bermudo I succeeds Mauregato as king Quashing the rebellion incorporated Bavaria into Charles' kingdom. This not only added to the royal fisc, but also drastically reduced the power and influence of the Agilolfings (Tassilo's family), another leading family among the Franks and potential rivals. The Agilolfings were a family of either Frankish or Bavarian nobility that ruled the Duchy of Bavaria on behalf of their Merovingian suzerains Until 796, Charles continued to expand the kingdom even farther southeast, into today's Austria and parts of Croatia. Events By Place Europe December - Coenwulf becomes king of Mercia. Austria (Österreich ( officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich Croatia (Hrvatska ˈxȓvatska officially the Republic of Croatia ( Republika Hrvatska) is a southern Central European country at the crossroads between
Charles thus created a realm that reached from the Pyrenees in the southwest (actually, including an area in Northern Spain (Marca Hispanica) after 795) over almost all of today's France (except Brittany, which the Franks never conquered) eastwards to most of today's Germany, including northern Italy and today's Austria. The Pyrenees (Pirineos French: Pyrénées; Catalan: Pirineus; Occitan: Pirenèus; Aragonese: Perinés The Marca Hispanica (or Spanish March, also March of Barcelona) was a Buffer zone beyond the province of Septimania, created by Charlemagne Brittany (Breizh bʁejs Bretagne; Gallo: Bertaèyn) is a former independent Celtic kingdom and Duchy, now incorporated into Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Austria (Österreich ( officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich In the hierarchy of the church, bishops and abbots looked to the patronage of the king's palace, where the sources of patronage and security lay. Charles had fully emerged as the leader of Western Christendom, and his patronage of monastic centres of learning gave rise to the "Carolingian Renaissance" of literate culture. Christendom usually refers to Christianity as a territorial phenomenon The Carolingian Renaissance was a period of intellectual and cultural revival occurring in the late eighth and ninth centuries with the peak of the activities Charles also created a large palace at Aachen, a series of roads, and a canal.
On Christmas Day, 800, Pope Leo III crowned Charles as "Emperor of the Romans" in Rome in a ceremony presented as a surprise (Charlemagne did not wish to be indebted to the bishop of Rome), a further papal move in the series of symbolic gestures that had been defining the mutual roles of papal auctoritas and imperial potestas. Events By Place Europe September 15 - Oldest known mention of Monkey. Pope Leo III (died June 12, 816) was Pope from 795 to 816 Protected by Charlemagne from his enemies in Rome he subsequently strengthened An emperor (from the Latin " Imperator " is a (male Monarch, usually the sovereign ruler of an Empire or another type of Though Charlemagne, in deference to Byzantine outrage, preferred the title "Emperor, king of the Franks and Lombards", the ceremony formally acknowledged the Frankish Empire as the successor of the (Western) Roman one (although only the forged "Donation" gave the pope political authority to do this), thus triggering a series of disputes with the Byzantines around the Roman name. Since the time of Homer, some Greeks have called themselves Hellenes ( in Homer "Hellas" (Eλλάς and "Hellenes" were names of After an initial protest at the usurpation, in 812, the Byzantine Emperor Michael I Rhangabes acknowledged Charlemagne as co-Emperor. Events By Place Europe The second Battle of Roncevaux Pass is fought between the Basques and the Franks. This is a list of the Emperors of the Eastern Roman Empire, commonly known as the Byzantine Empire by modern historians Michael I Rangabe ( Greek: Μιχαήλ Α΄ Ραγγαβέ Mikhaēl I Rangabe) (died January 11, 844) was Byzantine Emperor The coronation gave permanent legitimacy to Carolingian primacy among the Franks. The Ottonians later resurrected this connection in 962. The Ottonian dynasty was a dynasty of Germanic Kings (919-1024 named after its first emperor but also known as the Saxon dynasty after the family's origin Events By Place Europe February 2 — Pope John XII crowns Otto I the Great Holy Roman Emperor.
Upon Charlemagne's death on January 28, 814 in Aachen, he was buried in his own Palace Chapel at Aachen. Events 1077 - Walk to Canossa: The Excommunication of Henry IV Holy Roman Emperor is lifted Events By Place Europe Charlemagne dies in Aachen, aged 67 or 72 (depending on source Louis the Pious ( Ripuarian: Oche, Dutch: Aken, Spanish: Aquisgrán, Italian: Aquisgrana, French, The Aachen Cathedral frequently referred to as the " Imperial Cathedral " (in German: Kaiserdom is a Roman Catholic church in Aachen Unlike the previous Roman Empire, which had never been advanced beyond the Rhine after the disaster at the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest, Charlemagne crushed all German and Slavic resisitence he faced and extended his realm completely to the Elbe. The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest took place in the year 9 A
Charlemagne had several sons, but only one survived him. This son, Louis the Pious, followed his father as the ruler of a united empire. Louis the Pious (778 &ndash 20 June 840) also called the Fair, and the Debonaire, was the King of Aquitaine from 781 and co-Emperor But sole inheritance remained a matter of chance, rather than intent. When Louis died in 840, the Carolingians adhered to the custom of partible inheritance, and the Treaty of Verdun in 843 divided the empire in three:
Subsequently, at the Treaty of Mersen (870) the partitions were recast, to the detriment of Lotharingia. The Treaty of Meerssen or Mersen in 870 was an agreement of the division of the Carolingian Empire by the surviving sons of Louis I, Charles On December 12, 884, Charles the Fat reunited most of the Carolingian Empire, aside from Burgundy. Events 627 - Battle of Nineveh: A Byzantine army under Emperor Heraclius defeats Emperor Khosrau II 's Persian Events By Place Europe March 1 — Diego Rodríguez Porcelos founds and repopulates Burgos. Charles the Fat (Carolus Pinguis 13 June 839 – 13 January 888) was the King of Alemannia from 876 King of Italy from Burgundy (Bourgogne Burgund is a region historically situated in modern-day France and Switzerland, inhabited in turn by Celts ( Gauls) In late 887, his nephew, Arnulf of Carinthia revolted and assumed the title as King of the East Franks. Events By Place Asia Emperor Uda ascends to the throne of Japan. Arnulf of Carinthia (Arnulf von Kärnten Arnulf Koroški 850 &ndash December 8 899) was the Carolingian King of East Francia from 887 Charles retired and soon died on January 13, 888. Events 532 - Nika riots in Constantinople. 888 - Odo Count of Paris becomes King of the Franks This article is about the year AD 888 For other uses see 888 (disambiguation. Odo, Count of Paris was chosen to rule in the west, and was crowned the next month. For the Duke of Burgundy (956-965 please see Odo Duke of Burgundy. At this point, West Francia was composed of Neustria in the west and in the east by Francia proper, the region between the Meuse and the Seine. Meuse (møːz is a department in northeast France, named after the Meuse River. The Seine (sɛn in French) is a slow flowing major River and commercial waterway within the regions of Île-de-France and Haute-Normandie The Carolingians were restored ten years later in West Francia, and ruled until 987, when the last Frankish King, Louis V, died. Louis V (c 967 – 21 May 987) called the Indolent or the Sluggard (from French Louis le Fainéant, meaning "Louis
West Francia was the land under the control of Charles the Bald. West Francia or the West Frankish Kingdom was a short-lived kingdom encompassing the lands of the western part of the Carolingian Empire that came under the undisputed Charles the Bald ( 13 June 823 – 6 October 877) Holy Roman Emperor (875–877 as Charles II) and King of West Francia It is the precursor of modern France. It was divided into the following great fiefs: Aquitaine, Brittany, Burgundy, Catalonia, Flanders, Gascony, Gothia, the Île-de-France, and Toulouse. Aquitaine (Aquitània Akitania archaic Guyenne / Guienne (Occitan Guiana) is one of the 26 Regions of France, in the south-western part of Brittany (Breizh bʁejs Bretagne; Gallo: Bertaèyn) is a former independent Celtic kingdom and Duchy, now incorporated into Burgundy (Bourgogne Burgund is a region historically situated in modern-day France and Switzerland, inhabited in turn by Celts ( Gauls) Catalonia (Cataluña Catalunya Aranese: Catalonha) is an Autonomous Community in the northeast part of Spain. Flanders (Vlaanderen Flandre Flandern is a geographical region located in parts of present day Belgium, France, and the Netherlands. Gascony (Gascogne gaskɔɲ Gascon Occitan: Gasconha, pronounced) is an area of southwest France that constituted a province of France Septimania was the western region of the Roman province of Gallia Narbonensis that passed under the control of the Visigoths in 462 when Septimania was ceded to Île-de-France is one of the ancient Provinces of France, and the one that has been the centre of power during most of French history. Toulouse ( pronounced in standard French, and in the local accent ( Occitan: Tolosa, pronounced) is a city in southwest After 987, the kingdom came to be known as France, because the new ruling dynasty (the Capetians) were originally dukes of the Île-de-France. Events By Place Europe Hugh Capet, Count of Paris, is crowned King of France. For a full history of the Capetian family see Capetian dynasty.
Middle Francia was the territory ruled by Lothair I, wedged between East and West Francia. Middle Francia designates the realm created for Emperor Lothair I (843-855 wedged between East Francia and West Francia. Lothair I ( German: Lothar, French: Lothaire, Italian: Lotario) (795 &ndash 29 September 855) The kingdom, which included the Kingdom of Italy, Burgundy, the Provence, and the west of Austrasia, was an unnatural creation of the Treaty of Verdun, with no historical or ethnic identity. Burgundy (Bourgogne Burgund is a region historically situated in modern-day France and Switzerland, inhabited in turn by Celts ( Gauls) Provence ( Provençal Occitan: Provença in classical norm or Prouvènço in Mistralian norm is a region of southeastern France Austrasia (rarely Austria, both meaning "eastern land" formed the north-eastern portion of the Kingdom of the Merovingian Franks, comprising The kingdom was split on the death of Lothair II in 869 into those of Lotharingia, Provence (with Burgundy divided between it and Lotharingia), and Italy. Lothair II ( 835 - August 8, 869) was the second son of Emperor Lothair I and Ermengarde of Tours. Events By Place Asia The Zanj (Black slaves from East Africa) provoked by mercilessly harsh labor conditions in the salt flats --> Lotharingia or Lorraine was a short-lived kingdom in Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest
East Francia was the land of Louis the German. East ( ern) Francia ( Regnum Francorum orientalium) known variously as Francia Orientalis or the Kingdom of the East Franks, was the Louis (also Ludwig or Lewis) the German (also known as Louis II or Louis the Bavarian) (806 &ndash August 28, 876 It was divided into four duchies: Swabia (Alamannia), Franconia, Saxony and Bavaria (including Moravia and Carinthia); to which after the death of Lothair II were added the eastern parts of Lotharingia. The following is a list of Dukes of Swabia in southwest Germany Alamannia or Alemannia was the territory inhabited by the Alamanni after they broke through the Roman limes in 213 Franconia (Franken is a historic region of Germany comprising the northern parts of the modern state of Bavaria and the area to its immediate west The mediæval Duchy of Saxony was a late Early Middle Ages "Carolingian Stem duchy " covering the greater part of Northern Germany. Bavaria ( German:, with an area of 70553 Km² (27241 square miles and almost 12 Moravia (Morava; Morawy Moravie Moravia is a historical region in central Europe in the east of the Czech Republic, one of the former Czech lands. The Duchy of Carinthia (Herzogtum Kärnten Vojvodina Koroška was a Duchy located in southern Austria and parts of northern Slovenia. --> Lotharingia or Lorraine was a short-lived kingdom in This division persisted until 1268, the end of the Hohenstaufen dynasty. Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor was crowned on 2 February 962, marking the beginning of the Holy Roman Empire (translatio imperii). Otto I the Great ( 23 November 912 &ndash 7 May 973) son of Henry I the Fowler and Matilda of Ringelheim, was Duke Events 962 - Translatio imperii: Pope John XII crowns Otto I Holy Roman Emperor, the first Holy Roman Emperor Events By Place Europe February 2 — Pope John XII crowns Otto I the Great Holy Roman Emperor. The Holy Roman Empire ( HRE; German Heiliges Römisches Reich (HRR, Latin Sacrum Romanum Imperium (SRI was a union of territories in Translatio imperii, Latin for "transfer of rule" is a concept invented in the Middle Ages for describing History as a Linear From the 10th century, East Francia became also known as regnum Teutonicum ("Teutonic kingdom" or "Kingdom of Germany"), a term that became prevalent in Salian times. The Kingdom of Germany grew out of East Francia in the tenth century See also Salian Franks, Salic law The Salian dynasty was a Dynasty in the High Middle Ages of four German Kings (1024-1125 The title of Holy Roman Emperor was used from that time, beginning with Conrad II. Conrad II (c 990&ndash June 4, 1039) was the son of a mid-level nobleman in Franconia, Count Henry of Speyer and Adelaide of Alsace who inherited
The different Frankish tribes, such as the Salii, Ripuarii, and Chamavi, had different legal traditions, which were only lately codified, largely under Charlemagne. The Leges Salica, Ribuaria, and Chamavorum were Carolingian creations, their basis in earlier Frankish reality being difficult for scholars to discern at the present distance. Salic law ( Lat Lex Salica) was an important body of traditional Law codified for governing the Salian Franks in the Early Middle Ages The Lex Ripuaria is a 7th century collection of Germanic law, the laws of the Ripuarian Franks. Under Charlemagne codifications were also made of the Saxon law and the Frisian law. The Lex Saxonum was the Germanic tribal law of the Saxons. It was issued by Charlemagne in 785 as part of his plan to subdue the Saxon nation Lex Frisionum, the "Law Code of the Frisians" was recorded in Latin during the reign of Charlemagne, after the year 785, when the Frankish conquest It was also under Frankish hegemony that the other Germanic societies east of the Rhine began to codify their tribal law, in such compilations as the Lex Alamannorum and Lex Bajuvariorum for the Alemanni and Bavarii respectively. The terms Lex Alamannorum and Pactus Alamannorum refer to two early medieval Law codes of the Alamanni. The Lex Baiuvariorum (also Lex Baiuwariorum, Lex Bajuvariorum, or Lex Baivariorum) was a collection of the tribal laws of the Bavarii Throughout the Frankish kingdoms there continued to be Gallo-Romans subject to Roman law and clergy subject to canon law. This article covers the culture of Romanized areas of Gaul. For the political history of the brief "Gallic Empire" of the 3rd century see Gallic Empire Roman law is the legal system of Ancient Rome. As used in the West the term commonly refers to legal developments prior to the Roman/Byzantine state's adopting Canon law is internal ecclesiastical law governing the Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox churches and the Anglican Communion of churches After the Frankish conquest of Septimania and Catalonia, those regions which had formerly been under Gothic control continued to utilise the Visigothic law code. Septimania was the western region of the Roman province of Gallia Narbonensis that passed under the control of the Visigoths in 462 when Septimania was ceded to Catalonia (Cataluña Catalunya Aranese: Catalonha) is an Autonomous Community in the northeast part of Spain. The Visigothic Code ( Latin, Forum Iudicum or Liber Judiciorum; Spanish, Libro de los Juicios) comprises a set
During the early period Frankish law was preserved by the rachimburgs, officials trained to remember it and pass it on. The Merovingians adopted the capitulary as a tool for the promulgation and preservation of royal ordinances. A capitulary ( Medieval Latin capitularium) was a series of Legislative or administrative acts emanating from the Frankish court of Its usage was to continue under the Carolingians and even the later Spoletan emperors Guy and Lambert under a programme of renovation regni Francorum ("renewal of the Frankish kingdom"). The dukes of Spoleto were rulers of Spoleto and most of Central Italy outside the Papal States during the Early and High Middle Ages Guy of Spoleto (died 12 December 894) sometimes known by the Italian version of his name Guido, or by the German version Wido, was the Lambert II (c 880 &ndash 15 October 898) was the King of Italy from 891 Holy Roman Emperor, co-ruling with his father from 892 and Duke
The last Merovingian capitulary was one of the most significant: the edict of Paris, issued by Chlothar II in 614 in the presence of his magnates, had been likened to a Frankish Magna Carta entrenching the rights of the nobility, but in actuality it sought to remove corruption from the judiciary and protect local and regional interests. The Edict of Paris of Clotaire II, the Merovingian King of the Franks, promulgated October 18 614 (or perhaps 615) is Magna Carta ( Latin for Great Charter, literally " Great Paper " also called Magna Carta Libertatum ( Great Charter of Freedoms Even after the last Merovingian capitulary, kings of the dynasty continued to independently exercise some legal powers. Childebert III even found cases against the powerful Arnulfings and became renowned among the people for his justness. The Pippinids or Arnulfings are the members of a family of Frankish nobles whose select scions served as Mayor of the Palace, de facto rulers of the Frankish kingdoms But law in Francia was to experience a renaissance under the Carolingians. The Carolingian Renaissance was a period of intellectual and cultural revival occurring in the late eighth and ninth centuries with the peak of the activities
Among the legal reforms adopted by Charlemagne were the codifications of traditional law mentioned above. He also sought to place checks on the power of local and regional judiciaries by the method of appointing missi dominici in pairs to oversee specific regions for short periods of time. A missus dominicus (plural missi dominici) Latin for "Envoy of the Lord ' also known as Sendgraf in German, Zendgraaf in Usually missi were selected from outside their respective regions in order to prevent conflicts of interest. A capitulary of 802 gives insight into their duties. They were to execute justice, enforce respect for the royal rights, control the administration of the counts (then royal appointees), receive the oath of allegiance, and supervise the clergy.
The most dramatic change in medieval Gaul was the collapse of trade and town life. While many "towns" existed in the Dark Ages, they were usually only the fortified villages or market-centers surrounding government or religious buildings; many of these towns were, however, descended from Roman cities. This article is about the phrase "Dark Age(s" as a characterization of the Early Middle Ages in Western Europe Some foreign trade continued, but it was carried out by foreigners-chiefly Greeks, Syrians, Jews, and (eventually) Vikings and Italians. There were, however, improvements in agriculture, notably the adoption of a new heavy plough and the growing use of the three-field system. The plough ( American spelling plow; both plaʊ is a Tool used in Farming for initial cultivation of soil in preparation for sowing seed
Byzantine coinage was in use in Francia before Theudebert I began minting his own money at the start of his reign. Byzantine currency, money used in the Eastern Roman Empire after the fall of the West consisted of mainly two types of Coins the Gold solidus Theudebert I ( French: Thibert or Théodebert) (c 500 &ndash 547 or 548 was the Merovingian king of Austrasia from 533 to his death The solidus and triens were minted in Francia between 534 and 679. The solidus (the Latin word for solid) was originally a Gold coin issued by the Romans. The triens (plural trientes) was an Ancient Roman Bronze Coin produced during the Roman Republic valued at one-third of an as The denarius (or denier) appeared later, in the name of Childeric II and various non-royals around 673–675. The Roman Currency system included the denarius (plural denarii) after 211 BC a small Silver coin, The denier was a French Coin created by Charlemagne in the Early Middle Ages. Childeric II (c 653 &ndash 675 was the king of Austrasia from 662 and of Neustria and Burgundy from 673 until his death making him sole King of A Carolingian denarius replaced the Merovingian one, and the Frisian penning, in Gaul from 755 to the eleventh century. The Pfennig (abbreviation Pf) is an old German coin or note which existed from the 9th century until the introduction of the Euro
The denarius subsequently appeared in Italy issued in the name of Carolingian monarchs after 794, later by so-called "native" kings in the tenth century, and later still by the German Emperors from Otto I (962). The Holy Roman Empire ( HRE; German Heiliges Römisches Reich (HRR, Latin Sacrum Romanum Imperium (SRI was a union of territories in Otto I the Great ( 23 November 912 &ndash 7 May 973) son of Henry I the Fowler and Matilda of Ringelheim, was Duke Finally, denarii were issued in Rome in the names of pope and emperor from Leo III and Charlemagne onwards to the late tenth century. Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 Charlemagne (ˈʃɑrlɨmeɪn Carolus Magnus or Karolus Magnus meaning Charles the Great) (747 – 28 January 814 was King of the Franks from 768 to his