A frame in social theory consists of a schema of interpretation, that is a collection of stereotypes, that individuals rely on to understand and respond to events. Social theory is an essential tool used by scholars in the analysis of society through the use of theoretical frameworks social structures and phenomena are analyzed and placed in context A stereotype (from Greek: stereo + týpos = "solid impression" is a generalized perception of first impressions behaviors presumed by a group 
To clarify: When one seeks to explain an event, the understanding often depends on the frame referred to. If a friend rapidly closes and opens an eye, we will respond very differently depending on whether we attribute this to a purely "physical" frame (he blinked) or to a social frame (he winked).
Though the former might result from a speck of dust (resulting in an involuntary and not particularly meaningful reaction), the latter would imply a voluntary and meaningful action (to convey humor to an accomplice, for example). Observers will read events seen as purely physical or within a frame of "nature" differently than those seen as occurring with social frames. But we do not look at an event and then "apply" a frame to it. Rather, individuals constantly project into the world around them the interpretive frames that allow them to make sense of it; we only shift frames (or realize that we have habitually applied a frame) when incongruity calls for a frame-shift. In other words, we only become aware of the frames that we always already use when something forces us to replace one frame with another. 
Framing, a term used in media studies, sociology and psychology, refers to the social construction of a social phenomena by media sources or specific political or social movements or organizations. Media studies is a collection of academic programs regarding the content history meaning and effects of various media. Sociology (from Latin: socius "companion" and the suffix -ology "the study of" from Greek λόγος lógos "knowledge" Psychology (from Greek grc ψῡχή psȳkhē, "breath life soul" and grc -λογία -logia) is an Academic and A social construction or social construct is any phenomenon "invented" or "constructed" by participants in a particular Culture or Society "Popular press" redirects here note that the University of Wisconsin Press publishes under the imprint "The Popular Press" When done by political or social organizations, it is likely to advance their causes or views. Framing is an inevitable process of selective influence over the individual's perception of the meanings attributed to words or phrases. In Psychology and the Cognitive sciences perception is the process of attaining awareness or understanding of sensory Information. A frame defines the packaging of an element of rhetoric in such a way as to encourage certain interpretations and to discourage others. Rhetoric has had many definitions no simple definition can do it justice
An much cited example demonstrating the power of framing is provided by Kahneman and Tversky(see below) in their research on heuristics. heuristic (hyu̇-ˈris-tik is a method to help solve a problem commonly an informal method They gave experimental subjects the following statement:
"Imagine that the U. S. is preparing for the outbreak of an unusual Asian disease, which is expected to kill 600 people. Two alternative programs to combat the disease have been proposed. Assume that the exact scientific estimates of the consequences of the programs are as, follows: If Program A is adopted, 200 people will be saved. If program B is adopted, there is a one-third probability that 600 people will be saved and a two thirds probability that no people will he saved. Which of the two programs would you favor?"
The results were as follows: 78 chose Program A; 22 chose Program B. However, when the wording was altered so that the consequences remained the same but referred instead to the the number of deaths (e. g. If Program A is adopted, then 400 people will die), the results were nearly reversed. 
Word-selection has contributed to rhetoric since time immemorial. Diction, in its original primary meaning refers to the writer's or the speaker's distinctive Vocabulary choices and style of expression. Rhetoric has had many definitions no simple definition can do it justice But most commentators attribute the concept of framing to the work of Erving Goffman and point especially to his 1974 book, Frame analysis: An essay on the organization of experience. Erving Goffman ( June 11, 1922 – November 19, 1982) was a Canadian and American sociologist and writer Goffman used the idea of frames to label "schemata of interpretation" that allow individuals or groups "to locate, perceive, identify, and label" events and occurrences, thus rendering meaning, organizing experiences, and guiding actions.  Goffman's framing concept evolved out of his 1959 work, The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life, a commentary on the management of impressions. The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life is a seminal Sociology book by Erving Goffman. Management (covering theory practice and scope of management and Manager' (covering the people who manage might help clarify and systematise These works arguably depend on Kenneth Boulding's concept of image. Kenneth Ewart Boulding ( January 18 1910 – March 18 1993) was an Economist, educator peace activist Poet, religious mystic 
Early work on framing effects in economics, as performed by Amos Tversky and Daniel Kahneman, contributed to Kahneman winning the 2002 Nobel Prize in Economics. In Economics, framing means the manner in which a Rational choice problem has been presented Amos Nathan Tversky, PhD (עמוס טברסקי March 16, 1937 - June 2, 1996) was a cognitive and mathematical psychologist Daniel Kahneman (דניאל כהנמן (born 5 March 1934 is an Israeli American psychologist and Nobel laureate, notable for his work on The Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, officially named The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel (Sveriges riksbanks pris i ekonomisk
Framing in politics
Framing has become a prominent strategic issue in politics, particularly in the United States of America, where both the Democratic and Republican political parties compete to utilize it. A Strategy is a long term plan of action designed to achieve a particular goal, most often "winning Politics Politics is the process by which groups of people make decisions The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The Democratic Party is one of two major Political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. According to the New York Times:
Even before the election, a new political word had begun to take hold of the party, beginning on the West Coast and spreading like a virus all the way to the inner offices of the Capitol. The United States presidential election of 2004 was held on Tuesday November 2, 2004, to elect the President of the United States. The " West Coast " " Western Seaboard " or " Pacific Seaboard " are terms for the westernmost coastal states of the Western United States That word was 'framing. ' Exactly what it means to 'frame' issues seems to depend on which Democrat you are talking to, but everyone agrees that it has to do with choosing the language to define a debate and, more important, with fitting individual issues into the contexts of broader story lines. "
George Lakoff, a Berkeley professor of cognitive linguistics, has been a prominent voice in discussing the effects of framing on politics. "Lakoff" and "Professor Lakoff" redirect here The University of California Berkeley (also referred to as Cal, Berkeley and UC Berkeley) is a major research university located in Berkeley In Linguistics and Cognitive science, cognitive linguistics (CL refers to the school of linguistics that understands language creation learning and usage
One particular example of Lakoff's work that attained some degree of fame, was his advice to rename  trial lawyers (unpopular in the United States) as "public protection attorneys". A lawyer, according to Black's Law Dictionary, is "a person learned in the law as an attorney, Counsel or Solicitor; a person Though Americans have not generally adopted this suggestion, the Association of Trial Lawyers of America did rename themselves the "American Association of Justice", in what the Chamber of Commerce called an effort to hide their identity. The American Association for Justice (AAJ, formerly the Association of Trial Lawyers of America ( ATLA) is the leading organization for Lawyers representing A chamber of commerce (also referred to in some circles as a board of trade) is a form of Business network. 
The New York Times depicted similar intensity among Republicans:
In one recent memo, titled 'The 14 Words Never to Use,' [Frank] Luntz urged conservatives to restrict themselves to phrases from what he calls . Frank I Luntz (born February 23, 1962) is an American corporate and political consultant and Pollster who has worked most recently with the . . the 'New American Lexicon. ' Thus, a smart Republican, in Luntz's view, never advocates 'drilling for oil'; he prefers 'exploring for energy. West Texas PumpjackJPG|thumb|right|300px|This Pumpjack located south of Midland TX is a common sight in West Texas. ' He should never criticize the 'government,' which cleans our streets and pays our firemen; he should attack 'Washington,' with its ceaseless thirst for taxes and regulations. Washington DC ( formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D 'We should never use the word outsourcing,' Luntz wrote, 'because we will then be asked to defend or end the practice of allowing companies to ship American jobs overseas. Outsourcing is Subcontracting a process such as product design or Manufacturing, to a Third-party company '
From a political perspective, framing has widespread consequences. For example, the concept of framing links with that of agenda-setting: by consistently invoking a particular frame, the framing party may effectively control discussion and perception of the issue. The Agenda-setting theory is the theory that the mass - News media have a large influence on audiences by their choice of what stories to consider newsworthy and Sheldon Rampton and John Stauber in Trust Us, We're Experts illustrate how public-relations (PR) firms often use language to help frame a given issue, structuring the questions that then subsequently emerge. Sheldon Rampton (born August 4, 1957) is the editor of PR Watch, and the Author of several books that criticize the John Stauber ( 1953 -) is an American writer and political activist who has co-authored five books about Propaganda by governments private interests and Trust Us We're Experts How Industry Manipulates Science and Gambles with Your Future is a book written by Sheldon Rampton and John Stauber. Public relations (PR is the practice of managing the flow of Information between an Organization and its Publics Public relations - often referred For example, one firm advises clients to use "bridging language" that uses a strategy of answering questions with specific terms or ideas in order to shift the discourse from an uncomfortable topic to a more comfortable one.  Practitioners of this strategy might attempt to draw attention away from one frame in order to focus on another. As Lakoff notes, "On the day that George W. Bush took office, the words "tax relief" started coming out of the White House. George Walker Bush ( born July 6 1946 is the forty-third and current President of the United States. " By refocusing the structure away from one frame ("tax burden" or "tax responsibilities"), individuals can set the agenda of the questions asked in the future.
Cognitive linguists point to an example of framing in the phrase "tax relief". In Linguistics and Cognitive science, cognitive linguistics (CL refers to the school of linguistics that understands language creation learning and usage A tax cut is a reduction in taxes. Economic stimulus via tax cuts along with interest rate intervention and deficit spending are one of the central tenets of Keynesian economics In this frame, use of the concept "relief" entails a concept of taxes putting strain on the citizen:
- "The current tax code is full of inequities. Many single moms face higher marginal tax rates than the wealthy. Couples frequently face a higher tax burden after they marry. The majority of Americans cannot deduct their charitable donations. Family farms and businesses are sold to pay the death tax. And the owners of the most successful small businesses share nearly half of their income with the government. President Bush's tax cut will greatly reduce these inequities. It is a fair plan that is designed to provide tax relief to everyone who pays income taxes. "
Alternative frames may emphasize the concept of taxes as a source of infrastructural support to the citizen:
- "The truth is that the wealthy have received more from America than most Americans — not just wealth but the infrastructure that has allowed them to amass their wealth: banks, the Federal Reserve, the stock market, the Securities and Exchange Commission, the legal system, federally-sponsored research, patents, tax supports, the military protection of foreign investments, and much much more. American taxpayers support the infrastructure of wealth accumulation. It is only fair that those who benefit most should pay their fair share. "
Frames perform the necessary function of limiting debate by setting the vocabulary and metaphors through which participants can comprehend and discuss an issue. Metaphor (from the Greek: μεταφορά - metaphora, meaning "transfer" is language that directly compares seemingly unrelated subjects They form an inherent part not just of political discourse, but of cognition. Cognition is a concept used in different ways by different disciplines but is generally accepted to mean the process of awareness or thought In addition to generating new frames, politically-oriented framing research aims to increase public awareness of the indispensable connection between framing and reasoning.
- "Counterterrorism as law enforcement" vs. Counter-terrorism or counterterrorism refers to the practices tactics, techniques and strategies that Governments militaries, Police departments "Counterterrorism as war". The War on Terrorism (also known as the War on Terror) is the common term for the military political and legal, and ideological conflict and specifically for U War is an international relations Dispute, characterized by organized Violence between National Military units As Lakoff observes: "Colin Powell argued within the administration that it [the assault of September 11, 2001 ] be treated as a crime. "Lakoff" and "Professor Lakoff" redirect here Colin Luther Powell, KCB (Honorary MSC, (born April 5, 1937) is a retired General in the United States Army. In the sociological field, crime is the breach of a rule or Law for which some governing authority or force may ultimately prescribe a Punishment This would have involved international crime-fighting techniques: checking banks accounts, wire-tapping, recruiting spies and informants, engaging in diplomacy, cooperating with intelligence agencies in other governments, and if necessary, engaging in limited “police actions” with military force. . . . But the crime frame did not prevail in the Bush administration. The Presidency of George W Bush began on his inauguration on January 20, 2001 as the 43rd and current President of the United States of America Instead, a war metaphor was chosen: the “War on Terror. Metaphor (from the Greek: μεταφορά - metaphora, meaning "transfer" is language that directly compares seemingly unrelated subjects The War on Terrorism (also known as the War on Terror) is the common term for the military political and legal, and ideological conflict and specifically for U ”
- Recent popularization of the term "escalation" to describe an increase in American troop-levels in Iraq. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iraq topics. This implies that the United States has deliberately increased the scope of conflict in a provocative manner. It also implies that U. S. strategy entails a long-term military presence in Iraq, whereas "surge" framing implies a powerful but brief, transitory increase in intensity. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iraq topics. The surge is a phrase commonly used to describe United States President George W 
- The "bad apple" frame, as in the proverb "one bad apple spoils the barrel". The apple is the pomaceous Fruit of the apple tree Species Malus domestica in the Rose family Rosaceae. This frame implies that removing one underachieving or corrupt official from an institution will solve a given problem; an opposing frame presents the same problem as systematic or structural to the institution itself — a source of infectious and spreading rot. Institutions are structures and mechanisms of Social order and Cooperation governing the Behavior of a Set of Individuals 
- Program-names that may only describe the intended effects of a program but can also imply their effectiveness. These include:
- "Foreign Aid" (which implies that spending money will aid foreigners, rather than harm them)
- "Social security" (which implies that the program can be relied on to provide security for a society)
- "Stabilisation policy" (which implies that a policy will have a stabilizing effect). Aid (from the french word aide, also known as international aid, overseas aid, or foreign aid, especially in the United States) is Social security primarily refers to a Social insurance program providing social protection or protection against socially recognized conditions including poverty old A stabilization policy is a package or set of measures introduced to stabilise a financial system or economy.
Framing theory and frame analysis provide a broad theoretical approach that analysts have used in communication studies, news (Johnson-Cartee, 1995), politics, and social movements (among other applications). Communication studies is an Academic field that deals with processes of communication commonly defined as the sharing of Symbols over distances in space and time Journalism is the profession of writing or communicating formally employed by publications and broadcasters for the benefit of a particular Community of people Social movements are a type of group action. They are large informal groupings of Individuals and/or Organizations focused on specific
According to some sociologists, the "social construction of collective action frames" involves "public discourse, that is, the interface of media discourse and interpersonal interaction; persuasive communication during mobilization campaigns by movement organizations, their opponents and countermovement organizations; and consciousness raising during episodes of collective action. "
Frame-analysis for social movements
Sociologists have utilized framing to explain the process of social movements. Social movements are a type of group action. They are large informal groupings of Individuals and/or Organizations focused on specific  Movements act as carriers of beliefs and ideologies (compare memes). A meme (miːm consists of any idea or behavior that can pass from one person to another by learning or imitation In addition, they operate as part of the process of constructing meaning for participants and opposers (Snow & Benford, 1988). Sociologists deem mass-movements "successful" when the frames projected align with the frames of participants to produce resonance between the two parties. Researchers of framing speak of this process as frame re-alignment.
Frame-alignment — a process to explain social movement theory
Snow and Benford (1988) regard frame-alignment as an important element in social mobilization or movement. They argue that when individual frames become linked in congruency and complementariness, "frame alignment" occurs, producing "frame resonance", a catalyst in the process of a group making the transition from one frame to another (although not all framing efforts prove successful). The conditions that affect or constrain framing efforts include:
- "The robustness, completeness, and thoroughness of the framing effort". Snow and Benford (1988) identify three core framing-tasks, and state that the degree to which framers attend to these tasks will determine participant mobilization. They characterize the three tasks as:
- diagnostic framing for the identification of a problem and assignment of blame
- prognostic framing to suggest solutions, strategies, and tactics to a problem
- motivational framing that serves as a call to arms or rationale for action
- The relationship between the proposed frame and the larger belief-system; centrality – the frame cannot be of low hierarchical significance and salience within the larger belief system. Its range and interrelatedness – if the framer links the frame to only one core belief or value that, in itself, has a limited range within the larger belief system, the frame has a high degree of being discounted.
- Relevance of the frame to the realities of the participants; a frame must seem relevant to participants and must also inform them. Empirical credibility or testability can constrain relevancy: it relates to participant experience, and has narrative fidelity, meaning that it fits in with existing cultural myths and narrations.
- Cycles of protest (Tarrow 1983a; 1983b); the point at which the frame emerges on the timeline of the current era and existing preoccupations with social change. Previous frames may affect efforts to impose a new frame.
Snow and Benford (1988) propose that once someone has constructed proper frames as described above, large-scale changes in society such as those necessary for social movement can be achieved through frame-alignment.
Four types of frame-alignment
Frame-alignment comes in four forms,: frame bridging, frame amplification, frame extension and frame transformation.
- Frame bridging involves the "linkage of two or more ideologically congruent but structurally unconnected frames regarding a particular issue or problem" (Snow et al. , 1986, p. 467). It involves the linkage of a movement to "unmobilized [sic] sentiment pools or public opinion preference clusters" (p. Sic is a Latin word meaning "thus" "so" "as such" or "just as that" 467) of people who share similar views or grievances but who lack an organizational base.
- Frame amplification refers to "the clarification and invigoration of an interpretive frame that bears on a particular issue, problem, or set of events" (Snow et al. , 1986, p. 469). This interpretive frame usually involves the invigorating of values or beliefs.
- Frame extensions represent a movement's effort to incorporate participants by extending the boundaries of the proposed frame to include or encompass the views, interests, or sentiments of targeted groups.
- Frame transformation becomes necessary when the proposed frames "may not resonate with, and on occasion may even appear antithetical to, conventional lifestyles or rituals and extant interpretive frames" (Snow et al. , 1986, p. 473).
When this happens, the securing of participants and support requires new values, new meanings and understandings. Goffman (1974, p. 43–44) calls this "keying", where "activities, events, and biographies that are already meaningful from the standpoint of some primary framework, in terms of another framework" (Snow et al. , 1986, p. 474) such that they are seen differently. Two types of frame transformation exist:
- Domain-specific transformations, such as the attempt to alter the status of groups of people, and
- Global interpretive frame-transformation, where the scope of change seems quite radical — as in a change of world-views, total conversions of thought, or uprooting of everything familiar (for example: moving from communism to market capitalism; religious conversion, etc. Communism is a Socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless Society based A market economy is a realized Social system based on the Division of labour in which the prices of Goods and Services are determined in a ).
The context or framing of problems adopted by decision-makers results in part from extrinsic manipulation of the decision-options offered, as well as from forces intrinsic to decision-makers, e. g. , their norms, habits, and unique temperament. In psychology temperament is the innate aspect of an individual's personality such as Introversion or Extroversion.
Absolute and relative influences
Framing effects arise because one can frequently frame a decision using multiple scenarios, wherein one may express benefits either as a relative risk reduction (RRR), or as absolute risk reduction (ARR). A scenario (from Italian, that which is pinned to the scenery) is a synthetic description of an event or series of actions and events Extrinsic control over the cognitive distinctions (between risk tolerance and reward anticipation) adopted by decision makers can occur through altering the presentation of relative risks and absolute benefits. Risk aversion is a concept in Economics, Finance, and Psychology related to the behaviour of consumers and investors under uncertainty In Economics, an incentive is any factor (financial or non-financial that provides a motive for a particular course of action or counts as a reason for preferring one choice In Statistics and mathematical Epidemiology, relative risk (RR is the risk of an event (or of developing a disease relative to exposure In English grammar the degree of comparison of an Adjective or Adverb describes the relational value of one thing with something in another clause of a sentence
People generally prefer the absolute certainty inherent in a positive framing-effect, which offers an assurance of gains. When decision-options appear framed as a likely gain, risk-averse choices predominate.
A shift toward risk-seeking behavior occurs when a decision-maker frames decisions in negative terms, or adopts a negative framing effect.
Researchers have found that framing decision-problems in a positive light generally results in less-risky choices; with negative framing of problems, riskier choices tend to result. According to behavioral economists:
- positive framing effects (associated with risk aversion) result from presentation of options as sure (or absolute) gains
- negative framing effects (associated with a preference shift toward choosing riskier options) result from options presented as the relative likelihood of losses
Researchers have found that framing-manipulation invariably affects subjects, but to varying degrees. Behavioral economics and behavioral finance are closely related fields which apply scientific research on human and social cognitive and emotional factors to better Risk aversion is a concept in Economics, Finance, and Psychology related to the behaviour of consumers and investors under uncertainty Individuals proved risk averse when presented with value-increasing options; but when faced with value decreasing contingencies, they tended towards increased risk-taking. Researchers found that variations in decision-framing achieved by manipulating the options to represent either a gain or as a loss altered the risk-aversion preferences of decision-makers.
In one study, 57% of the subjects chose a medication when presented with benefits in relative terms, whereas only 14. 7% chose a medication whose benefit appeared in absolute terms. Further questioning of the patients suggested that, because the subjects ignored the underlying risk of disease, they perceived benefits as greater when expressed in relative terms. -
Researchers have proposed various models explaining the framing effect:
- cognitive theories, such as the Fuzzy Trace theory, attempt to explain framing-effects by determining the amount of cognitive processing effort devoted to determining the value of potential gains and losses.
- prospect theory explains the framing-effect in functional terms, determined by preferences for differing perceived values, based on the assumption that people give a greater weighting to losses than to equivalent gains. Prospect theory is a theory that describes decisions between alternatives that involve Risk, i
- motivational theories explain framing-effects in terms of hedonic forces affecting individuals, such as fears and wishes — based on the notion that negative emotions evoked by potential losses usually out-weigh the emotions evoked by hypothetical gains. Motivation is the reason or reasons for engaging in a particular behavior especially Human behavior as studied in Philosophy, Conflict, Economics Hedonism is the Philosophy that Pleasure is of ultimate importance, the most important pursuit
- cognitive cost-benefit trade-off theory defines choice as a compromise between desires, either as a preference for a correct decision or a preference for minimized cognitive effort. Cost-benefit analysis is a term that refers both to a formal discipline used to help appraise or assess the case for a Project or proposal which itself is This model, which dovetails elements of cognitive and motivational theories, postulates that calculating the value of a sure gain takes much less cognitive effort than that required to select a risky gain.
Cognitive neuroscientists have linked the framing-effect to neural activity in the amygdala, and have identifed another brain-region, the orbital and medial prefrontal cortex (OMPFC), that appears to moderate the role of emotion on decisions. A neuroscientist is an individual who studies the scientific field of Neuroscience or any of its related sub-fields The la amygdalae ( Latin, also la corpus amygdaloideum, singular la amygdala, from Greek el αμυγδαλή grc-Latn amygdalē, 'almond' An emotion is a mental and physiological state associated with a wide variety of feelings thoughts and behaviours Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to monitor brain-activity during a financial decision-making task, they observed greater activity in the OMPFC of those research subjects less susceptible to framing-effects. Functional MRI or functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI is a type of specialized MRI scan 
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- Wilkerson, W. S. (2001), “Simulation, Theory, and the Frame Problem”, Philosophical Psychology, vol. 14(2), pp. 141–153.
- Willard, Charles Arthur Liberalism and the Social Grounds of Knowledge Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992.
- The Framing Wars. New York Times 17 July 2005
- Curry, Tom. Argumentation theory, or argumentation, embraces the arts and sciences of civil debate Dialogue, conversation and persuasion studying rules of Inference Bias is a term used to describe a Tendency or Preference towards a particular perspective, Ideology or result especially when the tendency interferes A buzzword (also fashion word and vogue word) is a vague Idiom, usually a Neologism, that is common to managerial technical administrative This article is about the concept generally for its meaning specific to politics see Dog-whistle politics. There is much discussion in the academic world of Communication as to what actually constitutes communication This word has distinct meanings in other fields see Connotation (semiotics and Connotation and denotation. Demagogy (also demagoguery) ( Ancient Greek δημαγωγία from dēmos "people" and agein "to lead" refers to a political Many questions, also known as complex question, presupposition, loaded question, "trick question", or plurium interrogationum A figure of speech, sometimes In Economics, framing means the manner in which a Rational choice problem has been presented Freedom of speech is the freedom to speak freely without Censorship or Limitation. Journalism is the profession of writing or communicating formally employed by publications and broadcasters for the benefit of a particular Community of people A variety of different authors theories and fields purport influences between language and thought. A meme (miːm consists of any idea or behavior that can pass from one person to another by learning or imitation Newspeak is a Fictional language in George Orwell 's novel Nineteen Eighty-Four. Political correctness (adjectivally politically correct; both forms commonly abbreviated to PC) is a term applied to Language, ideas policies or behavior Loaded In Rhetoric, a rhetorical device or resource of language is a technique that an author or speaker uses to evoke an Emotional response in the audience (the Semantics is the study of meaning in communication The word derives from Greek σημαντικός ( semantikos) "significant" from Stovepiping is a metaphorical term which recalls a Stovepipe 's function as an isolated vertical conduit and has been used in the context of intelligence to describe several Thought Reform and the Psychology of Totalism A Study of "Brainwashing" in China is a Psychology Non-fiction book on Brainwashing See also Figure of speech In linguistics trope is a rhetorical Figure of speech that consists of a play on words i Steven Poole (born 1972) is a British Author and Journalist. Educated at Cambridge, Poole is the author of the book Events 180 - Twelve inhabitants of Scillium in North Africa are executed for being Christians 2005. "Frist chills talk of judges deal (Page 2)." The question in the poll was not framed as a matter of whether nominee ought to get an up-or-down vote. And that framing of the issue, Republican strategists believe, is the most advantageous one. . . MSNBC.com.
- CMU.edu (pdf) - 'The Framing effect and risky decision: Examining cognitive functions with fMRI', C. Gonzalez, et al, Journal of Economic Psychology (2005)
- FindArticles.com - 'Risky decision making across three arenas of choice: are younger and older adults differently susceptible to framing effects?', Michael Ronnlund, Erik Karlsson, Erica Laggnas, Lisa Larsson, Therese Lindstrom, Journal of General Psychology (January, 2005)
- HBS.edu - 'Fixing Price Tag Confusion'(interview), Sean Silverthorne (December 11, 2006)
- "'Framing effect' influences decisions: Emotions play a role in decision-making when information is too complex", Charles Q. Choi, MSNBC (August 3, 2006)
- NeuroscienceMarketing.com - 'Why Negative Ads Work: Framing, Emotions, and Irrational Decisions'
- Ox.ac.uk - 'Framing'
Progressive framework institutes
- The Rockridge Institute, set up by George Lakoff in response to Conservative thinktanks. MSNBC is a 24-hour cable television news channel based in the United States and available in Canada. Events 8 - Roman Empire General Tiberius defeats Dalmatians on the river Bathinus.
Conservative framework institutes
- ^ Goffman, Erving. Frame Analysis: An essay on the organization of experience. Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1986. ISBN 093035091X
- ^ This example borrowed from Clifford Geertz: Local Knowledge: Further Essays in Interpretive Anthropology (1983), Basic Books 2000 paperback: ISBN 0-465-04162-0
- ^ Goffman offers the example of the woman bidding on a mirror at an auction who first examines the frame and surface for imperfections, and then "checks" herself in the mirror and adjusts her hat. See Goffman, Erving. Frame Analysis: An essay on the organization of experience. Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1986. ISBN 093035091X, page 39. In each case the mirror represents more than simply a physical object.
- ^ See Entman, page 53-54
- ^ Entman, R. M. (1993), "Framing: Toward Clarification of a Fractured Paradigm", Journal of Communication 43(4), Autumn. 0021-9916/93/$5. 00 43 (4): 51-58 , pages 53-54.
- ^ Erving Goffman (1974). Frame Analysis: An essay on the organization of experience. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1974, page 21.
- ^ Kenneth Boulding: The Image: Knowledge in Life and Society, University of Michigan Press, 1956)
- ^ Such as: Amos Tversky and Daniel Kahneman, 1981. "The Framing of Decisions and the Psychology of Choice. " Science 211: 453-458.
- ^ a b The Framing Wars. New York Times 17 July 2005
- ^ Walter Olson, Overlawyered weblog, 2005-07-18
- ^ Al Kamen, "Forget Cash -- Lobbyists Should Set Support for Lawmakers in Stone", Washington Post, 2007-01-17
- ^ Rampton, Sheldon and Stauber, John. Events 180 - Twelve inhabitants of Scillium in North Africa are executed for being Christians Walter K Olson is an author and blogger who writes mostly about Tort reform. The Washington Post is the largest and most circulated Newspaper in Washington D Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Events 38 BC - Octavian marries Livia Drusilla. 1287 - King Alfonso III of Aragon invades Minorca Trust Us, We're Experts! Putnam Publishing, New York, NY, 2002. Page 64.
- ^ George Lakoff: Don't think of an elephant!: know your values and frame the debate. White River Junction (Vermont): Chelsea Green, 2004. Page 3.
- ^ The President's Agenda for Tax Relief retrieved 3 July 2007.
- ^ Rockridge Institute: Simple Framing
- ^ George Lakoff: "Five Years after 9/11: Drop the War Metaphor"
- ^ "It's Escalation, Stupid." Alternet retrieved 3 July 2007
- ^ "The Rumsfeld Dilemma: Demand an Exit Strategy, Not a Facelift" by Bruce Budner, in The Huffington Post 15 September 2006
- ^ "Is It All in a Word? The Effect of Issue Framing on Public Support for U.S. Spending on HIV/AIDS in Developing Countries." by Sara Bleich. Events 324 - Battle of Adrianople Constantine I defeats Licinius, who flees to Byzantium. Events 668 - Eastern Roman Emperor Constans II is assassinated in his bath at Syracuse Italy. Retrieved 2007-07-03
- ^ Bert Klandermans. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Events 324 - Battle of Adrianople Constantine I defeats Licinius, who flees to Byzantium. 1997. The Social Psychology of Protest. Oxford: Blackwell, page 45
- ^ Snow, D. A. , and Benford, R. D. (1988). "Ideology, frame resonance, and participant mobilization". International Social Movement Research, 1, 197–217
- ^ Snow, D. A. , Rochford, E. B. , Worden, S. K. , & Benford, R. D. (1986). Frame alignment processes, micromobilization, and movement participation. American Sociological Review, 51, page 464
- ^ Tversky, A. and Khaneman, D. (1981). The Framing of Decisions and the Psychology of Choice. Science. Vol 211(4481) pp. 453-458
- ^ The framing effect of relative and absolute risk. [J Gen Intern Med. 1993] - PubMed Result
- ^ De Martino, B. , Kumaran, D. , Seymour, B. , and Dolan, R. J. (2006). Frames, biases, and rational decision-making in the human brain. Science 313, 684-687.
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