|Forensic pathology · Forensic dentistry|
|Forensic anthropology · Forensic entomology|
|Forensic psychology · Forensic psychiatry|
|Fingerprint analysis · Forensic accounting|
|Ballistics · Bloodstain pattern analysis · Forensic arts|
|DNA analysis · Forensic toxicology|
|Forensic footwear evidence|
|Questioned document examination|
|Cybertechnology in forensics|
|Information forensics · Computer forensics|
|Forensic materials engineering|
|Forensic polymer engineering|
|Vehicular accident reconstruction|
|People in Forensics|
|Auguste Ambroise Tardieu|
|Crime scene · CSI Effect|
|Trace evidence · Skid mark|
|Use of DNA in forensic entomology|
Forensic psychiatry is a subspecialty of psychiatry. Forensic pathology is a branch of Pathology concerned with determining the Cause of death by examination of a cadaver Forensic dentistry or forensic odontology is the proper handling Examination and Evaluation of dental Evidence, which will be then Forensic anthropology is the application of the science of Physical anthropology and human Osteology (the study of the Human skeleton) in a legal setting Forensic entomology is the application and study of Insect and other Arthropod biology to criminal matters Forensic psychology is the intersection between Psychology and the Legal system. A fingerprint is an impression of the friction ridges of all or any part of the finger Forensic accounting is the specialty practice area of Accountancy that describes engagements that result from actual or anticipated disputes or Litigation. Ballistics ( gr βάλλειν ('ba'llein' "throw" is the science of Mechanics that deals with the motion behavior and effects of Projectiles Bloodstain pattern analysis (BPA is one of several specialties in the field of Forensic science. The term forensic comes from the Roman forum where law and politics were debated Forensic toxicology is the use of Toxicology and other disciplines such as Analytical chemistry, Pharmacology and Clinical chemistry to aid medicolegal Forensic footwear Examiniation is the study of footwear impressions evidence created Questioned document examination (QDE is the forensic discipline pertaining to documents that are (or may be in dispute in a court of law Information Forensics is the science of investigation into systemic Processes that produce Information. Computer forensics is a branch of Forensic science pertaining to legal evidence found in computers and digital storage mediums Forensic Engineering is the investigation of materials, products, Structures or components that fail or do not operate/function as A branch of Forensic engineering, the subject focuses on the material evidence from crime or accident scenes seeking defects in those materials which might explain why an accident occurred The study of failure in Polymeric products is called forensic polymer engineering. Fire investigation, sometimes referred to as origin and cause investigation, is the analysis of fire-related incidents Vehicular accident reconstruction s are often conducted by specialized units in law enforcement agencies, to answer questions about automobile accidents, such as who The son of French artist and mapmaker Ambroise Tardieu Auguste Ambroise Tardieu (1818-1879 became the pre-eminent forensic medical scientist of the mid-19th century Dr Edmond Locard (1877 – 1966 was a pioneer in Forensic science who became known as the Sherlock Holmes of France. William M Bass is a US forensic anthropologist, renowned for his research on human Osteology and human decomposition Gilbert "Gil" Grissom, PhD is a Fictional character portrayed by William Petersen on the American TV Crime drama. A crime scene is a location where an illegal act took place and comprises the area from which most of the physical evidence is retrieved by trained law enforcement The " CSI Effect " (sometimes referred to as the " CSI syndrome " is a reference to the phenomenon of popular television shows such as the ''CSI'' franchise Trace evidence contends that every contact no matter how slight will leave a trace In motoring terms a skid mark is the mark a tire makes when a vehicle wheel stops rolling and slides or spins on the surface of the road Forensic entomology contains three aspects medicocriminal entomology urban entomology and Stored product entomology. Psychiatry is a medical specialty which exists to study, prevent, and treat Mental disorders in Humans Psychiatric It encompasses the interface between law and psychiatry. Law is a system of rules enforced through a set of Institutions used as an instrument to underpin civil obedience politics economics and society Some practitioners of forensic psychiatry have taken extra training in that specific area. In the United States one year fellowships are offered in this field to psychiatrists who have completed their general psychiatry training. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the A fellowship is the period of medical training that a Physician may undertake after completing a specialty training program. In Britain one is required to complete a three-year subspeciality training in forensic psychiatry, after completing one's general psychiatry training, before receiving a Certificate of Completion of Training as a forensic psychiatrist. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located CCT or Certificate of Completion of Training is the certificate that Physicians in the United Kingdom receive to indicate that they have completed training In some countries general psychiatrists can practice forensic psychiatry as well. However, some countries, such as Japan, require a specific certification from the government to do this type of work.
Forensic psychiatrists work with courts in evaluating an individual's competency to stand trial, defenses based on mental diseases or defects (e. A court is a forum used by a power base to adjudicate disputes and dispense civil, labour administrative and criminal Justice under its Mental disorder or mental illness is a psychological or behavioral pattern that occurs in an individual and is thought to cause distress or disability that is not expected as g. , the "insanity" defense), and sentencing recommendations. In Law, a sentence forms the final act of a Judge -ruled process and also the symbolic principal act connected to his function There are two major areas of criminal evaluations in forensic psychiatry. These are Competency to Stand trial (CST) and Mental State at the Time of the Offence (MSO).
This is the competency evaluation to determination that a defendant has the mental capacity to understand the charges and assist his attorney. Competency evaluation, as used in the United States Criminal justice system is an assessment of the defendant's ability to understand and rationally participate This is seated in the Fifth Amendment to the US Constitution, which ensures the right to be present at your trial, to face your accusers, and to have help from an attorney.
In English and Welsh law a similar concept is that of "fitness to plead". In the law of England and Wales fitness to plead is the capacity of a defendant in criminal proceedings to comprehend the course of those proceedings
Forensic psychiatrists are often called to be expert witnesses in both criminal and civil proceedings. An expert witness is a Witness, who by virtue of Education, Training, Skill, or Experience, is believed to have Knowledge The term criminal law, sometimes called penal law, refers to any of various bodies of rules in different Jurisdictions whose common characteristic is the potential Civil law, as opposed to Criminal law, refers to that branch of Law dealing with disputes between Individuals and/or Organizations, in which Expert witnesses give their opinion about a specific issue. An expert witness is a Witness, who by virtue of Education, Training, Skill, or Experience, is believed to have Knowledge Often the psychiatrist will have prepared a detailed report before testifying. The primary duty of the expert witness is to provide an independent opinion to the court.
This gives the Court an opinion, and only an opinion, as to whether a defendant was able to understand what he was doing at the time of the crime. This is worded differently in many states, and has been rejected altogether in some, but in every setting, the intent to do a criminal act and the understanding that it was a criminal act bear on the final disposition of the case. Much of forensic psychiatry is guided by significant Court rulings or laws that bear on this area which include the following three standards:
"Not guilty by reason of insanity" (NGRI) is one potential outcome in this type of trial. In Criminal trials the insanity defenses are possible defenses by Excuse, an Affirmative defense by which Defendants argue that It is important to note that insanity is a legal and not a medical term. Traditionally insanity or madness is the behaviour whereby a person flouts societal norms and may become a danger to himself and others Often there will be a psychiatrist(s) testifying for both the defense and the prosecution.
Forensic psychiatrists are also involved in the care of prisoners, both those in jails and those in prisons, and in the care of the mentally ill and dangerous (such as those who have been found not guilty by reason of insanity). A prison, penitentiary, or correctional facility is a place in which individuals are physically confined or interned and usually deprived of a range of Jail, or gaol (especially in Canada, Australia and NZ[http //www
Many past offenders against other people, and suspected or potential future offenders with mental health problems or an intellectual or developmental disability, are supervised in the community by forensic teams containing a variety of professionals, including psychiatrists, psychologists, nurses and care workers. These teams have dual responsibilities, to promote both the welfare of their clients and the safety of the public. The aim is not so much to predict as to prevent violence, by means of risk management.
Risk assessment and management is a growth area in the forensic field, with much academic work being done in Ontario and British Columbia. This began with the attempt to predict the likelihood of a particular kind of offence being repeated, by combining "static" indicators from personal history and offence details in actuarial instruments such as the RRASOR and Static-99, which were shown to be more accurate than unaided professional judgement. More recently, use is being made also of "dynamic" risk factors, such as attitudes, impulsivity, mental state, family and social circumstances, substance use, availability and acceptance of support, to make a "structured professional judgement. " The aim of this is to move away from prediction to prevention, by identifying and then managing risk factors. This may entail monitoring, treatment, rehabilitation, supervision and victim safety planning and depends on the availability of funding and legal powers. These schemes may be based on published assessments such as the HCR-20 (which incorporates 10 Historical, 5 Clinical and 5 Risk Management factors) and the RSVP (Risk of Sexual Violence Protocol) from Simon Fraser University, BC. Simon Fraser University ( SFU) is a public university in British Columbia with its main campus on Burnaby Mountain in Burnaby and satellite campuses in
In Britain most forensic psychiatrists work for the National Health Service, in specialist secure units caring for mentally ill offenders (as well as people whose behaviour has made them impossible to manage in other hospitals). The National Health Service is the name commonly used to refer to the four Publicly-funded healthcare systems of the United Kingdom collectively or individually (although These can be either medium secure units (of which there are many throughout the country) or maximum security hospitals (also known as Special Hospitals), of which there are three in England and one in Scotland (The State Hospital, Carstairs), the best known of which being Broadmoor Hospital. Broadmoor Hospital is a high-security Psychiatric hospital at Crowthorne in Berkshire, England. The other 'specials' are Ashworth hospital in Maghull, Liverpool and Rampton hospital in Nottinghamshire. There are also a number of private sector medium secure units, which sell their beds exclusively to the NHS, as there are not enough secure beds available in the NHS system. (There are no 'private' paying patients in Forensic Psychiatry!)
Forensic psychiatrists often also do prison inreach work, in which they go into prisons and assess and treat people suspected of having mental disorders; much of the day to day work of these psychiatrists comprises care of very seriously mentally ill patients, especially those suffering from schizophrenia. Schizophrenia ( from the Greek roots schizein (σχίζειν "to split" and phrēn Some units also treat people with severe personality disorder, learning disabilities (by which is meant, in Britain, intellectual impairment), autistic spectrum disorders or other illnesses. Personality disorder, formerly referred to as a Character Disorder is a class of mental disorders characterized by rigid and on-going patterns of feeling thinking and behavior In the United States and Canada, the term learning disability (LD refers to a group of disorders that affect a broad range of academic and functional skills including
The areas of assessment for courts are also somewhat different in Britain, because of differing mental health law. Fitness to plead, and mental state at the time of the offence are indeed issues given consideration, but the mental state at the time of trial is also a major issue, and it is this assessment which most commonly leads to the use of mental health legislation to detain people in hospital, as opposed to their getting a prison sentence.
Learning disabled offenders who are a continuing risk to others may be detained in learning disability hospitals (or specialised community-based units with a similar regime, as the hospitals have mostly been closed) as suffering from "Mental Impairment" in England and Wales, and without use of that term in Scotland. This includes those who commit serious crimes of violence, including sexual violence, and fire-setting. They would be cared for by learning disability psychiatrists and registered learning disability nurses (RNLD). Some psychiatrists doing this work have dual training in learning disability and forensic psychiatry or learning disability and adolescent psychiatry. Some nurses would have training in mental health also (RMN and RNLD).
Many past offenders against other people, and suspected or potential future offenders with mental health problems or a learning disability, are supervised in the community by forensic teams containing a variety of professionals, including psychiatrists, psychologists, nurses and care workers. These teams have dual responsibilities, to promote both the welfare of their clients and the safety of the public. The aim is not so much to predict as to prevent violence, by means of risk management.
Court work (medico-legal work) is generally but not exclusively undertaken by psychiatrists (most often 'forensic' psychiatrists who are also consultants (senior doctors) in the National Health Service (NHS).
The television show, Wonderland briefly aired in the United States. It was based on the daily work lives of a fictitious group of forensic psychiatrists at Bellevue Hospital in New York City. Bellevue Hospital Center, founded in 1736 is the oldest Public hospital in the United States The City of New York Only two episodes aired of the six filmed. Dr. George Wong (portrayed by BD Wong) on Law and Order: SVU is a forensic psychiatrist. Law & Order Special Victims Unit (also known as Law & Order SVU or simply SVU) is an American Drama In addition, the CBS crime-drama Criminal Minds features a young forensic psychiatrist (portrayed by Matthew Gray Gubler (Dr. Criminal Minds is an American crime drama that premiered September 22, 2005 on CBS. Matthew Gray Gubler (born March 9, 1980) is an American Actor, Film director, sketch artist and former fashion model Spencer Reid)) on the FBI profiling team the show centers around.
Another fictional forensic psychiatrist is in the television show Bones, where Dr. Bones is an American drama Television series that premiered on the Fox Network on September 13, 2005. Gordon Wyatt (portrayed by Stephen Fry) is assigned to counsel one of the protagonists (Agent Booth) after he shoots up an ice cream truck in the episode "The Girl In The Gator. Stephen John Fry (born 24 August 1957 is an English Humorist, Writer, Wit, Actor, Novelist, filmmaker "
Hannibal Lecter from the novels Red Dragon, Silence of the Lambs, Hannibal, and Hannibal Rising by Thomas Harris and their respective film adaptations is a forensic psychiatrist until it is found that he is a serial killer and is captured and incarcerated. Origin and development Thomas Harris has given few interviews and has never explained where he got inspiration for Hannibal Lecter but in a documentary for Hannibal Rising Red Dragon is a mystery thriller novel written by Thomas Harris featuring the brilliant Psychiatrist and Serial killer Dr The Silence of the Lambs is a horror / Crime Novel by Thomas Harris, starring his popular villain Dr Hannibal is a novel by Thomas Harris, a third part of a series involving his iconic psychopathic character Hannibal Lecter. Hannibal Rising is a novel written by Thomas Harris, the fourth in a series featuring his most famous character Hannibal Lecter. Thomas Harris (born April 11, 1940) is an American Author of crime Novels most notably The Silence A serial killer is a person who Murders usually three or more people with a "cooling off" period between each murder and whose motivation for killing is largely based