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Ensuring national security, increasing influence among its Arab neighbors, and achieving a comprehensive Arab-Israeli peace settlement, which includes the return of the Golan Heights, are the primary goals of President Bashar al-Assad's foreign policy. Syria ( سوريّة or) officially the Syrian Arab Republic (Arabic ar الجمهورية العربية السورية Politics of Syria takes place in a framework of a parliamentary Republic, whereby the power is in the hands of the President of Syria and the ruling The Constitution of Syria delineates the basic function of that state's government This page lists presidents and other Heads of State of Syria. Dr Bashar al-Assad (بشار الأسد) (born 11 September, 1965) is the President of the Syrian Arab Republic, Regional Secretary Vice President of Syria is the political position in Syria. Multiple persons can hold the office same time Farouk al-Sharaa (فاروق الشرع also known as Farouq al-Sharaa (born 10 December, 1938) is a Syrian politician and diplomat Najah Al-Attar ( Arabic: ' نجاح العطار'; born 1933 is a current Vice President of Syria (since 2006 This page lists prime ministers of Syria. Prime Ministers of the Kingdom of Syria 1920 Rida Pasha al-Rikabi: March - May 1920 Muhammad Naji al-Otari ( محمد ناجي عطري also Etri, Itri and Otri) (born 1944 is the current prime minister of Syria This is the current Syrian cabinet formed by Muhammad Naji al-Otari on September 10, 2003. The Parliament of Syria ( مجلس الشعب, Majlis al-Sha'ab,, which means People's Council) is Syria's legislative authority This page lists speakers of the Parliament of Syria. See also Lists of incumbents. Political parties in Syria lists political parties in Syria. While not formally a Single-party state, all political life in Syria is controlled by the The National Progressive Front (الجبهة الوطنية التقدمية al-Jabha al-Wataniyyah at-Taqaddumiyyah, NPF established in 1972 is a coalition of political The Arab Socialist Ba'th Party (also spelled Baath or Ba'ath; Arabic: حزب البعث العربي الاشتراكي was founded in Damascus Elections in Syria gives information on Election and election results in Syria. A referendum to confirm the presidential candidate Bashar al-Assad was held in Syria on 27 May 2007, after the People's Council of Syria Parliamentary elections were held in Syria on 22 April 2007. The number of seats reserved for the parties in the National Progressive Front Syria has fourteen Governorates or muhafazat (singular Muhafazah) The 14 Governorates or muhafazat (sing Muhafazah) of Syria are divided into sixty Districts or manatiq (sing The human rights record of the Syrian Arab Republic has been evaluated by a number of different sources Syria is a middle-income developing country with a diversified economy based on Agriculture, Industry, and Energy. Information on politics by country is available for every Country, including both De jure and De facto independent The araB gene Promoter is a bacterial promoter activated by e L-arabinose binding Borders of Israel The Golan Heights ( الجولان al-Jawlān, הגולן ha-Golan) is a strategic Plateau and mountainous Dr Bashar al-Assad (بشار الأسد) (born 11 September, 1965) is the President of the Syrian Arab Republic, Regional Secretary
Syria's relations with the Arab world were strained by its support for Iran during the Iran-Iraq War, which began in 1980. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. With the end of the war in August 1988, Syria began a slow process of reintegration with the other Arab states. In 1989, it joined with the rest of the Arab world in readmitting Egypt to the 19th Arab League Summit at Casablanca. This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. The Arab League ( الجامعة العربية) officially called the League of Arab States ( جامعة الدول العربية Casablanca (in Standard Arabic: الدار البيضاء ad-Dār al-Bayḍāʼ; Moroccan Arabic: dar beïda الدار البيضا
This decision, prompted in part by Syria's need for Arab League support of its own position in Lebanon, marked the end of the Syrian-led opposition to Egypt and the 1977-1979 Sadat initiatives toward Israel, as well as the Camp David Accords. Lebanon (ˈlɛbənɒn Arabic: ar لبنان Lubnān) officially the Republic of Lebanon or Lebanese Republic (ar الجمهورية اللبنانية For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics. The Camp David Accords were signed by Egyptian President Anwar El Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin on September 17, It coincided with the end of the 10-year Arab subsidy to Syria and other front-line Arab countries pledged at Baghdad in 1978. Baghdad (بغداد) is the Capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate, with which it is also coterminous Syria reestablished full diplomatic relations with Egypt in 1989. In the 1990-1991 Gulf War, Syria joined other Arab states in the U. S. -led multinational coalition against Iraq. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iraq topics. In 1998, Syria began a slow rapprochement with Iraq, driven primarily by economic needs. Syria continues to play an active pan-Arab role, which has intensified as the peace process collapsed in September 2000 with the start of the second Palestinian uprising (Intifada) against Israel. Though it voted in favor of UNSCR 1441 in 2002, Syria was against coalition military action in Iraq in 2003. United Nations Security Council Resolution 1441 is a resolution by the UN Security Council, passed unanimously on November 8, 2002 However, the Syrian government accepted UNSCR 1483 (after being absent for the actual vote), which lifted sanctions on Iraq and established a framework to assist the Iraqi people in determining their political future and rebuilding their economy. United Nations Security Council Resolution 1483 was adopted by a vote of 14 to zero (with Syria absent on 22 May 2003. Economics is the social science that studies the production distribution, and consumption of goods and services.
Syria plays an important role in Lebanon by virtue of its history, size, power, and economy. Lebanon was part of post-Ottoman Syria until 1926. Lebanon (ˈlɛbənɒn Arabic: ar لبنان Lubnān) officially the Republic of Lebanon or Lebanese Republic (ar الجمهورية اللبنانية The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish The presence of Syrian troops in Lebanon dates to 1976, when President Hafez Al-Assad intervened in the Lebanese civil war on behalf of Maronite Christians. Hafez al-Assad (حافظ الأسد) ( October 6, 1930 &ndash June 10, 2000) was president of Syria, for three The Lebanese Civil War (1975–1990 was a multifaceted Civil war whose antecedents can be traced back to the conflicts and political compromises reached after the end Maronites ( الموارنة,, Syriac: ܡܪܘܢܝܐ, Latin: Ecclesia Maronitarum) are members of one of the Syriac Following the 1982 Israeli invasion of Lebanon, Syrian and Israeli forces clashed in eastern Lebanon. The late U. S. Ambassador Philip Habib negotiated a cease-fire in Lebanon and the subsequent evacuation of PLO fighters from West Beirut. Philip Charles Habib ( February 25, 1920 &ndash May 25, 1992) was a United States career diplomat known for work in Vietnam A ceasefire (or truce) is a temporary stoppage of a War or any Armed conflict, where each side of the conflict agrees The Palestine Liberation Organization ( PLO) (منظمة التحرير الفلسطينية or Munazzamat al-Tahrir al-Filastiniyyah) is a political and paramilitary Beirut (بيروت Bayrūt) is the Capital and Largest city of Lebanon with a population of over 2 However, Syrian opposition blocked implementation of the May 17, 1983, Lebanese-Israeli accord on the withdrawal of Israeli forces from Lebanon. Events 1521 - Edward Stafford 3rd Duke of Buckingham, is executed for Treason. Year 1983 ( MCMLXXXIII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar) Following the February 1984 withdrawal of the UN Multinational Force from Beirut and the departure of most of Israel's forces from southern Lebanon a year later, Syria launched an unsuccessful initiative to reconcile warring Lebanese factions and establish a permanent cease-fire. Syria actively participated in the March-September 1989 fighting between the Christian Lebanese Forces and Muslim forces allied with Syria. In 1989, Syria endorsed the Charter of National Reconciliation, or "Taif Accord," a comprehensive plan for ending the Lebanese conflict negotiated under the auspices of Saudi Arabia, Algeria, and Morocco. The Taif Agreement ( Arabic: اتفاقية الطائف) (also "National Reconciliation Accord" or "Document of National Accord" was an agreement The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, KSA ( المملكة العربية السعودية, al-Mamlaka al-ʻArabiyya as-Suʻūdiyya) or Suudi Algeria ( ar [[Arabic]] الجزائر, Al Jaza'ir ælʤæˈzæːʔir Amazigh: ⴷⵥⴰⵢⴻⵔ Dzayer) officially the People's Morocco (المغرب "al-Maghrib" officially the Kingdom of Morocco (المملكة المغربية is a country located in North Africa
At the request of Lebanese President Hrawi, the Syrian military took joint action with the Lebanese Armed Forces on October 13, 1990, to oust rebel Gen. Events 54 - Nero ascends to the Roman throne 409 - Vandals and Alans crossed the Pyrenees Year 1990 ( MCMXC) was a Common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar) Michel Aoun who had defied efforts at reconciliation with the legitimate Government of Lebanon. Michel Naim Aoun ( Arabic: ميشال عون (born 19 february 1935 in Haret Hreik, Lebanon) is a former Lebanese The process of disarming and disbanding the many Lebanese militias began in earnest in early 1991. In May 1991, Lebanon and Syria signed the treaty of brotherhood, cooperation, and coordination called for in the Taif Accord, which is intended to provide the basis for many aspects of Syrian-Lebanese relations. The treaty provides the most explicit recognition to date by the Syrian Government of Lebanon's independence and sovereignty. Independence is the Self-government of a Nation, Country, or State by its residents and population or some portion thereof generally exercising Sovereignty is the exclusive Right to control a Government, a country, a people or oneself
According to the U. S. interpretation of the Taif Accord, Syria and Lebanon were to have decided on the redeployment of Syrian forces from Beirut and other coastal areas of Lebanon by September 1992. The Taif Agreement ( Arabic: اتفاقية الطائف) (also "National Reconciliation Accord" or "Document of National Accord" was an agreement Israeli occupation of Lebanon until May 2000, the breakdown of peace negotiations between Syria and Israel that same year, and intensifying Arab/Israeli tensions since the start of the second Palestinian uprising in September 2000 have helped delay full implementation of the Taif Accords. The United Nations declared that Israel's withdrawal from southern Lebanon fulfilled the requirements of UN Security Council Resolution 425. The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security On March 19, 1978, five days after the Israeli invasion of Lebanon, United Nations Security Council Resolution 425 called on However, Syria and Lebanon claimed that UNSCR 425 had not been fully implemented because Israel did not withdraw from an area of the Golan Heights called Shebaa Farms, which had been occupied by Israel in 1967, and which Syria now claimed was part of Lebanon. Golan Heights The Shebaa Farms (مزارع شبعا; חוות שבעא Havot Sheba‘a or הר דוב Har Dov) is a small area of land with disputed For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics. The United Nations does not recognize this claim. However, Lebanese resistance groups such as Hezbollah use it to justify attacks against Israeli forces in that region, creating a potentially dangerous flashpoint along the Lebanon-Israeli border. Hezbollah (حزب الله, literally " party of God " is a Shi'a Islamic political and Paramilitary organisation
In 2005, Syrian troops withdrew from Lebanon after the assassination of Lebanese Sunni Prime Minister Rafik Hariri in February 14th, 2005.
See Iran-Arab relations, section on Syria.
Syria was an active belligerent in the 1967 Arab-Israeli War, which resulted in Israel's occupation of the Golan Heights and the city of Quneitra. Background Suez Crisis aftermath The Suez Crisis of 1956 represented a military defeat but a political victory for Egypt Quneitra (also Al Qunaytirah, Qunaitira, or Kuneitra; القنيطرة is the largely destroyed and abandoned Capital of the Quneitra Following the October 1973 Arab-Israeli War, which left Israel in occupation of additional Syrian territory, Syria accepted UN Security Council Resolution 338, which signaled an implicit acceptance of Resolution 242. The Yom Kippur War, Ramadan War or October War (מלחמת יום הכיפורים transliterated: Milkhemet Yom HaKipurim or מלחמת יום United Nations Security Council Resolution 242 (S/RES/242 was adopted unanimously by the UN Security Council on November 22, 1967 Resolution 242, which became the basis for the peace process negotiations begun in Madrid, calls for a just and lasting Middle East peace to include withdrawal of Israeli armed forces from territories occupied in 1967; termination of the state of belligerency; and acknowledgment of the sovereignty, territorial integrity, and political independence of all regional states and of their right to live in peace within secure and recognized boundaries. Madrid (pronounced in English in Spanish and colloquially in Spain) is the Capital and largest city of Spain.
As a result of the mediation efforts of then U. Mediation, a form of Alternative dispute resolution (ADR or "appropriate Dispute resolution " aims to assist two (or more disputants in reaching S. Secretary of State Henry Kissinger, Syria and Israel concluded a disengagement agreement in May 1974, enabling Syria to recover territory lost in the October war and part of the Golan Heights occupied by Israel since 1967, including Quneitra. Henry Alfred Kissinger (born Heinz Alfred Kissinger on May 27, 1923) is a German -born American bureaucrat diplomat and 1973 Year 1974 ( MCMLXXIV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. The two sides have effectively implemented the agreement, which is monitored by UN forces.
In December 1981, the Israeli Knesset voted to extend Israeli law to the part of the Golan Heights over which Israel retained control. Year 1981 ( MCMLXXXI) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 For Beit Knesset a Jewish Place of worship, see Synagogue. The Knesset (כנסת lit Borders of Israel The Golan Heights ( الجولان al-Jawlān, הגולן ha-Golan) is a strategic Plateau and mountainous The UN Security Council subsequently passed a resolution calling on Israel to rescind this measure. Syria participated in the Middle East Peace Conference in Madrid in October 1991. Year 1991 ( MCMXCI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar. Negotiations were conducted intermittently through the 1990s, and came very close to succeeding. However, the parties were unable to come to an agreement due to President Bill Clinton's failure to consult with the Syrian President, Hafez al-Assad during the negotiating process, Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak's backtracking on the issue of the northeastern shore of Lake Tiberias and Syria's nonnegotiable demand that Israel withdraw to the positions it held on June 4, 1967. William Jefferson "Bill" Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III, August 19 1946 served as the forty-second President of the United States Hafez al-Assad (حافظ الأسد) ( October 6, 1930 &ndash June 10, 2000) was president of Syria, for three Ehud Barak (אֵהוּד בָּרָק born Ehud Brog on 12 February 1942) is an Israeli politician former Prime Minister, and Events 781 BC - The first historic Solar eclipse is recorded in China. Year 1967 ( MCMLXVII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. The peace process collapsed following the outbreak of the second Palestinian (Intifada) uprising in September 2000, though Syria continues to call for a comprehensive settlement based on UN Security Council Resolutions 242 and 338, and the land-for-peace formula adopted at the 1991 Madrid conference. September 2000: January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August -
Tensions between Israel and Syria increased as the Intifada dragged on, primarily as a result of Syria's refusal to stop giving sanctuary to Palestinian terrorist groups conducting operations against Israel. Palestinian people or Palestinians ( الشعب الفلسطيني, ash-sha`b al-filasTīni; الفلسطينيون, al-filasTīnīyyūn Terrorism is the systematic use of terror especially as a means of coercion In October 2003, following a suicide bombing carried out by a member of Palestinian Islamic Jihad in Haifa that killed 20 Israeli citizens, Israeli Defense Forces attacked a suspected Palestinian terrorist training camp 15 kilometers north of Damascus. October 2003: January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - Haifa (חֵיפָה; حَيْفَا) is the largest City in Northern Israel, and the third-largest city in the country with The Israel Defense Forces ( IDF) (צְבָא הַהֲגָנָה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל, lit Damascus ( دمشق,, also commonly known as الشام ash-Shām) is the capital and largest city of Syria. This was the first such Israeli attack deep inside Syrian territory since the 1973 war. As this report went to press, Syria announced it would respond diplomatically, and asked the UN Security Council to condemn the Israeli action.
In 2004 and 2005 Israel and Syria engaged in private talks discussing an outline peace accord. "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again " Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. These were successful at a technical level, but failed to gain adequate political support. 
Hostility between Syria and Israel further increased following Israel's execution of Operation Orchard on September 6, 2007. Operation Orchard was an Israeli Airstrike on a target in the Deir ez-Zor region of Syria carried out just after midnight on September 6 Israel bombed a northern Syrian complex near Dayr az-Zawr which was suspected of holding nuclear materials from North Korea. Deir ez Zor, also spelled Dayr az-Zawr, Deir al-Zur and other variants (دير الزور Armenian: Տէր Զօր or Der Zor) is a city in 
In 2008 President of Syria Bashar al-Assad confirmed that talks with Israel have resumed trough a third party. 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Dr Bashar al-Assad (بشار الأسد) (born 11 September, 1965) is the President of the Syrian Arab Republic, Regional Secretary  The expatriates minister, Buthaina Shaaban has also confirmed that Israel is ready to give up the Golan Heights 
Syria is a member of the Arab Bank for Economic Development in Africa, Arab Fund for Economic and Social Development, Arab League, Arab Monetary Fund, Council of Arab Economic Unity, Customs Cooperation Council, Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia, Food and Agricultural Organization, Group of 24, Group of 77, International Atomic Energy Agency, International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, International Civil Aviation Organization, International Chamber of Commerce, International Development Association, Islamic Development Bank, International Fund for Agricultural Development, International Finance Corporation, International Labour Organization, International Monetary Fund, International Maritime Organization, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, International Olympic Committee, International Organization for Standardization, International Telecommunication Union, League of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, Non-Aligned Movement, Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries, Organisation of the Islamic Conference, United Nations, UN Commission on Human Rights, UN Conference on Trade and Development, UN Industrial Development Organization, UN Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East, Universal Postal Union, World Federation of Trade Unions, World Health Organization, World Meteorological Organization, and World Tourism Organization. Borders of Israel The Golan Heights ( الجولان al-Jawlān, הגולן ha-Golan) is a strategic Plateau and mountainous The Arab Fund for Economic and Social Development, or AFESD, is a Kuwait based pan-Arab development finance institute The Arab League ( الجامعة العربية) officially called the League of Arab States ( جامعة الدول العربية The Arab Monetary Fund is a Regional Arab Organization, Founded 1976, and has started operations in 1977, it is a working sub-organization to the Arab League The Council of Arab Economic Unity (CAEU was established in 3 June 1957, and became effective 30 May 1964, with the ultimate goal of achieving The World Customs Organization ( WCO) is an Intergovernmental organization that helps Members (Governments usually represented by Customs administrations from 173 countries The United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (UN-ESCWA headquartered in Beirut, Lebanon, is one of the five regional The Group of 77 at the United Nations is a loose coalition of Developing nations designed to promote its members' collective Economic interests and create The International Atomic Energy Agency ( IAEA) is an international organization that seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy and to inhibit its The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD is one of five institutions that comprise the World Bank Group. The International Civil Aviation Organization ( ICAO) an agency of the United Nations, codifies the principles and techniques of international air navigation The International Chamber of Commerce is a non-profit private international organization that works to promote and support global trade and Globalization. The International Development Association ( IDA) created on September 24, 1960, is the part of the World Bank that helps the world’s poorest countries Islamic Development Bank (also known as IDB) is a multilateral development financing institution located in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD a specialized agency of the United Nations, was established as an international financial institution in 1977 as one The International Finance Corporation (IFC promotes sustainable private sector investment in developing countries as a way to reduce poverty and improve people's lives The International Labour Organization The International Monetary Fund ( IMF) is an International organization that oversees the Global financial system by following the Macroeconomic The International Maritime Organization ( IMO) formerly known as the Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization ( IMCO) is a late 20th century Intelsat Ltd is the world’s largest commercial Satellite communications services provider The International Criminal Police Organization, better known by its telegraphic address Interpol is an organization facilitating international police cooperation The Non-Aligned Movement ( NAM) is an International organization of states considering themselves not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc The Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries or OAPEC is a multi-governmental organization headquartered in Kuwait which coordinates energy policies in Arab The Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC is an International organization with a permanent delegation to the United Nations. The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security The United Nations Commission on Human Rights ( UNCHR) was a functional commission within the overall framework of the United Nations. The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development ( UNCTAD) was established in 1964 as a permanent intergovernmental body The United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO, French/Spanish acronym ONUDI, is a specialized agency in the United Nations system headquartered United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East ( UNRWA) is a relief and human development agency providing education health care social services The Universal Postal Union ( UPU, French: Union postale universelle) is an International organization that coordinates postal policies among member TemplateInfobox Union for usage -->The World Federation of Trade Unions (WFTU was established in the wake of the Second The United Nations World Tourism Organization ( UNWTO) headquartered in Madrid, Spain, is a United Nations agency dealing with questions relating
This article is adapted from the United States Department of State Background note on Syria, visualised December 2003, the current version of which is available at http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/3580.htm#foreign. Borders of Israel The Golan Heights ( الجولان al-Jawlān, הגולן ha-Golan) is a strategic Plateau and mountainous For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics. Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches The Tigris is the eastern member of the two great Rivers that define Mesopotamia, along with the Euphrates, which flows from the mountains of southeastern The Euphrates ( ( Arabic: ar نهر الفرات; Turkish: tr Fırat Syriac: syr ܦܪܬ; Hebrew: he פרת For other uses see Opiate (disambiguation, or for the class of drugs see Opioid. Hashish (from Arabic: ar حشيش, lit "grass" also hash) is a preparation of cannabis composed of the compressed Syria ( سوريّة or) officially the Syrian Arab Republic (Arabic ar الجمهورية العربية السورية Listed below are the embassies and consulates of Syria (not including honorary consulates Europe Yerevan (Embassy This page lists diplomatic missions resident in the Syrian Arab Republic.