A flight simulator is a system that tries to copy, or simulate, the experience of flying an aircraft. A twinjet is a Jet aircraft powered by two engines There are two common configurations of the engines one sees either engine slung under a wing and the other sees Simulation is the imitation of some real thing state of affairs or process Flight is the process by which an object achieves sustained movement either through the Air (or movement beyond Earth's atmosphere, in the case of It is as realistic as possible. The different types of flight simulator range from video games up to full-size cockpit replicas mounted on hydraulic (or electromechanical) actuators, controlled by state of the art computer technology. A video game is a Game that involves interaction with a User interface to generate visual feedback on a video device. For the mechanical technology see Hydraulic machinery and Hydraulic cylinder Hydraulics is a topic of science and Engineering A computer is a Machine that manipulates data according to a list of instructions.
Flight simulators are extensively used by the aviation industry for design and development and for the training of pilots and other flight deck crew in both civil and military aircraft. Aviation refers to activities involving man-made flying devices ( Aircraft) including the people organizations and regulatory bodies involved with them A military is an Organization authorized by its Nation to use force usually including use of Weapons in defending its Country (or by attacking
Engineering flight simulators are also used by aerospace manufacturers for such tasks as:
The Sanders Teacher was a complete aircraft mounted on a universal joint and facing into the wind, able to rotate and tilt freely. A universal joint, U joint, Cardan joint, Hardy- Spicer joint, or Hooke's joint is a Another early flight simulator of about 1910 was built using a section of a barrel mounted on a hoop. Year 1910 ( MCMX) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting 
A number of electro-mechanical devices were tried during World War I and thereafter. The term Link Trainer is commonly used to refer to a series of Flight simulators produced between the early 1930s and early 1950s by Edwin Albert Link, based on technology World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All The best-known was the Link Trainer, produced by Edwin Link in the USA and available from 1929. The term Link Trainer is commonly used to refer to a series of Flight simulators produced between the early 1930s and early 1950s by Edwin Albert Link, based on technology Year 1929 ( MCMXXIX) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. This had a pneumatic motion platform driven by bellows giving pitch, roll and yaw, on which a replica generic cockpit was mounted. It was designed for the teaching of Instrument (cloud) flying in a less hazardous and less expensive environment than the aircraft. After a period where not much interest was shown by professional aviation, the US Army Air Force purchased four Link Trainers in 1934 after a series of fatal accidents in instrument flight. The world flight simulation industry was born. Some 10,000 Link Trainers were used in the 1939-45 war to train new pilots of allied nations. They were still in use in several Air Forces into the 1960s and early 1970s.
The Celestial Navigation Trainer of 1941 was a massive structure 13. Celestial navigation, also known as astronavigation, is a Position fixing technique that was devised to help sailors cross the featureless oceans without having to Year 1941 ( MCMXLI) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (the link will display 1941 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. 7 m (45 ft) high and capable of accommodating an entire bomber crew learning how to fly night missions. The metre or meter is a unit of Length. It is the basic unit of Length in the Metric system and in the International A foot (plural feet or foot; symbol or abbreviation ft or sometimes &prime – the prime symbol) is a non-SI unit A bomber is a Military aircraft designed to attack ground and sea targets primarily by dropping Bombs on them In the 1940s, analog computers were used to solve the equations of flight, resulting in the first electronic simulators. The 1940s decade ran from 1940 to 1949 Events and trends The 1940s was a period between the radical 1930s and the conservative 1950s which also leads the period to be An analog computer (spelt analogue in British English is a form of Computer that uses continuous physical phenomena such as electrical mechanical
In 1948, Curtiss-Wright delivered a trainer for the Stratocruiser to Pan American, the first complete simulator owned by an airline. Year 1948 ( MCMXLVIII) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Curtiss-Wright Corporation ( was once a leading Aircraft manufacturer of the United States, but has since become a component manufacturer specializing in WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout An airline provides air transport services for Passengers or Freight, generally with a recognized operating certificate or license Although there was no motion modelling or visual display, the entire cockpit and instruments worked, and crews found it very effective. Full motion systems came in starting in the late 1950s. The 1950s Decade refers to the years of 1950 to 1959 inclusive
The early visual systems used an actual small model of the terrain. A camera was "flown" over the model terrain and the picture displayed to the pilot. The camera responded to pilot control actions and the display changed in response. Naturally only limited areas of the ground were able to be simulated in this manner, usually just the area around an airport or, in military simulators, typical terrain and sometimes targets. The use of digital computers for flight simulation began in the 1960s. A computer is a Machine that manipulates data according to a list of instructions. The 1960s decade refers to the years from the beginning of 1960 to the end of 1969
In 1954, the Link Division of General Precision Inc. Year 1954 ( MCMLIV) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1954 Gregorian calendar) , later part of Singer Corporation, developed a motion simulator which housed a cockpit within a metal framework. Singer Corporation is a manufacturer of sewing machines first established as I It provided 3 degrees (angle) of pitch, roll, and yaw, but by 1964 improved, compact versions increased this to 10 degrees angle. Year 1964 ( MCMLXIV) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the 1964 Gregorian calendar. By 1969 airline simulators were developed where hydraulic actuators controlled each axis of motion, and simulators began to be built with six degrees of freedom (roll, pitch, yaw for angular motion and surge, heave and sway for longitudinal, vertical and lateral translation). Year 1969 ( MCMLXIX) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. In mechanics, degrees of freedom (DOF are the set of independent displacements and/or rotations that specify completely the displaced or deformed position and orientation Starting in 1977, airline simulators began adopting the modern "cab" configuration where computers are placed in the cockpit area (rather than in off-simulator racks), and equipment is accessed via a wraparound catwalk when the simulator motion system is inoperative. Also 1977 (album by Ash. Year 1977 ( MCMLXXVII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays
Around this time great strides were also made in display technology. In 1972 Singer-Link developed a collimating lens apparatus, using a curved mirror and beamsplitter, which projected Out of The cockpit Window (OTW) views to the pilot at a distant focus. Year 1972 ( MCMLXXII) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. A collimator is a device that narrows a beam of particles or waves A mirror is an object with a surface that has good Specular reflection; that is it is smooth enough to form an Image. A beam splitter is an optical device that splits a beam of Light in two These collimated monitors greatly improved the realism of flight simulation. However, each monitor only offered a field of view of 28 degrees and several were needed for a realistic field of view. The field of view (also field of vision) is the angular extent of the observable world that is seen at any given moment In 1976 wider angle collimated monitors (e. Year 1976 ( MCMLXXVI) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. g. ) were introduced, co-called 'WAC windows' standing for 'Wide Angle Collimated'. Finally, in 1982 the Rediffusion company of Crawley, UK, introduced the Wide-angle Infinity Display Equipment (WIDE) that used a curved mirror of large horizontal extent to allow distant-focus (collimated) viewing by side-by-side pilots in a seamless display. For details, see the entry under 'Collimation@. WIDE-type displays are now universal in the highest levels of Full Flight Simulators for aircraft where two pilots are seated side-by-side.
Various categories of flight simulators and flight training devices are used for pilot training. These vary from relatively simple Part-Task Trainers (PTTs) that cover one or more aircraft systems, Cockpit Procedures Trainers (CPT) for practicing drills and checks, to so-called Full Flight Simulators (FFS). The higher levels of Full Flight Simulators have motion platforms capable of moving in all six degrees-of-freedom (6-DoF). They also have wide-angle high-fidelity collimated visual systems for displaying the outside world to the pilots under training. Collimated light is Light whose rays are nearly parallel and therefore will spread slowly as it propagates The simulator cabin containing the replica cockpit and visual system is mounted on a six-cylinder motion platform that, by moving the platform cylinder under computer control, gives the three linear movements and the three rotations that a freely moving body can experience. The three rotations are Pitch (nose up and down), Roll (one wing up, the other wing down) and Yaw (nose left and right). The three linear movements have a number of names depending on the area of engineering involved but in simulation they are called Heave (up and down), Sway (sideways left and right) and Surge (longitudinal acceleration and deceleration).
Flight simulators are used to train flight crews in normal and emergency operating procedures. Using simulators, pilots are able to train for situations that are unsafe in the aircraft itself. These situations include engine failures and failures or malfunctions of aircraft systems such as electrics, hydraulics, pressurization, flight instruments and so forth.
System trainers are used to teach pilots how to operate various aircraft systems. Once pilots become familiar with the aircraft systems, they will transition to cockpit procedures trainers or CPTs. These are fixed-base devices (no motion platform) and are exact replicas of the cockpit instruments, switches and other controls. They are used to train flight crews in checks and drills and are part of a hierarchy of flight training devices (FTD). The higher level FTDs are 'mini simulators'. Some may also be equipped with visual systems. However, FTDs do not have motion platforms, though many have the fidelity of the Full Flight Simulators. Images of the surrounding environment is projected on displays outside of the cockpit for effect. A computer or computers are used to generate the images, which can be very accurate, and simulate the movements of the instruments. Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University uses a variety of FAA Certified Frasca FTDs to supplement its flight training operations. Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University ( ERAU) is a private, Coeducational University with a history dating from the early days of aviation The Federal Aviation Administration ( FAA) is an agency of the United States Department of Transportation with authority to regulate and oversee all aspects of Frasca International Inc, is a United States corporation specializing in Flight simulation systems 
A full flight simulator (FFS) duplicates all aspects of the aircraft and its environment, including motion in all six degrees-of-freedom. Personnel in the simulator must wear seat belts as they do in the real aircraft. As the cylinders travel of any simulator is limited, the motion system employs what is called 'acceleration onset cueing' that simulates initial accelerations well and then backs off the motion below the pilot's sensory threshold so that the cylinder limits are not exceeded.
National Aviation Authorities (NAA) for civil aircraft such as the U. S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA), certify each category of simulators and test individual simulators within the approved categories. The Federal Aviation Administration ( FAA) is an agency of the United States Department of Transportation with authority to regulate and oversee all aspects of U. S. commercial pilots can only log required training time in simulators that are certified by the FAA and European pilots in simulators approved by EASA. In order for a simulator to be officially certified, it must be able to demonstrate that its performance matches that of the airplane that is being simulated to the fidelity required by the category of Flight Training Device (FTD) or Full Flight Simulator (FFS) to which it is designed and approved by the regulatory body. The testing requirements are detailed in test guides referred to as an Approval Test Guide (ATG) or Qualification Test Guide (QTG). Simulators are classified as Level 1-7 Flight Training Devices (FTD) or Level A-D full-flight simulators. The highest, most capable device is the Level D Full Flight Simulator. This can be used for so-called Zero Flight Time (ZFT) conversions of already-experienced pilots from one type of aircraft to a type with similar characteristics. In ZFT conversions, no aircraft time is needed and the pilot first flies the aircraft, under close supervision by a Training Captain, on a revenue sortie.
Manufacturers of civil Full Flight Simulators include FlightSafety International (FSI), Frasca International, Inc. FlightSafety International is a provider of professional aviation training simulation equipment and software operating as a wholly owned subsidiary of Berkshire Hathaway Frasca International Inc, is a United States corporation specializing in Flight simulation systems , Rockwell Collins and Opinicus in the USA, CAE Inc. and Mechtronix in Canada, Thales in France and the UK, the UK site being the ex-Rediffusion simulator factory at Crawley, near Gatwick airport. Rockwell Collins Inc ( is a large United States -based international company headquartered in Cedar Rapids Iowa primarily providing Aviation and Information The griffin is a Legendary creature with the body of a Lion and the head and often wings of an Eagle. CAE Inc () (which once stood for Canadian Aviation Electronics but now has no official meaning is a leading provider of simulation technologies modelling technologies and integrated Thales of Miletus According to Bertrand Russell, "Philosophy begins with Thales There are currently about 1200 Full Flight Simulators in operation worldwide, of which about 550 are in the USA, 75 in the UK, 60 in China (PRC), 50 each in Germany and Japan, and 40 in France. Of these, some 450 were made by CAE, mainly in their Montreal factory, about 380 by Thales and its predecessors Rediffusion and Thomson CSF, and about 280 by Flight Safety International.
Flight simulators are also extensively used for research in various aerospace subjects, particularly in flight dynamics and man-machine interaction (MMI). This article is about the field of research and industry for the corporation see The Aerospace Corporation Aerospace comprises the Flight dynamics is the science of air and space vehicle orientation and control in three dimensions Both regular and purpose-built research simulators are employed. They range from the simplest ones, which resemble video games, to very specific and extremely expensive designs such as LAMARS, installed at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio. A video game is a Game that involves interaction with a User interface to generate visual feedback on a video device. Wright-Patterson Air Force Base is a United States Air Force base located in Greene and Montgomery counties eight miles (13 km) northeast of This was built by Northrop for the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) and features a large scale five degrees of freedom motion system to a unique design and a 360 degree dome-mounted visual system.
Most simulators have Instructor Operating Stations (IOS). Moscow Aviation Institute (State University of Aerospace Technology (Московский авиационный институт named after Sergo Ordzhonikidze, is At the IOS, an instructor can quickly create any normal and abnormal condition in the simulated aircraft or in the simulated external environment. This can range from engine fires, malfunctioning landing gear, electrical faults, storms, downbursts, lightning, oncoming aircraft, slippery runways, navigational system failures and countless other problems which the crew need to be familiar with and act upon.
Many simulators allow the instructor to control the simulator from the cockpit, either from a console behind the pilot's seats, or, in some simulators, from the co-pilot's seat on sorties where a co-pilot is not being trained. Some simulators are equipped with PDA-like divices in which the instructor can in the co-pilot seat and control the events of the simulation, while not interfering with the lesson.
In the past full motion flight simulators had been limited to multi-million dollar hydraulic devices used at large training centers such as those provided by FlightSafety International, CAE, Alteon (a Boeing company) and at the training centers of the larger airlines. FlightSafety International is a provider of professional aviation training simulation equipment and software operating as a wholly owned subsidiary of Berkshire Hathaway Alteon WebSystems Inc, formerly known as Alteon Networks, "The Server Switching Company" was an Internet infrastructure company based in San Jose California Recent advances in electric motion platforms have led to their use in Full Flight Simulators at these and other training centers and also permitted full motion simulation to be provided economically for much smaller aircraft including single-engine piston aircraft at training centers such as Flight Level Aviation. Flight Level Aviation is a provider of advanced or recurrent instrument flight training for pilots of single-engine and multi-engine piston aircraft
Flight simulators are an essential element in individual pilot as well as flight crew training. They save time, money and lives. The cost of operating even an expensive Level D Full Flight Simulator is many times less than if the training was to be on the aircraft itself and a cost ratio of some 1:40 has been reported for Level D simulator training compared to the cost of training in a real Boeing 747 Jumbo aircraft.
High-end commercial and military flight simulators incorporate motion bases or platforms to provide cues of real motion. These are important to complement the visual cues (see below) and are vital when visual cues are poor such as at night or in reduced visibility or, in cloud, non-existent. The majority of simulators with motion platforms use variants of the six cylinder Stewart platform to generate motion cues. A Stewart platform is a kind of Parallel manipulator using an octahedral assembly of struts These platforms are also known as Hexapods. Stewart used an interlinked array of six hydraulic cylinders to provide accelerations in all six degrees of freedom. Motion bases using modern Stewart based hexapod platforms can provide about +/- 35 degrees of the three rotations pitch, roll and yaw, and about one metre of the three linear movements heave, sway and surge.
These limited angular and linear movements (or "throws") do not inhibit the realism of motion cueing imparted to the simulator crew. A Stewart platform is a kind of Parallel manipulator using an octahedral assembly of struts This is because the human sensors of body motion are more sensitive to acceleration rather than steady-state movement and a six cylinder platform can produce such initial accelerations in all six DoF. The body motion sensors include the vestibular (inner ear, semicircular canals and otoliths), muscle-and joint sensors, and sensors of whole body movements. Furthermore, because acceleration precedes displacement, the human brain senses motion cues before the visual cues that follow. These human motion sensors have low-motion thresholds below which no motion is sensed and this is important to the way that simulator motion platforms are programmed (and also explains why instruments are needed for safe cloud flying). In the real world, after conditioning to the particular environment (in this case aircraft motions), the brain is subconsciously used to receiving a motion cue before noticing the associated change in the visual scene. If motion cues are not present to back up the visual, some disorientation can result ("simulator sickness") due to the cue-mismatch compared to the real world.
In a motion-based simulator, after the initial acceleration, the platform movement is backed off so that the physical limits of the cylinders are not exceeded and the cylinders are then re-set to the neutral position ready for the next acceleration cue. The backing-off from the initial acceleration is carried out automatically through the simulator computer and is called the "washout phase". Carefully-designed "washout algorithms" are used to ensure that washout and the later re-set to about neutral is carried out below the human motion thresholds mentioned above and so is not sensed by the simulator crew, who just sense the initial acceleration. This process is called "acceleration-onset cueing" and fortunately matches the way the sensors of body motion work. This is why aircraft manoeuvre at, say, 300 knots, can be effectively simulated in a replica cabin that itself does not move except in a controlled way through its motion platform. These are the techniques that are used in civil Level D flight simulators and their military counterparts.
The NASA Ames Research Center in "Silicon Valley" south of San Francisco operates the Vertical Motion Simulator. NASA Ames Research Center (ARC is a NASA facility located at Moffett Federal Airfield, which covers 43 acres at the borders of the cities of Mountain View This has a very large-throw motion system with 60 feet (+/- 30 ft) of vertical movement (heave). The heave system supports a horizontal beam on which are mounted rails of length 40 feet, allowing lateral movement of a simulator cab of +/- 20 feet. A conventional 6-degree of freedom hexapod platform is mounted on the 40 ft beam, and an interchangeable cabin is mounted on the hexapod platform. This design permits quick switching of different aircraft cabins. Simulations have ranged from blimps, commercial and military aircraft to the Space Shuttle. In the case of the Space Shuttle, the large Vertical Motion Simulator was used to investigate a longitudinal pilot-induced oscillation (PIO) that occurred on an early Shuttle flight just before landing. Pilot-induced oscillation occurs when the pilot of an Aircraft inadvertently commands an often increasing series of corrections in opposite directions each an After identification of the problem on the VMS, it was used to try different longitudinal control algorithms and recommend the best for use in the Shuttle programme. After this exercise, no similar Shuttle PIO has occurred. The ability to simulate realistic motion cues was considered important in reproducing the PIO and attempts on a non-motion simulator were not successful (a similar pattern exists in simulating the roll-upset accidents to a number of early Boeing 737 aircraft, where a motion-based simulator is needed to replicate the conditions).
AMST Systemtechnik (Austria) and TNO Human Factors (the Netherlands) have developed the Desdemona flight simulation system for the Netherlands-based research organisation TNO. This large scale simulator provides unlimited rotation via a gimballed cockpit. The gimbal sub-system is supported by a framework which adds vertical motion. Furthermore, this framework is mounted on a large rotating platform with an adjustable radius. The Desdemona simulator is designed to provide sustainable g-force simulation with unlimited rotational freedom.
Crude flight simulators were among the first types of programs to be developed for early personal computers. A personal computer ( PC) is any Computer whose original sales price size and capabilities make it useful for individuals and which is intended to be operated Bruce Artwick's subLOGIC simulators were well-known for the functionality they managed to get onto 8-bit machines. The subLOGIC Corporation is an American software development company Key computer game technologies such as 3D graphics, online play, and modding were first showcased in combat flight simulators such as Red Baron II and European Air War. Red Baron II is a Computer game for the PC, developed by Dynamix and published by Sierra Entertainment. European Air War is a combat Flight simulation created by MicroProse in 1998.
A popular type of flight simulator are combat flight simulators, which simulate combat air operations from the pilot and crew's point of view. Combat Flight Simulators are Video games (similar to Flight simulator software used to simulate military aircraft and their operations Combat flight simulation titles are more numerous than civilian flight simulators due to variety of subject matter available and market demand.
In the early 2000s, even home entertainment flight simulators had become so realistic that after the events of September 11, 2001, some journalists and experts speculated that the hijackers might have gained enough knowledge to steer a passenger airliner from packages such as Microsoft Flight Simulator. X-Plane is a Flight simulator for Personal computers produced A journalist (also called a newspaperman) is a person who practices Journalism, the gathering and dissemination of information about current events trends Hijacking (also known as skyjacking and aircraft piracy) is the take over of an Aircraft, by a person or group usually armed Microsoft Flight Simulator (sometimes abbreviated to MSFS or FS) is a Flight simulator program for Microsoft Microsoft, while rebutting such criticisms, delayed the release of the 2002 version of its hallmark simulator to delete the World Trade Center from its New York scenery and even supplied a patch to delete the towers retroactively from earlier versions of the sim. Microsoft Corporation is an American multinational Computer technology Corporation, which rose to dominate the Home computer See also 2002 (disambiguation Year 2002 ( MMII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. The World Trade Center in New York City, United States (sometimes informally the WTC or Twin Towers) was a complex of seven buildings in Lower Manhattan New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous
The advent of flight simulators as home video game entertainment has prompted many users to become "airplane designers" for these systems. As such, they may create both military or commercial airline airplanes, and they may even use names of real life airlines, as long as they don't make profits out of their designs. Many other home flight simulator users create fictional airlines, or virtual versions of real-world airlines, so called virtual airlines. A virtual airline (VA is a dedicated Hobby organization that uses flight simulation to model the operations of an Airline. These modifications to a simulation generally add to the simulation's realism and often grant a significantly expanded playing experience, with new situations and content. In some cases, a simulation is taken much further in regards to its features than was envisioned or intended by its original developers. Falcon 4.0 is an example of such modification; "modders" have created whole new warzones, along with the ability to fly hundreds of different aircraft, as opposed to the single original flyable airframe. Falcon 40 is a modern air combat simulation originally released on December 12 1998 by MicroProse.
One way in which users of flight simulation software engage is through the internet. Virtual pilots and virtual air traffic controllers take part in an online flying experience which attempts to simulate real-world aviation to a high degree. Air traffic controllers are people who operate the Air traffic control system to expedite and maintain a safe and orderly flow of air traffic and help prevent There are several networks where this sort of play is possible, the most popular ones being VATSIM and IVAO. VATSIM, or Virtual Air Traffic Simulation Network, is a Non-profit organization operating a dedicated worldwide Internet-based flight-simulation network IVAO, or the International Virtual Aviation Organisation, is an Internet-based flight-simulation network. VATSIM is generally regarded to have better coverage of the virtual North America and Great Britain, while IVAO's pilots and controllers generally fly and control the virtual Europe, Africa and South America. IVAO's ATC certification process is not as strict as VATSIM's, which allows for a greater number of controllers to be available, but guarantees their proficiency to a lesser degree than VATSIM. Both networks receive anywhere from 300 to 900 ATC and pilot connections, depending on the time of day.
Popular simulators for home computers include:
Much rarer but still notable are flight simulators available for various game consoles. The most notable of these were Pilotwings, made available for the Super Nintendo, the sequel Pilotwings 64 for the Nintendo 64 and the Ace Combat series on Playstation 1&2. is a Nintendo Video game for the Super NES/Super Famicom, originally released in 1990, and included with the system in some early packages The Super Nintendo Entertainment System or Super NES (also called SNES and Super Nintendo) is a 16-bit Video game console that was is a Video game for the Nintendo 64, released in 1996 along with the launch of the console The, often abbreviated as N64, is Nintendo 's third home Video game console for the international market Ace Combat is an arcade style Flight Action Video game series published by the Japanese company Bandai Namco Games. The very rare Sky Odyssey is yet another example of console flight simulators. Sky Odyssey (called The Sky Odyssey in Japan) is an action/adventure Flight simulator for the Sony[[PlayStation 2]] Due to the restrictive nature of a game consoles ability to properly simulate environments in general and the processing limitations of these systems in particular, game console-based flight simulators tend to be simplistic and have a more "arcade"-like feel to them. While generally not as complex as PC based sims, console flight simulators can still be enjoyable to play, though their 'simulation' status is disputed by many in the flight simulation community.
Often referred to as Simpits, home cockpit building is a common hobby among simulator pilots. Simulation cockpits or simpits are environments designed to replicate a vehicle cockpit Simpits range in complexity from a single computer, with some effort to create a permanent area for simulation, through to complete cockpit reconstruction projects utilizing multiple systems. The growth in home cockpit complexity and realism has been further fueled by the opening up of the simulation software packages with published SDK's (Software Development Kits) now common. A software development kit ( SDK or " devkit " is typically a set of development tools that allows a Software engineer to create applications
The push for higher realism in desktop simulation, often fueled by real pilots looking to practice cheaply at home, has led to a wide array of suppliers growing up to satisfy the demand. Hardware is available from a variety of commercial sources ranging from yokes, throttles and pedals, through to radios, lights and complete instruments. This home use hardware is rarely certified for flight training, so the hours spent practicing in the simpit will not count towards a pilot's hours. However it is widely utilized as an unofficial training aid, allowing realistic procedures practice, as well as the opportunity to complete visual or IMC approaches prior to a real world flight. This can help make a pilot's real-world flight time safer and more productive.  Professional opinion is divided about how effective this home simulation can be against real world flight, and this has been a subject of debate in popular flying magazines such as 'Pilot' through 2007.
For those wishing more than a desktop simulator, replica panels are commercially available mimicking those found in a modern airliners such as a Boeing or Airbus. These panels will either fit into a real cockpit section, which some large scale home simulators are built into, or will be mounted in a home constructed cockpit frame, normally made from wood. With most modern airliners now using Glass Cockpit type displays it is relatively simple to replicate the displays in software, outputting them via multi head graphics cards or networked PCs to cheaply available LCD monitors mounted behind the panel. To the casual observer it can be hard to tell a home built static simulator and a commercial one apart.
Where commercial panels or controls do not exist, simulator builders will often create their own out of wood or similar easily worked materials. Another common route for sourcing the specific hardware needed in a simulator, and one used by the commercial sector as well, is to obtain a real component from a scrapyard and convert it for PC input. Interface hardware for these home-made controls is directly available from commercial suppliers, or can be obtained by dismantling cheap joysticks or similar components and rewiring them. Some home builds will even incorporate motion platforms, although unlike commercial simulators these are normally more limited in motion, and often rely on electrical motors as opposed to hydraulics.
Beyond the hardware of home cockpits, most flight simulator software can simulate modern aircraft systems to a very high standard in addition to the basic flight dynamics. Providing accurate recreations of the FMC (Flight Management Computer), Autopilot, and engine management systems among others. With additional hardware and add in software this is extended even further. For example into a fully functional overhead / engineering panel requiring real world check lists to be followed for engine startup and flight with a full flight deck crew.
As space is a natural extension of airspace, space flight simulators may be treated as an extension of flight simulators' genre. Space is the extent within which Matter is physically extended and objects and Events have positions relative to one another Airspace means the portion of the atmosphere controlled by a particular country on top of its territory and Territorial waters or more generally any specific three-dimensional There is a considerable interdependence between those two kinds of simulators, as some flight simulators feature spacecraft as an extension and some space flight simulators may feature pretty realistic atmospheric flight simulation engines. A spacecraft is a Vehicle or machine designed for Spaceflight.
Popular space flight simulators for home computers include: