Flight is the process by which an object achieves sustained movement either through the air (or movement beyond earth's atmosphere, in the case of spaceflight) by aerodynamically generating lift, propulsive thrust or aerostatically using buoyancy. Hummingbirds are Birds in the family Trochilidae, and are endemic to the Americas. In Physics, a physical body (sometimes called simply a body or even an object) is a collection of Masses taken to be one Temperature and layers The temperature of the Earth's atmosphere varies with altitude the mathematical relationship between temperature and altitude varies among five Temperature and layers The temperature of the Earth's atmosphere varies with altitude the mathematical relationship between temperature and altitude varies among five Spaceflight is the use of Space technology to fly a Spacecraft into and through Outer space. In the context of a Fluid flow relative to a body the lift force is the component of the Aerodynamic force that is Perpendicular to the flow Some Gases are buoyant in Air because they have densities lower than that of air (about 1 In Physics, buoyancy ( BrE IPA: /ˈbɔɪənsi/ is the upward Force on an object produced by the surrounding liquid or gas in which it is

## Forces for flight

Main forces on a heavier-than-air aircraft
Main article: Aerodynamics

Forces relevant to flight are

These forces must be balanced for stable flight to occur. Air propulsion is the act of moving an object through the air In the context of a Fluid flow relative to a body the lift force is the component of the Aerodynamic force that is Perpendicular to the flow WING "ESPN 1410" is a commercial AM radio station in Dayton Ohio operating with 5000 watts at 1410 kHz with studios offices and transmitter located on David In Fluid dynamics, drag (sometimes called fluid resistance) is the force that resists the movement of a Solid object through a Fluid (a In the Physical sciences weight is a Measurement of the gravitational Force acting on an object In Physics, buoyancy ( BrE IPA: /ˈbɔɪənsi/ is the upward Force on an object produced by the surrounding liquid or gas in which it is

The stabilization of flight angles (roll, yaw and pitch) and the rates of change of these can involve horizontal stabilizers (i. A tailplane, also known as horizontal stabilizer, is a small lifting surface located behind the main lifting surfaces of a Fixed-wing aircraft e. 'a tail'), ailerons and other movable aerodynamic devices which control angular stability i. For the band with a similar name see The Ailerons Ailerons are hinged control surfaces attached to the Trailing edge of the Wing of a Fixed-wing e. flight attitude (which in turn affects altitude, heading). Altitude is the Elevation of a point or object from a known level or datum (plural data

## Animal flight

Female Mallard Duck
Tau Emerald dragonfly

The most successful groups of living things that fly are insects, birds, and bats. The Mallard ( Anas platyrhynchos) probably the best-known and most recognizable of all ducks is a Dabbling duck which breeds throughout the Temperate Anisoptera redirects here For the genus of trees see Anisoptera (tree. The Kea ( Nestor notabilis) is a species of Parrot (family Psittacidae) found in forested and alpine regions of the South Island of New Zealand A number of Animals have evolved aerial locomotion, either by powered flight or by gliding A number of Animals have evolved aerial locomotion, either by powered flight or by gliding Insects ( Class Insecta) are a major group of Arthropods and the most diverse group of Animals on the Earth with over a million described Birds ( class Aves) are bipedal endothermic ( Warm-blooded) Vertebrate animals that lay eggs. The extinct Pterosaurs, an order of reptiles contemporaneous with the dinosaurs, were also very successful flying animals. For other meanings see Pterodactyl (disambiguation. Pterosaurs (ˈtɛrəsɔr from the Greek πτερόσαυρος pterosauros This article is about the taxonomic rank for the sequence of species in a taxonomic list see Taxonomic order In scientific classification used Each of these groups' wings evolved independently. WING "ESPN 1410" is a commercial AM radio station in Dayton Ohio operating with 5000 watts at 1410 kHz with studios offices and transmitter located on David eVolution is the third Album by eLDee, it was due to be released in 2008 Convergent evolution describes the acquisition of the same biological trait in unrelated lineages The wings of the flying vertebrate groups are all based on the forelimbs, but differ significantly in structure; those of insects are highly-modified versions of structures that form gills in most other groups of arthropods. Arthropods are Animals belonging to the Phylum Arthropoda (from Greek ἄρθρον arthron, " Joint " [1] See also Bird flight. Flight is the main mode of locomotion used by most of the world's bird species

Bats are the only mammals capable of true flight. Mammals ( class Mammalia) are a class of Vertebrate Animals characterized by the presence of Sweat glands, including sweat glands However, there are several gliding mammals which are able to glide from tree to tree using fleshy membranes between their limbs; some can travel hundreds of meters in this way with very little loss in height. The flying squirrels, scientifically known as Pteromyini or Petauristini, are a tribe of Squirrels ( family Sciuridae) Flying frogs use greatly enlarged webbed feet for a similar purpose, and there are flying lizards which employ their unusually wide, flattened rib-cages to the same end. The "flying" frog is a frog that has the ability to glide Draco blanfordii is an Agamid "flying" lizard capable of gliding from tree to tree found in China (SW Yunnan) E Certain snakes also use a flattened rib-cage to glide, with a back and forth motion much the same as they use on the ground. A snake is an elongate Reptile of the suborder Serpentes Like all reptiles snakes are covered in scales.

Flying fish can glide using enlarged wing-like fins, and have been observed soaring for hundreds of meters using the updraft on the leading edges of waves. The Exocoetidae or flying fish are a marine Fish family comprising about 50 Species grouped in 7 to 9 genera. It is thought that this ability was chosen by natural selection because it was an effective means of escape from underwater predators. Natural selection is the process by which favorable Heritable traits become more common in successive Generations of a Population of

Most birds fly (see bird flight), with some exceptions. Birds ( class Aves) are bipedal endothermic ( Warm-blooded) Vertebrate animals that lay eggs. Flight is the main mode of locomotion used by most of the world's bird species The largest birds, the ostrich and the emu, are earthbound, as were the now-extinct dodos, while the non-flying penguins have adapted their wings for use under water. The Ostrich ( Struthio camelus) is a large Flightless bird native to Africa (and formerly the Middle East) The Emu ( Dromaius novaehollandiae, is the largest Bird native to Australia and the only extant member of the Genus The dodo ( Raphus cucullatus) was a Flightless bird endemic to the Indian Ocean island of Mauritius. Penguins ( order Sphenisciformes, family Spheniscidae) are a group of aquatic, flightless Birds living almost Most small flightless birds are native to small islands, and lead a lifestyle where flight would confer little advantage. The Peregrine Falcon is the fastest animal in the world; its terminal velocity exceeds 370 km/h (199 mph) in a dive. The Peregrine Falcon ( Falco peregrinus) also known simply as the Peregrine, and historically as the "Duck Hawk" in North America is a A free falling object achieves its terminal velocity when the downward force of gravity ( Fg)equals the upward force of drag ( Fd) (For the South African airport with IATA code "KMH" see Johan Pienaar Airport.

Among living animals that fly, the wandering albatross has the greatest wingspan, up to 3. The Wandering Albatross ( Diomedea exulans) is a large Seabird from the family Diomedeidae which has a circumpolar range in the Southern 5 meters (11. 5 ft); the great bustard has the greatest weight, topping at 21 kilograms (46 pounds). The Great Bustard, Otis tarda, is in the Bustard family the only member of the genus Otis. [2]

Among the many species of insects, some fly and some do not (See insect flight). In Biology, a species is one of the basic units of Biological classification and a Taxonomic rank. Insects ( Class Insecta) are a major group of Arthropods and the most diverse group of Animals on the Earth with over a million described Insects are the only group of Invertebrates known to have evolved flight

## Mechanical flight

Main article: Aviation
Mechanical flight: A Robinson R22 Beta helicopter

Mechanical flight is the use of a machine to fly. Aviation refers to activities involving man-made flying devices ( Aircraft) including the people organizations and regulatory bodies involved with them WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout History Since 400 AD Chinese children have played with bamboo flying toys. Business jet, private jet or colloquially bizjet is a term describing a Jet aircraft, usually of smaller size designed for transporting groups of A machine is any device that uses Energy to perform some activity These machines include airplanes, gliders, helicopters, autogyros, airships, balloons, ornithopters, and spacecraft. Overview Fixed-wing aircraft range from small training and recreational aircraft to Wide-body aircraft and military cargo aircraft. Terminology A "glider" is an unpowered Aircraft. The most common types of glider are today used for sporting purposes History Since 400 AD Chinese children have played with bamboo flying toys. Configuration An autogyro is characterised by a free-spinning rotor that turns due to passage of air upwards through the rotor Terminology In some countries airships are also known as dirigibles from the French (fr ''diriger'' to direct plus -ible) meaning "directable" "Ballooning" redirects here For the behavior of Spiders and other Arthropods see Ballooning (spider. Early history The idea of constructing wings in order to imitate the flight of birds dates to the ancient Greek legend of Daedalus and Icarus A spacecraft is a Vehicle or machine designed for Spaceflight. Gliders provide unpowered flight. Terminology A "glider" is an unpowered Aircraft. The most common types of glider are today used for sporting purposes Another form of mechanical flight is parasailing where a parachute-like object is pulled by a boat. In an airplane lift is created by the wings; the shape of the wings of the airplane are designed specially for the type of flight desired. There are different types of wings: tempered, semi-tempered, sweptback, rectangular, and eliptical. An aircraft wing is sometimes called an airfoil, which is a device that creates lift by differences in pressure. An airfoil (in American English) or aerofoil (in British English) is the shape of a Wing or blade (of a Propeller, rotor