The founding of Rome is reported by many legends, which in recent times are beginning to be supplemented by more scientific reconstructions. Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2
Virgil's Aeneid is an important source for information about those early times or, at least, the myth-historical events current in the Augustan period. Publius Vergilius Maro ( October 15, 70 BCE &ndash September 21, 19 BCE later called Virgilius, and known in English as Virgil or For the group of nine Ancient Egyptian deities see Ennead. The Aeneid (əˈniːɪd in
Between the 10th and 8th centuries BC, the population of central Italy consisted of two main groups of Italic peoples, the Osco-Umbri and Latins. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Ancient peoples of Italy are all those peoples that lived in Italy (including the islands of Sicily and Sardinia) before the Roman domination The Osci, which may also be referred to by the names of Opici Opsci (for the fertility goddess Ops) and Obsci (Oscans or Opicans in English were historic inhabitants Latin is the name of various peoples or ethnicities related to the Latium region in the Italian Peninsula, to the Latin language, or to its descendants Latium Vetus was the ancient territory of the Latins (now southern Lazio). Latin is the name of various peoples or ethnicities related to the Latium region in the Italian Peninsula, to the Latin language, or to its descendants Nearby were the Volscians, Sabines, Aequi, Rutuli, and Ausonians. The Volsci were an ancient Italic people, well known in the history of the first century of the Roman Republic. The Sabines ( Latin Sabini, Singular Sabinus) were an Italic tribe that lived in ancient Italy, inhabiting The Aequi were an ancient people of north-east Latium, in central Italy, whose name occurs constantly in Livy 's first decade as hostile to Rome The Rutuli or Rutulians were members of a legendary Italic tribe North of Rome were the non-Indo-European Etruscans. Etruscan civilization is the modern English name given to the culture and way of life of a people of ancient Italy
The Latins originally stayed in Colli Albani (the Alban hills, modern Castelli – 20-50 miles (30-80 km) southeast of the Capitoline hill); later, they moved down towards the valleys, which provided better land for animal breeding and agriculture. The area around the Tiber river was particularly advantageous and also offered notable strategic resources, as the river was a natural border on one side, while the hills could provide a safe defensive position on the other side. The Tiber ( Latin Tiberis, Italian Tevere) is the third-longest River in Italy, rising in the Apennine mountains This position would also have enabled the Latins to control the river (and commercial or military traffic on it), from the natural observation point at Isola Tiberina (the island facing modern Trastevere). Trastevere is rione XIII of Rome, on the west bank of the Tiber, south of Vatican City. Moreover, road traffic could also be controlled, since Rome was at the intersection of the principal roads to the sea coming from Sabinum (in the northeast) and Etruria (to the northwest). Etruria &mdash usually referred to in Greek and Latin source texts as Tyrrhenia &mdash was a region of Central Italy, located in an area
The development of the town is presumed to have started from the development of separate small villages, located on top of hills, which joined together to form Rome.
Although recent studies suggest that the Quirinal hill was very important in ancient times, the first hill to be inhabited seems to have been the Palatine (therefore confirming the legend), which is also at the center of ancient Rome. The Quirinal Hill (Latin Collis Quirinalis) is one of the Seven Hills of Rome, at the north-east of the city center Its three peaks, minor hills (Palatium, Cermalus or Germalus, and Velia) united with the three peaks of the Esquiline (Oppius, Cispius and Fagutal), and then villages on the Caelian hill and Suburra (between modern Rione Monti and the Oppius hill) joined them.
These hills had expressive names: Caelian was called Querquetulanus, from oaks (quercus), while Fagutal points to beech-woods. Recent discoveries reveal that the Germalus on the northern part of the Palatine, was the site of a village (dated to the 9th century BC) with circular or elliptic dwellings. It was protected by a clay wall (perhaps reinforced with wood), and it is likely that this is where Rome was really founded.
The territory of this federation was surrounded by a sacred border called the pomerium, which enclosed the so-called Roma Quadrata (Square Rome). This would have been extended with the inclusion of the Capitoline hill and Tiber island at the time Rome became an oppidum or fortified town. Oppidum (plural oppida) is a Latin word meaning the main settlement in any administrative area of Ancient Rome. The Esquiline still was a satellite village that would be included at the time of the Servian expansion of Rome.
Festivals for the Septimontium (literally "of the seven hills"), on December 11, were in the past considered related to the foundation. The Septimontium was a Roman festival of the Seven hills of Rome. Events 359 - Honoratus, the first known Prefect of the City of Constantinople, takes office However, as April 21 is the only datum for foundation upon which all the legends agree, it has been recently argued that Septimontium was likely to have actually celebrated the first federations among Roman hills: a similar federation was, in fact, celebrated by the Latins at Cave (a village southeast of Rome) or at Monte Cavo (in Castelli). Events 753 BC - Romulus and Remus found Rome ( traditional date) Cave is town and commune in the Lazio region of Italy 42 km southeast of Rome. Monte Cavo is the second highest mountain of the complex of the Alban Hills, Italy
According to Francis Owen in "the Germanic People", the people which settled Rome may have been immigrants from outside the italian peninsula, possibly an off-shoot from the same group that would become Celtic or Germanic peoples. Traces of the founding population were apparently evident in the appearance of the aristocracy long into the time of the republic. According to Owens the evidence available from Roman literature, historical records and statuary and personal names shows that in physical appearance the Roman aristocracy differed from most of the population in the rest of the peninsula. The records describe a very large number of well known historical personalities as blonde. Blond (also spelled blonde, see below) or fair-haired is a Hair color characterized by low levels of the dark Pigment eumelanin In addition, 250 individuals are recorded to have had the name Flavius, meaning blonde, and there are many named Rufus and Rutilius, meaning red haired and reddish haired respectively. This article is about people with red hair also sometimes called redheads The following Roman gods are said to have had blonde hair; Amor, Apollo, Aurora, Bacchus, Ceres, Diana, Jupiter, Mars, Mercury, Minerva and Venus. The MInisterial NEtwoRk for Valorising Activities in digitisation, or MINERVA, is a European Union organization concerned with the digitisation of cultural and The VENUS ( V ictoria E xperimental N etwork U nder the S ea project is a cabled sea floor observatory operated by the University 
As with any old city, legends and myths surround the earliest origin of Rome and its founding.
According to Virgil's Aeneid, the defeated army of Troy crossed the Mediterranean Sea on the orders of prince Aeneas, reaching the Latin coast. Federico Barocci (1528&ndash1612 was an Italian Renaissance painter and Printmaker. The Borghese Gallery (Italian Galleria Borghese) in Rome is an art gallery housed in the former Villa Borghese Pinciana, a building that was from the first Troy ( Greek: grc Τροία Troia, also, Ilion; Latin: Trōia, Īlium, Hittite: Wilusa or This article is about the Roman hero For other uses see Aeneas (disambiguation. Here they were considered to have landed in an area between modern Anzio and Fiumicino, southwest of Rome. Fiumicino is a central- Italian town and Comune in the Province of Rome, in which the busy Leonardo da Vinci Airport is located which serves the Most commonly it is supposed that they landed at Laurentum (or Larentum); other versions say that they landed at Lavinium, a place named for Latinus' daughter Lavinia. Laurentum was an ancient Roman City of Latium situated between Ostia and Lavinium. Lavinium was a Latin port city of Latium 30 km south of Rome already fortified in the seventh century BCE and a flourishing in the sixth Latinus or Latinos was a figure in both Greek and Roman Mythology. In Roman mythology, Lavinia was the daughter of Latinus and Amata.
King Procas was the father of Numitor and Amulius. In Roman mythology, King Procas of Alba Longa was the father of Amulius and Numitor. In Roman mythology, King Numitor of Alba Longa, son of Procas, was the father of Rhea Silvia. In Roman mythology, Amulius was the brother of Numitor and son of Procas. At Procas' death, Numitor became king of Albalonga, but Amulius captured him and sent him to prison; he also forced Rea Silvia (Numitor's daughter) to become a priestess of the Vestan cult. For many years Amulius was then the king.
According to myth Mars had two sons with Rea Silvia, a priestess devoted to the sacred cult of Vesta. Mars was the Roman Warrior god, the son of Juno and Jupiter, husband of Bellona, and the lover of Venus. Rhea Silvia (also written as Rea Silvia) and also known as Ilia, was the mythical mother of the twins Romulus and Remus, who founded the Vesta was the Virgin goddess of the Hearth, home and family in Roman mythology. The name Rea Silvia (often written Rhea Silvia) suggests a minor deity, a demi-goddess of forests. Rhea Silvia (also written as Rea Silvia) and also known as Ilia, was the mythical mother of the twins Romulus and Remus, who founded the Silva means woods or forest, and rea may be related to res and regum. Rhea was also the mother of Zeus, later renamed Jupiter by the Romans. Zeus (zjuːs in Greek: nominative: Zeús /zdeús/ genitive: Diós; Modern Greek /'zefs/ in Greek mythology In Roman mythology, Jupiter was the king of the gods and the god of Sky and Thunder.
One of the earliest versions (5th century BC) is by the Mitylene Greek Hellanicus of Lesbos, and is usually reported together with the version by Damastes from Sigeum. Romulus (c 771 BC– c 717 BC and Remus (c 771 BC–c 753 BC are the traditional founders of Rome, appearing in Roman mythology Hellanicus of Lesbos (in Ancient Greek) (born in Mytilene on the isle of Lesbos in 490 BC was an ancient Greek logographer who flourished "Damastes" redirects here For the huntman spider see Damastes or Sparassidae. In this version the founder of the village was Aeneas (in a lesser version Ascanius (Iulus)). In Greek and Roman mythology, Ascanius was the son of Aeneas and Creusa. In Greek and Roman mythology, Ascanius was the son of Aeneas and Creusa. At some point it was realised that, since there had been seven Roman kings and Romulus was the first of them, there was a gap between the 8th century of the first kings and the 12th century BC (the supposed date of the destruction of Troy). The Roman Kingdom ( Latin: Regnum Romanum) was the monarchical Government of the city of Rome Romulus (c 771 BC– c 717 BC and Remus (c 771 BC–c 753 BC are the traditional founders of Rome, appearing in Roman mythology Troy ( Greek: grc Τροία Troia, also, Ilion; Latin: Trōia, Īlium, Hittite: Wilusa or So as Romulus could not be the son of Iulus, he came to be regarded as a distant descendant. The gap was "filled" with a series of kings of Alba Longa. Alba Longa (in Italian sources occasionally written Albalonga) was an ancient city of Latium in central Italy southeast of Rome in the Alban Aeneas would have landed on Latium's coast during the reign of Latinus (king of the Latins), in order to find a compromise with local legends. Romulus' mother Rea Silvia was connected with Aeneas via the Alba Longa dynasty. The condemnation of Rea Silvia's sons is only one among the many recollections of the divine laws of the religion that so deeply entered Roman life.
Every group of people living in the area had similar legends:
During the Roman republic, several dates were given for the founding of the city, all in the interval between 758 BC and 728 BC. Finally, under the Roman empire the date suggested by Marcus Terentius Varro (753 BC) was agreed upon, but in the Fasti Capitolini the year given was 752. The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial Marcus Terentius Varro (116 BC &ndash 27 BC also known as Varro Reatinus to distinguish him from his younger contemporary Varro Atacinus, was a Roman Fasti, a Latin word refers to the Roman calendar and Almanac; and especially to a long possibly unfinished poem on the religious festivals While the years varied, all versions agreed that the city was founded on April 21, day of the festival sacred to Pales, goddess of shepherds; in her honour, Rome celebrated the Par ilia (or Palilia). Events 753 BC - Romulus and Remus found Rome ( traditional date) In Roman mythology, Pales was a deity of shepherds flocks and livestock (The Roman Ab Urbe Condita (or a. Ab Urbe condita (literally "from u. c. ) calendar, however, begins with Varro's dating of 753 BC. )
According to legend, the foundation of Rome took place 438 years after the capture of Troy (1182 BC), according to Velleius Paterculus (VIII, 5). Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 Troy ( Greek: grc Τροία Troia, also, Ilion; Latin: Trōia, Īlium, Hittite: Wilusa or This article is about the Roman Historian; for the Rove beetle genus see Velleius Marcus Velleius Paterculus It took place shortly before an eclipse of the sun; some have identified this eclipse as one observed at Rome on June 25, 745 BC, which had a magnitude of 50. Events 524 - Battle of Vézeronce, the Franks defeat the Burgundians 3%. Varro may have used the consular list with its mistakes, calling the year of the first consuls "245 ab urbe condita" (a. Ab Urbe condita (literally "from u. c. ).
According to Lucius Tarrutius of Firmum, Romulus was conceived on the 23rd day of the Egyptian month Choiac, at the time of a total eclipse of the sun. Romulus (c 771 BC– c 717 BC and Remus (c 771 BC–c 753 BC are the traditional founders of Rome, appearing in Roman mythology This eclipse occurred on June 15, 763 BC, with a magnitude of 62. Events 763 BC - Assyrians record a Solar eclipse that will be used to fix the Chronology of Mesopotamian history 5% at Rome. He was born on the 21st day of the month of Thoth. For other meanings of "Thoth" or of "Djehuti" and similar see Thoth (disambiguation. The first day of Thoth fell on 2 March in that year (Prof. Events 986 - Louis V becomes King of the Franks. 1127 - Assassination of Charles the Good E. J. Bickerman, 1980: 115). That implies that Rhea Silvia's pregnancy lasted for 281 days. Rhea Silvia (also written as Rea Silvia) and also known as Ilia, was the mythical mother of the twins Romulus and Remus, who founded the Rome was founded on the ninth day of the month Pharmuthi, which was April 21, as universally agreed. Events 753 BC - Romulus and Remus found Rome ( traditional date) The Romans add that, about the time Romulus started to build the city, an eclipse of the Sun was observed by Antimachus, the Teian poet, on the 30th day of the lunar month. Antimachus, of Colophon or Claros, Greek Poet and Grammarian flourished about 400 BC This eclipse (see above) had a magnitude of 54. 6% at Teos, Asia Minor. Anatolia (Anadolu Ανατολία Anatolía) or Asia minor, comprising most of modern Turkey, is the geographic region bounded by the Black Romulus vanished in the 54th year of his life, on the Nones of Quintilis (July), on a day when the Sun was darkened. The day turned into night, which sudden darkness was believed to be an eclipse of the Sun. It occurred on July 17, 709 BC, with a magnitude of 93. Events 180 - Twelve inhabitants of Scillium in North Africa are executed for being Christians 7%. (All these eclipse data have been calculated by Prof. Aurél Ponori-Thewrewk, retired director of the Planetarium of Budapest. Budapest ( also /ˈbʊ-/) is the capital city of Hungary. As the largest city of Hungary it serves as the country's principal Political, ) Plutarch placed it in the 37th year from the foundation of Rome, on the fifth of our month July, then called Quintiles, on "Caprotine Nones". Livy (I, 21) also states that Romulus ruled for 37 years. Titus Livius (traditionally 59 BC &ndash AD 17 known as Livy in English, was a Roman historian who wrote a monumental history of Rome He was slain by the Senate or disappeared in the 38th year of his reign. Most of these have been recorded by Plutarch (Lives of Romulus, Numa Pompilius and Camillus), Florus (Book I, I), Cicero (The Republic VI, 22: Scipio's Dream), Dio (Dion) Cassius and Dionysius of Halicarnassus (L. Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus ( Greek: Μέστριος Πλούταρχος c Florus, Roman Historian, lived in the time of Trajan and Hadrian. Marcus Tullius Cicero ( Classical Latin ˈkikeroː usually ˈsɪsərəʊ in English January 3, 106 BC &ndash December 7, 43 BC was a Roman Lucius Cassius Dio Cocceianus ( Greek:) (c 155 or 163/164 to after 229 known in English as Cassius Dio, Dio Cassius, or Dio was Dionysius of Halicarnassus (Halicarnassus c 60 BC–after 7 BC was a Greek historian and teacher of Rhetoric, who flourished during the reign of 2). Dio in his Roman History (Book I) confirms these data by telling that Romulus was in his 18th year of age when he founded Rome. Therefore, three eclipse records indicate that Romulus reigned from 746 BC to 709 BC. Surprisingly this is very close to the calculation of the founding given by Rome's first native historical writer Quintus Fabius Pictor, who wrote that Rome was founded in the first year of the eighth Olympiad, 747 BC (Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Book 1, ch. Quintus Fabius Pictor (c 254 BC -? was one of the earliest Roman Historians and considered the first of the Annalists. An Olympiad is a period of four years associated with the Olympic Games of Classical Greece. 74,2).
In the modern period debate has raged over the validity of the stories of Rome's foundation. Scholars have supported both extremes—those who want to believe nothing of the legend, and those who want to believe the legend wholeheartedly without skepticism. Archaeology offers the best chance of sorting out the debate, and indeed recent discoveries on the Palatine Hill in Rome have offered some tantalizing pieces of evidence. The Palatine Hill ( Latin: Collis Palatium or Mons Palatinus) is the centermost of the Seven Hills of Rome Chief among these is a series of fortification walls on the north slope of the Palatine Hill that can be dated to the middle of the 8th century B. C. , precisely the time when legend says Romulus plowed a furrow (sulcus) around the Palatine in order to mark the boundary of his new city. The remains of the wall, and other evidence, has been discovered by the excavations of Andrea Carandini. Count Andrea Carandini (born 1937 is an Italian archaeologist specialising in Ancient Rome.
The name of the town is generally considered to refer to Romulus, but there are other hypotheses. The History of the city of Rome spans 2800 years of the existence of a city that grew from a small Italian village in the 9th century BC into the center Some have suggested an Etruscan word, "rhome", meaning "hard", cognate with Greek "ρώμη, rhōmē", strength, vigor. Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly Another one of them refers it to Roma, who is supposed to have been the daughter of Aeneas or Evander. In Roman mythology Roma was a Deity personifying the Roman State, or a Personification in Art of the City of This article is about the Roman hero For other uses see Aeneas (disambiguation. In Roman mythology, Euander ( Evander, from Greek Εύανδρος - Euandros "good man" or "strong man" was Current studies seem to prefer a provenance from a Proto-Indo-European root meaning "river"; Rome would then mean "the town on the river". The Basque scholar Manuel de Larramendi thought that the origin was the Basque word orma (modern Basque horma), "wall".
Rome is also the Urbs, and this name (that in later Latin generically meant any towns) comes from urvus, the furrow cut by a plough – in this case, by that of Romulus. Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome.
On the Capitoline hill, at noon on April 21 every year, a special bell called Patarina rings from the Campidoglio to commemorate the founding of Rome. Events 753 BC - Romulus and Remus found Rome ( traditional date) On that occasion, the famous cannon of Gianicolo remains silent, the only day in the year on which it does not sound. Janiculum ( Gianicolo in Italian) is a hill in western Rome. Although the second-tallest hill (after Monte Mario) in the contemporary city of
Christian Matthias Theodor Mommsen ( 30 November 1817 &ndash 1 November 1903) was a German classical scholar,