|Imperial Palaces of the Ming and Qing Dynasties in Beijing and Shenyang*|
|UNESCO World Heritage Site|
|Criteria||i, ii, iii, iv|
|Inscription||1987 (11th Session)|
|* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List.|
† Region as classified by UNESCO.
|This article contains Chinese text. The Mukden Palace ( or Shenyang Gugong ( also known as the Shenyang Imperial Palace, is the former imperial palace of the early Qing Dynasty of A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a site (such as a Forest, Mountain, Lake, Desert, Monument, Building, complex As of 2008 there are a total of 878 World Heritage Sites located in 145 "State Parties" Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a site (such as a Forest, Mountain, Lake, Desert, Monument, Building, complex This is a list of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Asia, Australia and the Pacific ( Australia) A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a site (such as a Forest, Mountain, Lake, Desert, Monument, Building, complex |
Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Chinese characters. Mojibake is the happenstance of incorrect unreadable characters (garbage characters shown when Computer software fails to render a text correctly according to its associated A Chinese character, also known as a Han character ( is a Logogram used in writing Chinese (hanzi Japanese (
The Forbidden City was the Chinese imperial palace from the mid-Ming Dynasty to the end of the Qing Dynasty. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National A palace is a grand residence especially the home of a Head of state or some other high-ranking Public figure. The Ming Dynasty ( or Empire of the Great Ming ( was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644 following the collapse of the Mongol -led Not to be confused with Qin Dynasty, the first dynasty of Imperial China It is located in the middle of Beijing, China and now houses the Palace Museum. Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES For almost five centuries, it served as the home of the Emperor and his household, and the ceremonial and political centre of Chinese government. The Emperor of China ( refers to any sovereign of Imperial China reigning since the founding of the Qin Dynasty in 221 BC until the fall of
Built from 1406 to 1420, the complex consists of 980 surviving buildings with 8,707 bays of rooms and covers 720,000 square metres. The palace complex exemplifies traditional Chinese palatial architecture, and has influenced cultural and architectural developments in East Asia and elsewhere. The Forbidden City was declared a World Heritage Site in 1987, and is listed by UNESCO as the largest collection of preserved ancient wooden structures in the world. A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a site (such as a Forest, Mountain, Lake, Desert, Monument, Building, complex Year 1987 ( MCMLXXXVII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar) United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization ( UNESCO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established on November 16
Since 1924, the Forbidden City has been under the charge of the Palace Museum, whose extensive collection of artwork and artefacts were built upon the imperial collections of the Ming and Qing dynasties. Part of the museum's former collection is now located in the National Palace Museum in Taipei. The National Palace Museum ( is an art museum in Taipei City, Republic of China, in northern Taiwan. Taipei ( Taiwanese Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Tâi-pak-chhī Jhuyin Fuhao: ㄊㄞˊ ㄅㄟˇ ㄕˋ Hakka: Thòi-pet-sṳ has been the capital of Both museums descend from the same institution, but were split after the Chinese Civil War.
The common English name, "the Forbidden City," is a translation of the Chinese name Zijin Cheng (Chinese: 紫禁城; pinyin: Zǐjinchéng; literally "Purple Forbidden City"). English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States Pinyin, more formally Hanyu pinyin, is the most common Standard Mandarin Romanization system in use Another English name of similar origin is "Forbidden Palace".  In the Manchu language it is called Dabkūri dorgi hoton (Manchu: ), which literally means the "Layered Inner City. Manchu is a Tungusic language spoken in Northeast China; it used to be the language of the Manchu, though now most Manchus speak Mandarin "
The name "Zijin Cheng" is a name imbued with significance on many levels. Zi, or "Purple", refers to the North Star, which in ancient China was called the Ziwei Star, and in traditional Chinese astrology was the abode of the Celestial Emperor. The North Star is the prominent Pole star that lies closest in the sky to the north celestial pole and which appears (approximately directly overhead to The Chinese Zodiac is a 12 year cycle Each year of the 12 year cycle is named after one of the original 12 animals The Jade Emperor ( or 玉帝 Yù Dì) is the Taoist ruler of Heaven and all realms of existence below including that of Man and Hell The surrounding celestial region, the Ziwei Enclosure (Chinese: 紫微垣; pinyin: Zǐwēiyuán), was the realm of the Celestial Emperor and his family. Three enclosures (三垣 Pinyin: Sān Yuán) are Purple Forbidden enclosure (紫微垣 Supreme Palace enclosure (太微垣 and Heavenly Pinyin, more formally Hanyu pinyin, is the most common Standard Mandarin Romanization system in use The Forbidden City, as the residence of the terrestrial emperor, was its earthly counterpart. Jin, or "Forbidden", referred to the fact that no-one could enter or leave the palace without the emperor's permission. Cheng means a walled city. Chinese city walls ( refer to civic defensive systems used to protect towns and Cities in China in pre-modern times 
Today, the site is most commonly known in Chinese as Gugong (故宫), which means the "Former Palace. " The museum which is based in these buildings is known as the "Palace Museum" (Chinese: 故宫博物院; pinyin: Gùgōng Bówùyùan). Pinyin, more formally Hanyu pinyin, is the most common Standard Mandarin Romanization system in use
The site of the Forbidden City was part of the Imperial city during the Mongol Yuan Dynasty. The History of the Forbidden City spans some six centuries Located in the middle of Beijing, China, the Forbidden City was the Chinese imperial The Ming Dynasty ( or Empire of the Great Ming ( was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644 following the collapse of the Mongol -led Khanbaliq or Cambuluc / Cambaluc, also Kaan-baligh ("Great residence of the Khan " is the ancient Mongol name for the city The Yuan Dynasty ( Pinyin: Yuáncháo Dai Ön Ulus (Дай Юан Улс was a ruling Dynasty founded by the Mongol leader Kublai Upon the establishment of the Ming Dynasty, the Hongwu Emperor moved the capital from Beijing in the north to Nanjing in the south, and ordered that the Mongol palaces be razed. The Ming Dynasty ( or Empire of the Great Ming ( was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644 following the collapse of the Mongol -led Early life Zhu Yuanzhang was born in 1328 in Pei County Xuzhou, Jiangsu Province as the youngest of four sons ( Chinese: 南京 Romanizations Nánjīng ( Pinyin) Nan-ching ( Wade-Giles When his son Zhu Di became the Yongle Emperor, he moved the capital to Beijing, and construction began in 1406 of what would become the Forbidden City. The Yongle Emperor ( Wade-Giles: Yung-lo May 2, 1360 &ndash August 12, 1424) born Zhu Di ( Chu Ti The Yongle Emperor ( Wade-Giles: Yung-lo May 2, 1360 &ndash August 12, 1424) born Zhu Di ( Chu Ti 
Construction lasted 15 years, and required more than a million workers.  Material used include whole logs of precious Phoebe zhennan wood (Chinese: 楠木; pinyin: nánmù) found in the jungles of south-western China, and large blocks of marble from quarries near Beijing. UserPolbot. --> Phoebe zhennan is a species of Plant in the Lauraceae family Pinyin, more formally Hanyu pinyin, is the most common Standard Mandarin Romanization system in use  The floors of major halls were paved with "golden bricks" (Chinese: 金砖; pinyin: jīnzhuān), specially baked paving bricks from Suzhou. Pinyin, more formally Hanyu pinyin, is the most common Standard Mandarin Romanization system in use Suzhou ( ancient name 吳) is a City on the lower reaches of the Yangtze River and on the shores of Lake Taihu in the province of Jiangsu 
From 1420 to 1644, the Forbidden City was the seat of the Ming Dynasty. In April 1644, it was captured by rebel forces led by Li Zicheng, who proclaimed himself emperor of the Shun Dynasty. Li Zicheng ( ( September 22, 1606 - 1644 born Lĭ Hóngjī (鴻基 was one of the major figures in the rebellion that brought down the Ming Dynasty China Shun Dynasty ( was an imperial dynasty created in the brief lapse from Ming to Qing rule in China.  He soon fled before the combined armies of former Ming general Wu Sangui and Manchu forces, setting fire to parts of the Forbidden City in the process. Wu Sangui ( styled Changbai 長白 or Changbo 長伯 (1612 &ndash October 2, 1678) was a Ming Chinese general who was The Manchu people ( Manchu: Manju;, Mongolian: Манж Russian: Маньчжуры are a Tungusic people who originated in  By October, the Manchus had achieved supremacy in northern China, and a ceremony was held at the Forbidden City to proclaim the young Shunzhi Emperor as ruler of all China under the Qing Dynasty. The Shunzhi Emperor ( March 15, 1638 &ndash February 5, 1661) was the second emperor of the Manchu Qing dynasty Not to be confused with Qin Dynasty, the first dynasty of Imperial China  The Qing rulers changed the names of the principal buildings, to emphasise "Harmony" rather than "Supremacy", made the name plates bilingual (Chinese and Manchu), and introduced Shamanist elements to the palace. A name plate identifies and displays a person or product's name Manchu is a Tungusic language spoken in Northeast China; it used to be the language of the Manchu, though now most Manchus speak Mandarin 
In 1860, during the Second Opium War, Anglo-French forces took control of the Forbidden City and occupied it until the end of the war. The Opium Wars ( also known as the Anglo-Chinese Wars, lasted from 1839 to 1842 and 1856 to 1860 the climax of a trade dispute between China under the Qing  In 1900 Empress Dowager Cixi fled from the Forbidden City during the Boxer Rebellion, leaving it to be occupied by forces of the treaty powers until the following year. Empress Dowager Cixi 1 ( ( November 29 1835 – November 15 1908) popularly known in China as the The Boxer Rebellion, or Boxer Movement, was an uprising by members of the Chinese Society of Right and Harmonious Fists against foreign influence
In 1912, Puyi, the last Emperor of China, abdicated. Puyi ( ( February 7, 1906 &ndash October 17, 1967) of the Manchu Aisin-Gioro ruling family was the last Emperor Puyi sold many treasures to finance his expensive lifestyle, while others were stolen by palace eunuchs. Under an agreement with the new Republic of China government, Puyi remained in the Inner Court, while the Outer Court was given over to public use, until he was evicted after a coup in 1924. REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES  The Palace Museum was then established in the Forbidden City. The Forbidden City was the Chinese imperial Palace from the mid- Ming Dynasty to the end of the Qing Dynasty.  In 1933, the Japanese invasion of China forced the evacuation of the national treasures in the Forbidden City. The Second Sino-Japanese War ( July 7, 1937 to September 9, 1945) was a major war fought between the Republic of China and the  Part of the collection was returned at the end of World War II, but the other part was evacuated to Taiwan in 1947 under orders by Chiang Kai-shek, whose Kuomintang was losing the Chinese Civil War. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including Taiwan ( Taiwanese: Tâi-oân/Tāi-oân (historically 大灣/台員/大員/台圓/大圓/台窩灣 is an Island in East Asia. Chiang Kai-shek ( POJ: Chiúⁿ Kài-se̍k Jyutping: zoeng2gaai3sek6 GCB ( October 31, 1887 &ndash This relatively small but high quality collection was kept in storage for many years since the KMT still hoped to return to the mainland. Finally, in 1965, they again became public, at the core of the National Palace Museum in Taipei. The National Palace Museum ( is an art museum in Taipei City, Republic of China, in northern Taiwan. Taipei ( Taiwanese Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Tâi-pak-chhī Jhuyin Fuhao: ㄊㄞˊ ㄅㄟˇ ㄕˋ Hakka: Thòi-pet-sṳ has been the capital of 
After the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949, some damage was done to the Forbidden City as the country was swept up in revolutionary zeal. Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES  During the Cultural Revolution, however, further destruction was prevented when Premier Zhou Enlai sent an army battalion to guard the city. The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution in the People’s Republic of China was a struggle for power within the Communist Party of China that manifested into Zhou Enlai ( (5 March 1898 – 8 January 1976 was the first Premier of the People's Republic of China, serving from 1949 until his death in January 1976 
The Forbidden City was declared a World Heritage Site in 1987 by UNESCO as the "Imperial Palace of the Ming and Qing Dynasties", due to its significant place in the development of Chinese architecture and culture. A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a site (such as a Forest, Mountain, Lake, Desert, Monument, Building, complex United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization ( UNESCO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established on November 16 Chinese architecture refers to a style of Architecture that has taken shape in Asia over the centuries It is currently administered by the Palace Museum, which is currently carrying out a sixteen-year restoration project to repair and restore all buildings in the Forbidden City to their pre-1912 state. 
In recent years, the presence of commercial enterprises in the Forbidden City has become controversial.  A Starbucks store, which opened in 2000, sparked objections  and eventually closed on July 13, 2007. Starbucks Corporation ( is an international Coffee and coffeehouse chain based in Seattle Washington. Events 1174 - William I of Scotland, a key rebel in the Revolt of 1173-1174, is captured at Alnwick by forces loyal to Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Chinese media also took notice of a pair of souvenir shops that refused to admit Chinese citizens in order to price-gouge foreign customers in 2006. Price gouging is a Pejorative term for a seller pricing much higher than is considered reasonable or fair 
The Forbidden City is the world's largest surviving palace complex and covers 72 ha. It is a rectangle 961 metres from north to south and 753 metres from east to west. It consists of 980 surviving buildings with 8,707 bays of rooms.  The Forbidden City was designed to be the centre of the ancient, walled city of Beijing. It is enclosed in a larger, walled area called the Imperial City. The Imperial City ( Chinese: 北京皇城 Pinyin: Běijīng Huángchéng Manchu: Dorgi hoton literally "The inner city" is a section of The Imperial City is, in turn, enclosed by the Inner City; to its south lies the Outer City.
The Forbidden City remains important in the civic scheme of Beijing. The central north-south axis remains the central axis of Beijing. This axis extends to the south through Tiananmen gate to Tiananmen Square, the ceremonial centre of the People's Republic of China. Tiananmen Square ( is the large Plaza near the center of Beijing, China, named after the Tiananmen (literally Gate of Heavenly Peace To the north, it extends through the Bell and Drum Towers to Yongdingmen. Yongdingmen ( Manchu: Enteheme toktoho duka was the former front gate of the outer section of Beijing's old city wall.  Interestingly, this axis is not exactly aligned north-south, but is tilted by slightly more than two degrees. Researchers now believe that the axis was designed in the Yuan Dynasty to be aligned with Xanadu, the other capital of the empire. The Yuan Dynasty ( Pinyin: Yuáncháo Dai Ön Ulus (Дай Юан Улс was a ruling Dynasty founded by the Mongol leader Kublai Xanadu, also Zanadu, Shangdu, or Shang-tu ( was the Summer capital of Kublai Khan 's 
The Forbidden City is surrounded by a 7. 9-metre high city wall and a six-metre deep, 52-metre wide moat. Chinese city walls ( refer to civic defensive systems used to protect towns and Cities in China in pre-modern times The walls are 8. 62 metres wide at the base, tapering to 6. 66 metres at the top.  These walls served as both defensive walls and retaining walls for the palace. See also List of cities with defensive walls A defensive wall is a Fortification used to defend a city or settlement from potential aggressors A retaining wall is a structure that holds back Soil or rock from a Building, structure or area They were constructed with a rammed earth core, and surfaced with three layers of specially baked bricks on both sides, with the interstices filled with mortar. Rammed earth, also known as cob, pisé de terre or simply pisé, is a type of construction material 
At the four corners of the wall sit towers ("E") with intricate roofs boasting 72 ridges, reproducing the Pavilion of Prince Teng and the Yellow Crane Pavilion as they appeared in Song Dynasty paintings. The Pavilion of Prince Teng ( or Tengwang Pavilion is a building in the north west of the city of Nanchang, in Jiangxi province China, on the Yellow Crane Tower (Chinese 黄[[wikt 鹤|鹤]] 楼; pinyin Huáng Hè Lóu is a famous and historic tower often rebuilt that stands on Sheshan (Snake Hill at The Song Dynasty ( Wade-Giles: Sung Ch'ao was a ruling dynasty in China between 960&ndash1279 CE it succeeded the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms  These towers are the most visible parts of the palace to commoners outside the walls, and much folklore is attached to them. According to one legend, artisans could not put a corner tower back together after it was dismantled for renovations in the early Qing Dynasty, and it was only rebuilt after the intervention of carpenter-immortal Lu Ban. Lu Ban ( fl 5th century BC) was a Chinese carpenter philosopher military thinker statesman and contemporary of Mozi, born in the State of Lu 
The wall is pierced by a gate on each side. At the southern end is the main Meridian Gate ("A"). The Meridian Gate ( Manchu: Julergi dulimbai duka is the southern (and largest gate of the Forbidden City.  To the north is the Gate of Divine Might ("B"), which faces Jingshan Park. The Gate of Divine Might or Gate of Divine Prowess ( is the northern gate of the Forbidden City in Beijing, China. The east and west gates are called the "East Glorious Gate" ("D") and "West Glorious Gate" ("C"). All gates in the Forbidden City are decorated with a nine-by-nine array of golden door nails, except for the East Glorious Gate, which has only eight rows. 
The Meridian Gate has two protruding wings forming three sides of a square (Wumen, or Meridian Gate, Square) before it.  The gate has five gateways. The central gateway is part of the Imperial Way, a stone flagged path that forms the central axis of the Forbidden City and the ancient city of Beijing itself, and leads all the way from the Gate of China in the south to Jingshan in the north. Jingshan ( is an artifical hill in Beijing, China. It is located in Xicheng District, immediately north of the Forbidden City on the central Only the Emperor may walk or ride on the Imperial Way, except for the Empress on the occasion of her wedding, and successful students after the Imperial Examination. The Imperial examinations ( in Imperial China determined who among the population would be permitted to enter the state's Bureaucracy. 
Traditionally, the Forbidden City is divided into two parts. The Outer Court (外朝) or Front Court (前朝) includes the southern sections, and was used for ceremonial purposes. The Inner Court (内廷) or Back Palace (后宫) includes the northern sections, and was the residence of the Emperor and his family, and was used for day-to-day affairs of state. (The approximate dividing line shown as red dash in the plan above). Generally, the Forbidden City has three vertical axes. The most important buildings are situated on the central north-south axis. 
Entering from the Meridian Gate, one encounters a large square, pierced by the meandering Inner Golden Water River, which is crossed by five bridges. Beyond the square stands the Gate of Supreme Harmony ("F"). The Gate of Supreme Harmony ( Manchu: Amba hūwaliyambure duka is the second major gate at the southern side of the Forbidden City. Behind that is the Hall of Supreme Harmony Square.  A three-tiered white marble terrace rises from this square. Three halls stand on top of this terrace, the focus of the palace complex. From the south, these are the Hall of Supreme Harmony (太和殿), the Hall of Central Harmony (中和殿), and the Hall of Preserving Harmony (保和殿). The Hall of Supreme Harmony ( Manchu: Amba hūwaliyambure deyen is the largest hall within the Forbidden City. The Hall of Central Harmony (中和殿 is one of the three halls of the Outer Court of the Forbidden City, in Beijing, China along with the Hall of Supreme The Hall of Preserving Harmony (保和殿 is one of the three halls of the Outer Court of the Forbidden City in Beijing, China along with the Hall of Supreme 
The Hall of Supreme Harmony ("G") is the largest, and rises some 30 metres above the level of the surrounding square. It is the ceremonial centre of imperial power, and the largest surviving wooden structure in China. It is nine bays wide and five bays deep, the numbers nine and five being symbolically connected to the majesty of the Emperor.  Set into the ceiling at the centre of the hall is an intricate caisson decorated with a coiled dragon, from the mouth of which issues a chandelier-like set of metal balls, called the "Xuanyuan Mirror". The Caisson ( also referred to as a caisson ceiling, or spider web ceiling The caisson is generally a sunken panel set into the otherwise largely flat Huangdi, or the Yellow Emperor, is a Legendary Chinese sovereign and cultural hero who is considered in Chinese mythology to be the  In the Ming Dynasty, the Emperor held court here to discuss affairs of state. During the Qing Dynasty, as Emperors held court far more frequently, the Hall of Supreme Harmony was only used for ceremonial purposes, such as coronations, investitures, and imperial weddings. A coronation is a ceremony marking the investiture of a Monarch with regal power specifically involving the placement of a crown upon his or her head and the Investiture, from the Latin (preposition in and verb vestire, 'dress' from vestis 'robe' is a rather general term for the formal installation of an A wedding is the Ceremony in which two people are united in Marriage. 
The Hall of Central Harmony is a smaller, square hall, used by the Emperor to prepare and rest before and during ceremonies.  Behind it, the Hall of Preserving Harmony, was used for rehearsing ceremonies, and was also the site of the final stage of the Imperial examination. The Imperial examinations ( in Imperial China determined who among the population would be permitted to enter the state's Bureaucracy.  All three halls feature imperial thrones, the largest and most elaborate one being that in the Hall of Supreme Harmony. The Hall of Supreme Harmony ( Manchu: Amba hūwaliyambure deyen is the largest hall within the Forbidden City. 
At the centre of the ramps leading up to the terraces from the northern and southern sides are ceremonial ramps, part of the Imperial Way, featuring elaborate and symbolic bas-relief carvings. A bas-relief (baʁəljɛf in French; French for "low relief" derived from the Italian basso rilievo) or low relief is a Sculpture The northern ramp, behind the Hall of Preserving Harmony, is carved from a single piece of stone 16. 57 metres long, 3. 07 metres wide, and 1. 7 metres thick. It weighs some 200 tonnes and is the largest such carving in China.  The southern ramp, in front of the Hall of Supreme Harmony, is even longer, but is made from two stone slabs joined together — the joint was ingeniously hidden using overlapping bas-relief carvings, and was only discovered when weathering widened the gap in the 20th century. The Hall of Supreme Harmony ( Manchu: Amba hūwaliyambure deyen is the largest hall within the Forbidden City. 
In the south west and south east of the Outer Court are the halls of Military Eminence ("H") and Literary Glory ("J"). The former was used at various times for the Emperor to receive ministers and hold court, and later housed the Palace's own printing house. The latter was used for ceremonial lectures by highly regarded Confucian scholars, and later became the office of the Grand Secretariat. A copy of the Siku Quanshu was stored there. The Siku Quanshu, variously translated as the Imperial Collection of Four, Emperor's Four Treasuries, Complete Library in Four Branches of Literature To the north-east are the Southern Three Places (南三所) ("K"), which was the residence of the Crown Prince. 
The Inner Court is separated from the Outer Court by an oblong courtyard lying orthogonal to the City's main axis. It is the home of the Emperor and his family. In the Qing Dynasty, the Emperor lived and worked almost exclusively in the Inner Court, with the Outer Court used only for ceremonial purposes. 
At the centre of the Inner Court is another set of three halls ("L"). From the south, these are the Palace of Heavenly Purity(乾清宮), Hall of Union, and the Palace of Earthly Tranquility. The Palace of Heavenly Purity, or Qianqing Palace ( is a palace in the Forbidden City in Beijing, China. The Hall of Union (交泰殿 is a building in the Forbidden City, in Beijing, China. The Palace of Earthly Tranquility （坤宁宫）is the northernmost of the three main halls of the Inner Court of the Forbidden City, the other two halls being the Palace Smaller than the Outer Court halls, the three halls of the Inner Court were the official residences of the Emperor and the Empress. The Emperor, representing Yang and the Heavens, would occupy the Palace of Heavenly Purity. In Chinese philosophy, the concept of yin and yang ( is used to describe how seemingly opposing forces are bound together intertwined and interdependent in the The Empress, representing Yin and the Earth, would occupy the Palace of Earthly Tranquility. In Chinese philosophy, the concept of yin and yang ( is used to describe how seemingly opposing forces are bound together intertwined and interdependent in the In between them was the Hall of Union, where the Yin and Yang mixed to produce harmony. In Chinese philosophy, the concept of yin and yang ( is used to describe how seemingly opposing forces are bound together intertwined and interdependent in the 
The Palace of Heavenly Purity is a double-eaved building, and set on a single-level white marble platform. The Palace of Heavenly Purity, or Qianqing Palace ( is a palace in the Forbidden City in Beijing, China. The Palace of Heavenly Purity, or Qianqing Palace ( is a palace in the Forbidden City in Beijing, China. It is connected to the Gate of Heavenly Purity to its south by a raised walkway. In the Ming Dynasty, it was the residence of the Emperor. However, beginning from the Yongzheng Emperor of the Qing Dynasty, the Emperor lived instead at the smaller Hall of Mental Cultivation to the west, out of respect to the memory of the Kangxi Emperor. The Yongzheng Emperor (雍正帝 → yōngzhèngdì) (born Yinzhen (胤禛 → yìnzhēn) December 13, 1678 - October 8 Not to be confused with Qin Dynasty, the first dynasty of Imperial China The Kangxi Emperor ( Mongolian Enkh Amgalan Khaan, May 4, 1654 &ndash December 20, 1722) was the third Emperor of  The Palace of Heavenly Purity then became the Emperor's audience hall.  A caisson is set into the roof, featuring a coiled dragon. Above the throne hangs a tablet reading "Justice and Honour" (Chinese: 正大光明; pinyin: zhèngdàguāngmíng). Pinyin, more formally Hanyu pinyin, is the most common Standard Mandarin Romanization system in use 
The Palace of Earthly Tranquility(乾清宮) is a double-eaved building, 9 bays wide and 3 bays deep. The Palace of Earthly Tranquility （坤宁宫）is the northernmost of the three main halls of the Inner Court of the Forbidden City, the other two halls being the Palace In the Ming Dynasty, it was the residence of the Empress. In the Qing Dynasty, large portions of the Palace were converted for Shamanist worship by the new Manchu rulers. From the reign of the Yongzheng Emperor, the Empress moved out of the Palace. However, two rooms in the Palace of Earthly Harmony were retained for use on the Emperor's wedding night. 
Between these two palaces is the Hall of Union, which is square in shape with a pyramidal roof. The Hall of Union (交泰殿 is a building in the Forbidden City, in Beijing, China. Stored here are the twenty-five Imperial Seals of the Qing Dynasty, as well as other ceremonial items. 
Behind these three halls lies the Imperial Garden ("M"). Relatively small, and compact in design, the garden nevertheless contains several elaborate landscaping features.  To the north of the garden is the Gate of Divine Might, the north gate of the palace.
Distributed to the east and west of the three main halls are a series of self-contained courtyards and minor palaces, where the Emperor's concubines and children lived. Directly to the west is the Hall of Mental Cultivation ("N"). Originally a minor palace, this became the de facto residence and office of the Emperor starting from Yongzheng. In the last decades of the Qing Dynasty, empresses dowager, including Cixi, held court from the eastern partition of the hall. Located around the Hall of Mental Cultivation are the offices of the Grand Council and other key government bodies. The Grand Council or Junjichu ( Manchu: coohai nashūn i ba; literally "Office of Military Secrets" was an important policy-making body 
The north-eastern section of the Inner Court is taken up by the Palace of Tranquil Longevity ("O"), a complex built by the Qianlong Emperor in anticipation of his retirement. Emperor Qianlong (Chinese 乾隆 Qiánlóng, Wade-Giles' Ch'ien-Lung', Mongolian Tengeriig Tetgesen Khaan, born Hongli (弘历 September It mirrors the set-up of the Forbidden City proper and features an "outer court", an "inner court", and gardens and temples. The entrance to the Palace of Tranquil Longevity is marked by a glazed-tile Nine Dragons Screen. 
Religion was an important part of life for the imperial court. In the Qing Dynasty, the Palace of Earthly Harmony became a place of Manchu Shamanist ceremony. At the same time, the native Chinese Taoist religion continued to have an important role throughout the Ming and Qing dynasties. Taoism (pronounced /ˈdaʊɪzəm/ or /ˈtaʊɪzəm/ also spelled '''Daoism''') refers to a variety of related Philosophical and Religious traditions There were two Taoist shrines, one in the imperial garden and another in the central area of the Inner Court. 
A prevalent form of religion in the Qing Dynasty palace was Tibetan Buddhism, or Lamaism. Tibetan Buddhism is the body of Buddhist religious doctrine and institutions characteristic of Tibet and certain regions of the Himalayas, including A number of temples and shrines were scattered throughout the Inner Court. Buddhist iconography also proliferated in the interior decorations of many buildings.  Of these, the Pavilion of the Rain of Flowers is one of the most important. It housed a large number of Buddhist statues, icons, and mandalas, placed in ritualistic arrangements. Mandala ( Sanskrit maṇḍala मंड "essence" + ल "having" or "containing" 
The Forbidden City is surrounded on three sides by imperial gardens. To the north is Jingshan Park, also known as Coal Hill, an artificial hill created from the soil excavated to build the moat and from nearby lakes. 
To the west lies Zhongnanhai, a former garden centred on two connected lakes, which now serves as the central headquarters for the Communist Party of China and the State Council of the People's Republic of China. The Zhongnanhai ( is a complex of buildings in Beijing, China adjacent to the Forbidden City which serves as the central headquarters for the The Communist Party of China ( CPC) ( also known as the Chinese Communist Party ( CCP) is the founding and ruling political party of the The State Council ( which is largely synonymous with the Central People's Government ( is the chief administrative authority of the People's Republic of China To the north-west lies Beihai Park, also centred on a lake connected to the southern two, and a popular park. Beihai Park ( is an imperial garden to the northwest of the Forbidden City in Beijing.
To the south of the Forbidden City were two important shrines — the Imperial Shrine of Family (Chinese: 太庙; pinyin: Tàimiào) and the Imperial Shrine of State (Chinese: 太社稷; pinyin: Tàishèjì), where the Emperor would venerate the spirits of his ancestors and the spirit of the nation, respectively. Pinyin, more formally Hanyu pinyin, is the most common Standard Mandarin Romanization system in use Pinyin, more formally Hanyu pinyin, is the most common Standard Mandarin Romanization system in use Today, these are the Beijing Labouring People's Cultural Hall and Zhongshan Park (commemorating Sun Yat-sen) respectively. Zhongshan Park ( 中山[[wikt 公园|公园]] is a common name of Chinese parks in honour of Sun Yat-sen, better-known in Chinese as Sun Zhongshan who is considered Sun Yat-sen ( November 12, 1866 &ndash March 12, 1925) was a Chinese Revolutionary and political leader often 
To the south, two nearly identical gatehouses stand along the main axis. They are the Upright Gate (Chinese: 端门; pinyin: Duānmén) and the more famous Tiananmen Gate, which is decorated with a portrait of Mao Zedong in the centre and two placards to the left and right: "Long Live the People's Republic of China" and "Long live the Great Unity of the World's Peoples". Pinyin, more formally Hanyu pinyin, is the most common Standard Mandarin Romanization system in use The Tian'anmen ( literally the "Gate of Heavenly Peace" is a famous monument in Beijing, the capital of People's Republic of China. Mao Zedong ( 26 December 1893 – 9 September 1976) was a Chinese Military and political leader who led The Tiananmen Gate connects the Forbidden City precinct with the modern, symbolic centre of the Chinese state, Tiananmen Square.
While development is now tightly controlled in the vicinity of the Forbidden City, throughout the past century uncontrolled and sometimes politically motivated demolition and reconstruction has changed the character of the areas surrounding the Forbidden City. Since 2000, the Beijing municipal government has worked to evict governmental and military institutions occupying some historical buildings, and has established a park around the remaining parts of the Imperial City wall. In 2004, an ordinance relating to building height and planning restriction was renewed to establish the Imperial City area and the northern city area as a buffer zone for the Forbidden City.  In 2005, the Imperial City and Beihai (as an extension item to the Summer Palace) were included in the shortlist for the next World Heritage Site in Beijing. Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Beihai Park ( is an imperial garden to the northwest of the Forbidden City in Beijing. The Summer Palace or Yi he yuan ( is a palace in Beijing, China. A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a site (such as a Forest, Mountain, Lake, Desert, Monument, Building, complex 
The design of the Forbidden City, from its overall layout to the smallest detail, was meticulously planned to reflect philosophical and religious principles, and above all to symbolise the majesty of Imperial power. Chinese philosophy is Philosophy written in the Chinese tradition of thought Religion in China has been characterized by Pluralism since the beginning of Chinese history. Some noted examples of symbolic designs include:
The collections of the Palace Museum are based on the Qing imperial collection. According to the results of a 1925 audit, some 1. 17 million items were stored in the Forbidden City. In addition, the imperial libraries housed one of the country's largest collections of ancient books and various documents, including government documents of the Ming and Qing dynasties. The Ming Dynasty ( or Empire of the Great Ming ( was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644 following the collapse of the Mongol -led Not to be confused with Qin Dynasty, the first dynasty of Imperial China
From 1933, the threat of Japanese invasion forced the evacuation of the most important parts of the Museum's collection. After the end of World War II, this collection was returned to Nanjing. However, with the Communists' victory imminent in the Chinese Civil War, the Nationalist government decided to ship the pick of this collection to Taiwan. The Communist Party of China ( CPC) ( also known as the Chinese Communist Party ( CCP) is the founding and ruling political party of the Taiwan ( Taiwanese: Tâi-oân/Tāi-oân (historically 大灣/台員/大員/台圓/大圓/台窩灣 is an Island in East Asia. Of the 13,427 boxes of evacuated artefacts , 2,972 boxes are now housed in the National Palace Museum in Taipei. Almost ten thousand boxes were returned to Beijing, but 2,221 boxes remain today in storage under the charge of the Nanjing Museum. Nanjing Museum ( Pinyin: Nánjīng Bówuyuán Simplified Chinese: 南京博物院 is located in Nanjing, Jiangsu Province China, 
After 1949, the Museum conducted a new audit as well as a thorough search of the Forbidden City, uncovering a number of important items. Year 1949 ( MCMXLIX) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. In addition, the government moved items from other museums around the country to replenish the Palace Museum's collection. It also purchased and received donations from the public. 
The Palace Museum holds 340,000 pieces of ceramics and porcelain. The word ceramic is derived from the Greek word κεραμικός ( keramikos) Porcelain is a Ceramic material made by heating raw materials generally including Clay in the form of Kaolin, in a Kiln to temperatures These include imperial collections from the Tang Dynasty and the Song Dynasty, as well as pieces commissioned by the Palace, and, sometimes, by the Emperor personally. The Tang Dynasty ( Middle Chinese: dhɑng (June 18 618&ndashJune 4 907 was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui Dynasty and followed by The Song Dynasty ( Wade-Giles: Sung Ch'ao was a ruling dynasty in China between 960&ndash1279 CE it succeeded the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms The Palace Museum holds about 320,000 pieces of porcelain from the imperial collection. The rest are almost all held in the National Palace Museum in Taipei and the Nanjing Museum. 
The Palace Museum holds close to 50,000 items of paintings. Of these, more than 400 date from before the Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368). The Yuan Dynasty ( Pinyin: Yuáncháo Dai Ön Ulus (Дай Юан Улс was a ruling Dynasty founded by the Mongol leader Kublai This is the largest such collection in China.  The collection is based on the palace collection in the Ming and Qing Dynasties. The personal interest of Emperors such as Qianlong meant that almost all surviving paintings from the Yuan Dynasty and before were held by the palace. However, a significant portion of this collection was lost over the years. After his abdication, Puyi transferred paintings out of the palace, and many of these were subsequently lost or destroyed. In 1948, the pick of the remaining collection were moved to Taiwan. The collection has subsequently been replenished, through donations, purchases, and transfers from other museums.
The Palace Museum's bronze collection dates from the early Shang Dynasty (founded c. Bronze is any of a broad range of Copper alloys, usually with Tin as the main additive but sometimes with other elements such as Phosphorus The Shang Dynasty ( Chinese: 商[[wiktionary 朝|朝]] or Yin Dynasty ( 殷[[wiktionary 代|代]] was according to traditional sources the 1766 BC). Of the almost 10,000 pieces held, about 1600 are inscribed items from the pre-Qin period (to 221 BC). Not to be confused with the Qing Dynasty, the last dynasty of China A significant part of the collection is ceremonial bronzeware from the imperial court. 
The Palace Museum has one of the largest collections of mechanical timepieces of the 18th and 19th centuries in the world, with more than 1000 pieces. The collection contains both Chinese- and foreign-made pieces. Chinese pieces came from the palace's own workships, Guangzhou (Canton) and Suzhou (Suchow). Guangzhou ( Jyutping: Gwong²zau¹; Yale: Gwóngjàu) is the Capital and a Sub-provincial city Suzhou ( ancient name 吳) is a City on the lower reaches of the Yangtze River and on the shores of Lake Taihu in the province of Jiangsu Foreign pieces came from countries including Britain, France, Switzerland, the United States and Japan. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was the formal name of the United Kingdom from 1 January 1801 until 12 April 1927 This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation The United States of America —commonly referred to as the For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. Of these, the largest portion come from Britain. 
Jade has a unique place in Chinese culture. Jade is an Ornamental stone. The term jade is applied to two different rocks that are made up of different Silicate minerals. The Culture of China (traditional Chinese 中國文化 simplified Chinese 中国文化 is home to one of the world's oldest and most complex Civilizations covering a history  The Museum's collection, mostly derived from the imperial collection, includes some 30,000 pieces. The pre-Yuan Dynasty part of the collection includes several pieces famed throughout history, as well as artefacts from more recent archaeological discoveries. The earliest pieces date from the Neolithic period. The Neolithic (from Greek νεολιθικός — neolithikos from νέος neos, "new" + λίθος lithos Ming Dynasty and Qing Dynasty pieces, on the other hand, include both items for palace use, as well as tribute items from around the Empire and beyond. 
In addition to works of art, a large proportion of the Museum's collection consists of the artefacts of the imperial court. This includes items used by the imperial family and the palace in daily life, as well as various ceremonial and bureaucratic items important to government administration. This comprehensive collection preserves the daily life and ceremonial protocols of the imperial era. 
The Forbidden City, the culmination of the two-thousand-year development of classical Chinese and East Asian architecture, has been influential in the subsequent development of Chinese architecture, as well as providing inspiration for many modern constructions. Chinese architecture refers to a style of Architecture that has taken shape in Asia over the centuries Some specific examples of its influences include:
The Forbidden City has served as the scene to many works of fiction. In recent years, it has been depicted in films and television series. Some notable examples include:
The Forbidden City has also served as a performance venue. However, its use for this purpose is strictly limited, due to the heavy impact of equipment and performance on the ancient structures. Almost all performances said to be "in the Forbidden City" are held outside the palace walls.
Chinese art ( Chinese: 中國藝術/中国艺术 has varied throughout its ancient history, divided into periods by the ruling Dynasties of China and changing Chinese Palaces are some of the most elaborate facilities that have been ever constructed The National Palace Museum ( is an art museum in Taipei City, Republic of China, in northern Taiwan.