An ingredient; flour is a fine powder made by grinding cereal grains or other suitable edible plant matter high in starch. Starch, CAS # 9005-25-8 Chemical formula (C6H10O5n is a Polysaccharide It is most commonly made from wheat — the word "flour" used without qualification implies wheat flour — but maize (now called corn in many parts of the Western Hemisphere), rye, barley, and rice, amongst many other grasses and non-grain plants (including buckwheat, grain amaranths and many Australian species of acacia), ground legumes and nuts, such as soy, peanuts, almonds, and other tree nuts, are also called flours. Wheat ( Triticum spp is a worldwide cultivated grass from the Levant area of the Middle East. Maize (ˈmeɪz ( Zea mays L. ssp mays) known as corn in some countries is a cereal grain domesticated in Mesoamerica Maize (ˈmeɪz ( Zea mays L. ssp mays) known as corn in some countries is a cereal grain domesticated in Mesoamerica Rye ( Secale cereale) is a grass grown extensively as a grain and forage crop Barley ( Hordeum vulgare) is an annual Cereal Grain, which serves as a major animal Feed crop, with smaller amounts used for Rice is a Cereal foodstuff which forms an important part of the diet of many people worldwide and as such it is a staple food for many Poaceae or Gramineae is a family in the Class Liliopsida of the flowering plants. Buckwheat refers to plants in two genera of the Dicot family Polygonaceae: the Eurasian genus Fagopyrum, and the North American genus Amaranth has been cultivated as a grain for 8000 years. The yield of grain amaranth is comparable to Rice or Maize. Acacia is a Genus of Shrubs and Trees belonging to the Subfamily Mimosoideae of the family Fabaceae, first Finally flours can be made by grinding the roots of several plants, including cassava, arrowroot and taro. The cassava, yuca, manioc, or mandioca ( Manihot esculenta) is a woody Shrub of the Euphorbiaceae (spurge family native Arrowroot, or obedience plant ( Maranta arundinacea) is a large perennial Herb of genus Maranta found in Rainforest Taro (from Tahitian or other Polynesian languages) more rarely kalo (from Hawaiian) and gabi in The Philippines, is a The same substances ground more coarsely are, many cases, called "meal" instead of "flour".
Flour is the key ingredient of bread, which is a staple food in many countries, and therefore the availability of adequate supplies of flour has often been a major economic and political issue. Bread is a Staple food prepared by Baking a Dough of Flour and Water. Wheat flour is one of the most important foods in European and North American culture, and is the defining ingredient in most European styles of breads and pastries. This article is about ingredients in general There is also an American soul and R&B group called The Main Ingredient. Bread is a Staple food prepared by Baking a Dough of Flour and Water. This article describes Pastry in food For the Distributed Hash Table system see Pastry_(DHT. Regulations in many countries require that wheat flour be enriched to replace nutrients lost in the production of refined flour. Enriched flour is Flour with specific Nutrients returned to it that have been lost while it was prepared
Flour, by definition, contains a high proportion of starches, which are complex carbohydrates also known as polysaccharides. Starch, CAS # 9005-25-8 Chemical formula (C6H10O5n is a Polysaccharide Carbohydrates (from ' Hydrates of Carbon ' or saccharides ( Greek σάκχαρον meaning " Sugar " are the most Polysaccharides are relatively complex Carbohydrates They are Polymers made up of many Monosaccharides joined together by Glycosidic bonds Wheat, and some other flours, also contain proteins called gluten. Proteins are large Organic compounds made of Amino acids arranged in a linear chain and joined together by Peptide bonds between the Carboxyl Gluten is a composite of the proteins Gliadin and Glutenin. These exist conjoined with Starch, in the Endosperms of some When dough made with wheat flour is kneaded, the gluten molecules cross-link to form a sub-microscopic network that gives the dough an elastic structure. This allows the retention of gas bubbles in an intact structure, resulting in an aerated final product with a soft texture, desirable for breads, cakes and the like. Some people suffer from an intolerance to gluten known as coeliac or celiac disease. Coeliac Increased awareness of this disorder, as well as a rising belief in the benefits of a gluten-free diet for persons suffering certain other conditions, has led to an increased demand for bread, pasta, and other products made with flours that do not contain gluten. A gluten-free diet is recommended amongst other things in the treatment of Coeliac disease and Wheat allergy.
|10-11. 5%||all-purpose flour|
|14% and up||high-gluten flour|
Much more wheat flour is produced than any other flour. Wheat ( Triticum spp is a worldwide cultivated grass from the Levant area of the Middle East. Wheat varieties are called "clean," "white," or "brown" if they have high gluten content, and they are called "soft" or "weak" flour if gluten content is low. Gluten is a composite of the proteins Gliadin and Glutenin. These exist conjoined with Starch, in the Endosperms of some Hard flour, or bread flour, is high in gluten, with a certain toughness that holds its shape well once baked. Soft flour is comparatively low in gluten and so results in a finer texture. Soft flour is usually divided into cake flour, which is the lowest in gluten, and pastry flour, which has slightly more gluten than cake flour.
In terms of the parts of the grain (the grass fruit) used in flour—the endosperm or starchy part, the germ or protein part, and the bran or fibre part, there are three general types of flour. In Botany, a caryopsis is a type of simple dry Fruit &mdash one that is monocarpelate (formed from a single Carpel) and Indehiscent (not White flour is made from the endosperm only. Whole grain or wholemeal flour is made from the entire grain, including bran, endosperm, and germ. A germ flour is made from the endosperm and germ, excluding the bran.
All-purpose or plain flour is a blended wheat flour with an intermediate gluten level, which is marketed as an acceptable compromise for most household baking needs.
Bleached flour is treated with flour bleaching agents to whiten it (freshly milled flour is yellowish) and to give it more gluten-producing potential. Flour bleaching agent is a Food additive added to Flour in order to make it appear whiter (freshly milled flour is yellowish and to oxidize the surfaces of the flour Gluten is a composite of the proteins Gliadin and Glutenin. These exist conjoined with Starch, in the Endosperms of some Oxidizing agents are usually employed, most commonly organic peroxides like acetone peroxide or benzoyl peroxide, nitrogen dioxide, or chlorine. Organic peroxides are Organic compounds containing the Peroxide Functional group (ROOR' Acetone peroxide ( triacetone triperoxide, peroxyacetone, TATP, TCAP) is an Organic peroxide and a primary High Benzoyl peroxide (ˈbɛnzɔɪl pəˈrɒksaɪd is a Chemical in the Organic peroxide family Nitrogen dioxide is the Chemical compound with the formula N[[Oxygen O]]2 Chlorine (ˈklɔriːn from the Greek word 'χλωρóς' ( khlôros, meaning 'pale green' is the Chemical element with Atomic number 17 and A similar effect can be achieved by letting the flour slowly oxidize with oxygen in the air ("natural aging") for approximately 10 days; however, this process is more expensive due to the time required. 
Bromated flour is a flour with a maturing agent added. Flour treatment agents (also called improving agents) are Food additives added to Flour in order to improve its properties The agent's role is to help with developing gluten, a role similar to the flour bleaching agents. Gluten is a composite of the proteins Gliadin and Glutenin. These exist conjoined with Starch, in the Endosperms of some Flour bleaching agent is a Food additive added to Flour in order to make it appear whiter (freshly milled flour is yellowish and to oxidize the surfaces of the flour Bromate is usually used. The bromate anion,, is a Bromine -based oxoanion. A bromate is a Chemical compound that contains this ion Other choices are phosphates, ascorbic acid, and malted barley. A phosphate, an Inorganic chemical, is a salt of Phosphoric acid. This article deals with the molecular aspects of ascorbic acid Malting is a process applied to Cereal grains in which the grains are made to Germinate by soaking in water and are then quickly halted from germinating further Barley ( Hordeum vulgare) is an annual Cereal Grain, which serves as a major animal Feed crop, with smaller amounts used for Bromated flour has been banned in much of the world, as bromate is a suspected carcinogen, but remains available in the United States. The bromate anion,, is a Bromine -based oxoanion. A bromate is a Chemical compound that contains this ion The term carcinogen refers to any substance Radionuclide or radiation that is an agent directly involved in the promotion of Cancer or in the fatation of its propagation
Cake flour is a finely milled flour made from soft wheat. It has very low gluten content, making it suitable for soft-textured cakes and cookies. Cake is a form of Food that is usually sweet and often baked. In the United States and Canada, a cookie is a small flat-baked treat usually round containing milk flour eggs and sugar etc The higher gluten content of other flours would make the cakes tough.
Graham flour is a special type of whole-wheat flour. Graham flour is a type of Whole wheat flour named after the American Presbyterian minister Rev The endosperm is finely ground, as in white flour, while the bran and germ are coarsely ground. Graham flour is uncommon outside of the USA and Europe. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the It is the basis of true graham crackers. The graham cracker was developed in 1822 in Bound Brook New Jersey, by Presbyterian minister Rev Many graham crackers on the market are actually imitation grahams because they do not contain graham flour or even whole-wheat flour.
Pastry flour or cookie flour or cracker flour has slightly higher gluten content than cake flour but lower than all-purpose flour. It is suitable for fine, light-textured pastries. This article describes Pastry in food For the Distributed Hash Table system see Pastry_(DHT.
Self-rising or self-raising flour is "white" wheat flour or wholemeal flour that is sold premixed with chemical leavening agents. It was invented by Henry Jones. Henry Jones (1812 - July 12 1891 was a Baker in Bristol, England, who was responsible in 1845 for inventing self-raising Flour. It can also be substituted by Maida when cooking Indian Cuisine. Maida flour is a finely-milled flour used to make a wide variety of food items including puri, Chappathi, Parotta and Paratha. Typical ratios are the following:
Durum or semolina flour is made of durum wheat. Durum wheat or macaroni wheat (also spelled Durhum Triticum durum or Triticum turgidum durum) is the only Tetraploid species of Wheat Semolina is the purified middlings of hard wheat used in making Pasta; also the coarse middlings used for breakfast cereals puddings and Polenta. It has the highest protein content, and it is an important component of nearly all noodles and pastas. A noodle is food made from unleavened Dough that is cooked in a boiling liquid Pasta ( Italian for "dough" is a generic term for Italian variants of Noodles. It is also commonly used to make Indian flatbreads. A flatbread is a simple Bread made from flattened Dough. Many flatbreads are unleavened&mdashmade without Yeast or Sourdough culture
In Britain, many flours go by names different than those from America. Some American flours and British equivalents include:
Flour can also be made from soy beans, peanuts, arrowroot, taro, cattails, acorns and other non-cereal foodstuffs. Peanuts is a syndicated daily and Sunday Comic strip written and illustrated by Charles M Arrowroot, or obedience plant ( Maranta arundinacea) is a large perennial Herb of genus Maranta found in Rainforest Taro (from Tahitian or other Polynesian languages) more rarely kalo (from Hawaiian) and gabi in The Philippines, is a Typha is a Genus of about eleven Species of Monocotyledonous flowering plants in the Monogeneric family Typhaceae The acorn is the nut of the Oak tree (genera Quercus, Lithocarpus and Cyclobalanopsis, in the
In some markets, the different available flour varieties are labeled according to the ash mass ("mineral content") that remains after a sample was incinerated in a laboratory oven (typically at 550 °C or 900 °C, see international standards ISO 2171 and ICC 104/1). International standards are Standards developed by international Standards organisations International standards are available for consideration and use worldwide International Association for Cereal Science and Technology (ICC was founded in 1955 and was originally called the International Association for Cereal Chemistry. This is an easy to verify indicator for the fraction of the whole grain that ended up in the flour, because the mineral content of the starchy endosperm is much lower than that of the outer parts of the grain. Flour made from all parts of the grain (extraction rate: 100%) leaves about 2 g ash or more per 100 g dry flour. Plain white flour (extraction rate: 50-60%) leaves only about 0. 4 g.
In the United States and the United Kingdom, no numbered standardized flour types are defined, and the ash mass is only rarely given on the label by flour manufacturers. However, the legally required standard nutrition label specifies the protein content of the flour, which is also a suitable way for comparing the extraction rates of different available flour types.
It is possible to find out ash content from some US manufacturers. However, US measurements are based on wheat with a 14% moisture content. Thus, a US flour with . 48 ash would approximate a French Type 55.
In general, as the extraction rate of the flour increases, so do both the protein and the ash content. However, as the extraction rate approaches 100% (whole meal), the protein content drops slightly, while the ash content continues to rise.
The following table shows some typical examples of how protein and ash content relate to each other in wheat flour:
|Ash||Protein||Wheat flour type|
|~0. 4%||~9%||pastry flour||405||45|
|~0. 55%||~11%||all-purpose flour||550||55|
|~0. 8%||~14%||high gluten flour||812||80|
|~1%||~15%||first clear flour||1050||110|
|>1. 5%||~13%||white whole wheat||1600||150|
This table is only a rough guideline for converting bread recipes. Since the American flour types are not standardized, the numbers may differ between manufacturers.
Milling of flour is accomplished by grinding grain between stones or steel wheels. A gristmill or grist mill is a building where Grain is ground into Flour, or the grinding mechanism itself Millstones or mill stones are used in Windmills and Watermills including Tide mills for grinding Wheat or other grains Today, "stone-ground" usually means that the grain has been ground in a mill in which a revolving stone wheel turns over a stationary stone wheel, vertically or horizontally with the grain in between. Many small appliance mills are available, both hand-cranked and electric.
Flour dust suspended in air is explosive, as is any mixture of a finely powdered flammable substance with air, see Lycopodium. Lycopodium is a Genus of Clubmosses also known as ground pines, in the family Lycopodiaceae, a family of Fern-allies The most benign cases occur in classroom flour bombs. There are two types of flour bomb: The relatively innocuous use of flour in a fragile container thrown at a person or object to produce an inconvenient stain In medieval flour mills, candles, lamps, or other sources of fire were forbidden. Some devastating and fatal explosions have occurred at flour mills, including an explosion in 1878 at the Washburn "A" Mill in Minneapolis, the largest flour mill in the United States at the time. The Washburn "A" Mill was the second-largest Flour mill in Minneapolis Minnesota. 
Bread, pasta, crackers, many cakes, and many other foods are made using flour. Bread is a Staple food prepared by Baking a Dough of Flour and Water. Pasta ( Italian for "dough" is a generic term for Italian variants of Noodles. A cracker is a type of Biscuit that developed from military Hardtack and nautical ship biscuits Cake is a form of Food that is usually sweet and often baked. Wheat flour is also used to make a roux as a base for gravy and sauces. Roux (ˈruː (pronounced somewhat like the English word "rue" is a mixture of wheat Flour and Fat, traditionally butter Gravy is an English Sauce made often from the juices that run naturally from meat or vegetables during cooking In Cooking, a sauce is Liquid or sometimes semi- Solid food served on or used in preparing other Foods Sauces are not consumed by themselves White wheat flour is the traditional base for wallpaper paste. This page refers to the material used for Interior decoration. It is also the base for papier-mâché. Papier-mâché ( French for 'chewed-up paper' because of its appearance sometimes called paper-mâché, is a construction material that consists of pieces of Cornstarch is a principal ingredient of many puddings or desserts. Pudding most often refers to a Dessert, but can also be a savory dish