|First Council of Nicaea|
|Accepted by||Eastern Orthodoxy, Oriental Orthodoxy, Assyrian Church of the East, Roman Catholicism, Anglicanism, Lutheranism, Calvinism|
|Previous council||none considered ecumenical|
|Next council||First Council of Constantinople|
|Convoked by||Constantine I|
|Presided by||St. The Eastern Orthodox Church is the second largest single Christian Communion in the world Oriental Orthodoxy is the communion of Eastern Christian Churches that recognize only three Ecumenical councils — the First Council of Nicaea, the The Holy Apostolic Catholic Assyrian Church of the East (ܥܕܬܐ ܩܕܝܫܬܐ ܘܫܠܝܚܝܬܐ ܩܬܘܠܝܩܝ ܕܡܕܢܚܐ ܕܐܬܘܪ̈ܝܐ ‘Ittā Qaddishtā wa-Shlikhāitā Qattoliqi Anglicanism is a tradition of Christian faith Churches in this tradition either have historical connections to the Church of England or have similar beliefs Lutheranism is a major branch of Western Christianity that identifies with the teachings of the sixteenth-century German reformer Martin Luther Calvinism (sometimes called the Reformed tradition, the Reformed faith, or Reformed theology) is a theological system and an approach to the The Second Ecumenical Council the first held in Constantinople was called by Theodosius I in 381 which confirmed the Nicene Creed and dealt with other matters such Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus (27 February ca. 272 &ndash 22 May 337 commonly known as Constantine I, Constantine the Great, or Saint Constantine Alexander of Alexandria|
|Attendance||250-318 (only five from Western Church)|
|Topics of discussion||Arianism, celebration of Passover (Easter), Miletian schism, validity of baptism by heretics, lapsed Christians|
|Documents and statements||Original Nicene Creed and about 20 decrees|
|Chronological list of Ecumenical councils|
The First Council of Nicaea, held in Nicaea in Bithynia (present-day İznik in Turkey), convoked by the Roman Emperor Constantine I in 325, was the first Ecumenical council of the Christian Church, and most significantly resulted in the first uniform Christian doctrine, called the Nicene Creed. Pope Alexander of Alexandria (died April 17, 326) was the nineteenth Pope of Alexandria from 313 to his death Arianism is the theological teaching of Arius (c AD 250-336 who was ruled a heretic by the Christian church at the Council of Nicea. Easter ( Greek: Πάσχα Pascha or Pasxa) is the most important religious feast in the Christian Liturgical year. The word schism (ˈsɪzəm or /ˈskɪzəm/ from the Greek σχίσμα skhísma (from σχίζω skhízō, "to tear to split" In Christianity, baptism ( Greek, "immersing" "performing Ablutions " is the ritual act with the use of water by which one is admitted The Nicene Creed (ˈnaɪsiːn is an ecumenical Christian statement of faith accepted in the Eastern Orthodox Church, Assyrian Church of This is a general introduction to ecumenical councils For the Roman Catholic councils, see Catholic Ecumenical Councils. Description Several major cities sat on the fertile shores of the Propontis (which is now known as Sea of Marmara) Nicomedia, Chalcedon, Cius Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches The Roman Emperor was the ruler of the Roman State during the imperial period (starting at about 27 BC Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus (27 February ca. 272 &ndash 22 May 337 commonly known as Constantine I, Constantine the Great, or Saint Constantine This is a general introduction to ecumenical councils For the Roman Catholic councils, see Catholic Ecumenical Councils. Doctrine (Latin doctrina) is a codification of beliefs or "a body of teachings quot or "instructions" taught principles or positions as the The Nicene Creed (ˈnaɪsiːn is an ecumenical Christian statement of faith accepted in the Eastern Orthodox Church, Assyrian Church of With the creation of the creed, a precedent was established for subsequent 'general (ecumenical) councils of Bishops' (Synods) to create statements of belief and canons of doctrinal orthodoxy— the intent being to define unity of beliefs for the whole of Christendom. Ecumenism (also oecumenism, œcumenism) refers to initiatives aimed at greater Religious unity or cooperation A synod (also known as a council) is a council of a church, usually a Christian church convened to decide an issue of doctrine administration or application Canon law is internal ecclesiastical law governing the Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox churches and the Anglican Communion of churches The word orthodox, from Greek orthodoxos "having the right opinion" from orthos ("right true straight" + doxa ("opinion Christendom usually refers to Christianity as a territorial phenomenon
The purpose of the council was to resolve disagreements in the Church of Alexandria over the nature of Jesus in relationship to the Father; in particular, whether Jesus was of the same substance as God the Father or merely of similar substance. The bishop or Patriarch of Alexandria ( Egypt) is the highest-ranking bishop of Egypt and exists separately in both the Coptic Orthodox Church and the Byzantine Jesus of Nazareth (7–2 BC / BCE —26–36 AD / CE) Ousia () is the Ancient Greek noun formed on the feminine present participle of ( to be) it is analogous to the English participle In many religions the supreme Deity ( God) is given the title and attributions of Father. St. Alexander of Alexandria and Athanasius took the first position; the popular presbyter Arius, from whom the term Arian controversy comes, took the second. Pope Alexander of Alexandria (died April 17, 326) was the nineteenth Pope of Alexandria from 313 to his death Presbyter in the New Testament refers to a leader in local Christian congregations then a synonym of episkopos (which has now come to mean Bishop Arius ( AD ca 250 or 256 - 336 was a Christian priest from Alexandria Egypt in the early fourth century whose teachings now called Arianism Arianism is the theological teaching of Arius (c AD 250-336 who was ruled a heretic by the Christian church at the Council of Nicea. The council decided against the Arians overwhelmingly (of the estimated 250-318 attendees, all but 2 voted against Arius). Another result of the council was an agreement on when to celebrate the Resurrection, the most important feast of the ecclesiastical calendar. The major Resurrection appearances of Jesus are reported in the New Testament to have occurred after his death and burial and prior to his Ascension The council decided in favour of celebrating the resurrection on the first Sunday after the first full moon following the vernal equinox, independently of the Hebrew Calendar (see also Quartodecimanism). An equinox is the event of the Sun passing over the Earth's equator in its annual cycle The Hebrew calendar (הלוח העברי ha'luach ha'ivri) or Jewish calendar is a Lunisolar calendar used by Jews for predominantly religious See also Easter controversy, Easter Quartodecimanism (derived from the Vulgate Latin: quarta decima, meaning fourteen It authorized the Bishop of Alexandria (presumably using the Alexandrian calendar) to announce annually the exact date to his fellow bishops. The Patriarch of Alexandria is the Archbishop of Alexandria and Cairo, Egypt. The Coptic calendar, also called the Alexandrian calendar, is used by the Coptic Orthodox Church and still used in Egypt
The Council of Nicaea was historically significant because it was the first effort to attain consensus in the church through an assembly representing all of Christendom. WikipediaConsensus here as this is the article namespace and that information is irrelevant to the reader A legislature is a type of representative Deliberative assembly with the power to create amend and change Laws The law created by a legislature is called Legislation Christendom usually refers to Christianity as a territorial phenomenon  "It was the first occasion for the development of technical Christology. Christology (from Christ and Greek grc -λογία -logia) is a field of study within Christian theology which is concerned with " Further, "Constantine in convoking and presiding over the council signaled a measure of imperial control over the church. " A precedent was set for subsequent general councils to create creeds and canons. A creed is a statement of Belief — usually Religious belief — or Faith often recited as part of a religious service Canon law is internal ecclesiastical law governing the Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox churches and the Anglican Communion of churches
The First Council of Nicaea was convened by Constantine I upon the recommendations of a synod led by Hosius of Cordoba in the Eastertide of 325. Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus (27 February ca. 272 &ndash 22 May 337 commonly known as Constantine I, Constantine the Great, or Saint Constantine This synod had been charged with investigation of the trouble brought about by the Arian controversy in the Greek-speaking east. The Greek East is a phrase used to define the territories of the Greek -speaking Orthodox peoples of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, centered around the  To most bishops, the teachings of Arius were heretical and dangerous to the salvation of souls. Arius ( AD ca 250 or 256 - 336 was a Christian priest from Alexandria Egypt in the early fourth century whose teachings now called Arianism Heresy, as a blanket term describes a practice or belief that is labeled as unorthodox In the summer of 325, the bishops of all provinces were summoned to Nicaea (now known as İznik, in modern-day Turkey), a place easily accessible to the majority of them, particularly those of Asia Minor, Syria, Palestine, Egypt, Greece, and Thrace. Anatolia (Anadolu Ανατολία Anatolía) or Asia minor, comprising most of modern Turkey, is the geographic region bounded by the Black Syria ( سوريّة or) officially the Syrian Arab Republic (Arabic ar الجمهورية العربية السورية Palestine is a name which has been widely used since Roman times to refer to the region between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River. This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. Greece (Ελλάδα transliterated: Elláda, historically, Ellás,) officially the Hellenic Republic (Ελληνική Δημοκρατία Thrace (Тракия Trakiya or "Trakija" or Trakia, Θράκη Thráki, Trakya is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe
Approximately 250 to 318 bishops attended, from every region of the Empire except Britain. The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial Roman Britain refers to those parts of the island of Great Britain controlled by the Roman Empire between AD 43 and 410 This was the first general council in the history of the Church since the Apostolic Council of Jerusalem, which had established the conditions upon which Gentiles could join the Church. Council of Jerusalem (or Apostolic Conference) is a name applied subsequently to a meeting described in Acts of the Apostles chapter and probably referred to The term Gentile (from Latin, gentilis, meaning of or belonging to a clan or tribe refers to non- Israelite tribes or nations in the Bible.  In the Council of Nicaea, “the Church had taken her first great step to define doctrine more precisely in response to a challenge from a heretical theology. ” The resolutions in the council, being ecumenical, were intended for the whole Church. Ecumenism (also oecumenism, œcumenism) refers to initiatives aimed at greater Religious unity or cooperation
Constantine had invited all 1800 bishops of the Christian church (about 1000 in the east and 800 in the west), but a lesser and unknown number attended. A bishop is an ordained or consecrated member of the Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight Eusebius of Caesarea counted 250, Athanasius of Alexandria counted 318, and Eustathius of Antioch counted 270 (all three were present at the council). St Eustathius redirects here see also Saint Eustace. Eustathius of Antioch, sometimes surnamed the Great, was a Bishop Later, Socrates Scholasticus recorded more than 300, and Evagrius, Hilarius, Jerome and Rufinus recorded 318. Socrates of Constantinople was a Greek Christian church historian a contemporary of Sozomen and Theodoret, who used his work he was born at Constantinople Jerome (c 347 – September 30, 420) ( Latin: Eusebius Sophronius Hieronymus; Εὐσέβιος Σωφρόνιος Ἱερώνυμος
The participating bishops were given free travel to and from their episcopal sees to the council, as well as lodging. An episcopal see is the ecclesiastical domain of authority of a Bishop. These bishops did not travel alone; each one had permission to bring with him two priests and three deacons; so the total number of attendees would have been above 1500. Deacon is a role in the Christian Church that is generally associated with service of some kind but which varies among theological and denominational traditions Eusebius speaks of an almost innumerable host of accompanying priests, deacons and acolytes. A priest or priestess is a person having the authority or power to administer religious rites in particular rites of sacrifice to and propitiation of a deity or deities This article is about religious acolytes For other uses see Acolyte (disambiguation.
A special prominence was also attached to this council because the persecution of Christians had just ended with the February 313 Edict of Milan by Emperors Constantine and Licinius. The persecution of Christians refers to the Religious persecution of Christians both historically and in the current era The Edict of Milan was a letter signed by emperors Constantine and Licinius, that proclaimed Religious toleration in the Roman Empire. For other Romans of this name see Licinius (gens. Valerius Licinianus Licinius (c
The Eastern bishops formed the great majority. Of these, the first rank was held by the three patriarchs: Alexander of Alexandria, Eustathius of Antioch, and Macarius of Jerusalem. Originally a patriarch was a man who exercised autocratic authority as a Pater familias over an extended family Pope Alexander of Alexandria (died April 17, 326) was the nineteenth Pope of Alexandria from 313 to his death St Eustathius redirects here see also Saint Eustace. Eustathius of Antioch, sometimes surnamed the Great, was a Bishop Saint Macarius of Jerusalem was Bishop of Jerusalem from 312 to shortly before 335 according to Sozomen. Many of the assembled fathers — for instance, Paphnutius of Thebes, Potamon of Heraclea and Paul of Neocaesarea — had stood forth as confessors of the faith and came to the council with the marks of persecution on their faces. Paphnutius of Thebes, also known as Paphnutius the Confessor, was bishop of a city in the Upper Thebaid in the early fourth century and one of the most interesting The title confessor is used in the Christian Church in several ways Other remarkable attendees were Eusebius of Nicomedia; Eusebius of Caesarea; Nicholas of Myra; Aristakes of Armenia (son of Saint Gregory the Illuminator); Leontius of Caesarea; Jacob of Nisibis, a former hermit; Hypatius of Granga; Protogenes of Sardica; Melitius of Sebastopolis; Achilleus of Larissa; Athanasius of Thessaly and Spyridion of Trimythous, who even while a bishop made his living as a shepherd. Eusebius of Nicomedia (died 341 was a bishop of Berytus (modern-day Beirut) in Phoenicia, then of Nicomedia where the imperial court resided in Bithynia Saint Nicholas (Άγιος Νικόλαος, Agios Nikolaos, "victory of the people" is the common name for Nicholas of Myra, a Christian Saint Saint Gregory the Illuminator or Saint Gregory the Enlightener (Գրիգոր Լուսաւորիչ translit Saint Gregory the Illuminator or Saint Gregory the Enlightener (Գրիգոր Լուսաւորիչ translit Leontius of Caesarea (d 337 was a Bishop of Caesarea Mazaca, in Cappadocia. Jacob of Nisibis (ܝܥܩܘܒ ܢܨܝܒܢܝܐ; died c AD 338 is a Syriac Christian Saint. A hermit (from the Greek ἔρημος erēmos, signifying " Desert " "uninhabited" hence "desert-dweller" adjective "eremitic" Saint Achillius of Larissa, also known as Achilles, Ailus, Achillas, ( Άγιος Αχίλλειος) was one of the 318 persons present A shepherd is a person who tends to feeds or guards Sheep, especially in flocks From foreign places came a Persian bishop John, a Gothic bishop Theophilus and Stratophilus, bishop of Pitiunt in Egrisi (located at the border of modern-day Russia and Georgia outside of the Roman Empire). layout and formatting it should ensure no clashes with the top of the infobox The Goths ( Gothic: Gothic usvg|14px|u]]Gothic asvg|14px|a]]Gothic s Pitsunda (ҵҵунда Georgian: ბიჭვინთა - Bichvinta Пицунда) is a Resort town in Gagra district of the Egrisi (ეგრისი is a medieval Georgian name for the region and kingdom in the western part of modern-day Georgia, known to the Byzantine Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending Georgia ( საქართველო, Sakartvelo) is a Transcontinental country in the Caucasus region situated at the dividing line between
The Latin-speaking provinces sent at least five representatives: Marcus of Calabria from Italia, Cecilian of Carthage from Africa, Hosius of Córdoba from Hispania, Nicasius of Dijon from Gaul, and Domnus of Stridon from the province of the Danube. Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. Italia, under the Roman Republic and later Empire, was the name of the Italian peninsula. The Roman province of Africa was established after the Romans defeated Carthage in the Third Punic War. Hispania was the name given by the Romans to the whole of the Iberian Peninsula (modern Portugal, Spain, Andorra, Gibraltar Saint Nicasius of Dijon ( 4th century) was a saint from Gaul, present-day France Gaul (Gallia was the Roman name for the region of Western Europe comprising present day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western The Danube (In Donau from earlier Danuvius, Celtic *dānu, meaning "to flow run" Slovak and Polish Dunaj Pope Silvester I declined to attend, pleading infirmity, but he was represented by two priests.
Athanasius of Alexandria, a young deacon and companion of Bishop Alexander of Alexandria, was among these assistants. Pope Alexander of Alexandria (died April 17, 326) was the nineteenth Pope of Alexandria from 313 to his death Athanasius eventually spent most of his life battling against Arianism. Alexander of Constantinople, then a presbyter, was also present as representative of his aged bishop. Saint Alexander of Constantinople (born between 237 and 244 - 337 was Bishop of Byzantium and the bishop of Constantinople (the city was renamed during 
The supporters of Arius included Secundus of Ptolemais, Theonus of Marmarica, Zphyrius, and Dathes, all of whom hailed from Libya and the Pentapolis. Secundus of Ptolemais was a 4th century bishop Excommunicated after the First Council of Nicaea for his Nontrinitarianism. Other supporters included Eusebius of Nicomedia, Eusebius of Caesarea, Paulinus of Tyrus, Actius of Lydda, Menophantus of Ephesus, and Theognus of Nicaea. Eusebius of Nicomedia (died 341 was a bishop of Berytus (modern-day Beirut) in Phoenicia, then of Nicomedia where the imperial court resided in Bithynia 
"Resplendent in purple and gold, Constantine made a ceremonial entrance at the opening of the council, probably in early June, but respectfully seated the bishops ahead of himself. " As Eusebius described, Constantine "himself proceeded through the midst of the assembly, like some heavenly messenger of God, clothed in raiment which glittered as it were with rays of light, reflecting the glowing radiance of a purple robe, and adorned with the brilliant splendor of gold and precious stones. " He was present as an observer, but he did not vote. Constantine organized the Council along the lines of the Roman Senate. The Roman Senate was a political institution in Ancient Rome. "Ossius [Hosius] presided over its deliberations; he probably, and the two priests of Rome certainly, came as representatives of the Pope. " “Eusebius of Nicomedia probably gave the welcoming address. "
The agenda of the synod were:
The council was formally opened May 20, in the central structure of the imperial palace, with preliminary discussions on the Arian question. Events 325 - The First Council of Nicaea &ndash the first Ecumenical Council of the Christian Church is held In these discussions, some dominant figures were Arius, with several adherents. “Some 22 of the bishops at the council, led by Eusebius of Nicomedia, came as supporters of Arius. But when some of the more shocking passages from his writings were read, they were almost universally seen as blasphemous. ” Bishops Theognis of Nicea and Maris of Chalcedon were among the initial supporters of Arius.
Eusebius of Caesarea called to mind the baptismal creed (symbol) of his own diocese at Caesarea in Palestine, as a form of reconciliation. In Christianity, baptism ( Greek, "immersing" "performing Ablutions " is the ritual act with the use of water by which one is admitted A creed is a statement of Belief — usually Religious belief — or Faith often recited as part of a religious service Caesarea Maritima (Greek παράλιος Καισάρεια called Caesarea Palaestina from 133 CE onwards was a city and Harbor built by Herod the Great The majority of the bishops agreed. For some time, scholars thought that the original Nicene Creed was based on this statement of Eusebius. Today, most scholars think that this Creed is derived from the baptismal creed of Jerusalem, as Hans Lietzmann proposed. See also Religious significance of Jerusalem For Christians, Jerusalem's place in the life of Jesus gives it great importance in addition to its Another possibility is the Apostle's Creed.
In any case, as the council went on, the orthodox bishops won approval of every one of their proposals. After being in session for an entire month, the council promulgated on June 19 the original Nicene Creed. Events 1179 - The Norwegian Battle of Kalvskinnet outside Nidaros. The Nicene Creed (ˈnaɪsiːn is an ecumenical Christian statement of faith accepted in the Eastern Orthodox Church, Assyrian Church of This profession of faith was adopted by all the bishops “but two from Libya who had been closely associated with Arius from the beginning. Libya ( ليبيا ar-Latn Lībiyā; Libyan vernacular: Lībya; Amazigh:) officially the Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab ” No historical record of their dissent actually exists; the signatures of these bishops are simply absent from the creed. The Nicene Creed (ˈnaɪsiːn is an ecumenical Christian statement of faith accepted in the Eastern Orthodox Church, Assyrian Church of
The Arian controversy was a Christological dispute that began in Alexandria between the followers of Arius (the Arians) and the followers of St. Alexander of Alexandria (now known as Homoousians). Arianism is the theological teaching of Arius (c AD 250-336 who was ruled a heretic by the Christian church at the Council of Nicea. The Arian controversy describes several controversies which divided the Christian church from before the Council of Nicaea in 325 to after the Christology (from Christ and Greek grc -λογία -logia) is a field of study within Christian theology which is concerned with Alexandria ( Egyptian Arabic: اسكندريه Eskendereyya; Standard Arabic: ar الإسكندرية Al-Iskandariyya; Ἀλεξάνδρεια Arius ( AD ca 250 or 256 - 336 was a Christian priest from Alexandria Egypt in the early fourth century whose teachings now called Arianism Pope Alexander of Alexandria (died April 17, 326) was the nineteenth Pope of Alexandria from 313 to his death Homoousian (from the Greek όμοιοs meaning same and ουσία meaning essence or being is a technical theological term used in discussion of the Alexander and his followers believed that the Son was of the same substance as the Father, co-eternal with him. The Arians believed that they were different and that the Son, though he may be the most perfect of creations, was only a creation. A third group (now known as Homoiousians) tried to make a compromise position, saying that the Father and the Son were of similar substance. Homoiousianism (from the Greek όμοιος meaning similar and ουσία meaning essence or being was a 4th century CE movement which arose in the early
Much of the debate hinged on the difference between being "born" or "created" and being "begotten". Arians saw these as the same; followers of Alexander did not. Indeed, the exact meaning of many of the words used in the debates at Nicaea were still unclear to speakers of other languages. Greek words like "essence" (ousia), "substance" (hypostasis), "nature" (physis), "person" (prosopon) bore a variety of meanings drawn from pre-Christian philosophers, which could not but entail misunderstandings until they were cleared up. Koine Greek (Κοινὴ Ἑλληνική, "common Greek" or, ciˈni ðiˈale̞kto̞s "the common dialect" is the popular form of Greek which emerged in Ousia () is the Ancient Greek noun formed on the feminine present participle of ( to be) it is analogous to the English participle The word homoousia, in particular, was initially disliked by many bishops because of its associations with Gnostic heretics (who used it in their theology), and because it had been condemned at the 264-268 Synods of Antioch. Gnosticism (γνώσις gnōsis, Knowledge) refers to a diverse Syncretistic Religious movement consisting of various Belief systems Beginning with three Synods convened between 264 and 269 in the matter of Paul of Samosata, more than thirty councils were held in
Homoousians believed that to follow the Arian view destroyed the unity of the Godhead, and made the Son unequal to the Father, in contravention of the Scriptures ("The Father and I are one", John 10:30). The term "Godhead" The term Godhead is a term denoting deity or divinity Arians, on the other hand, believed that since God the Father created the Son, he must have emanated from the Father, and thus be lesser than the Father, in that the Father is eternal, but the Son was created afterward and, thus, is not eternal. The Arians likewise appealed to Scripture, quoting verses such as John 14:28: "the Father is greater than I". Homoousians countered the Arians' argument, saying that the Father's fatherhood, like all of his attributes, is eternal. Thus, the Father was always a father, and that the Son, therefore, always existed with him.
The Council declared that the Father and the Son are of the same substance and are co-eternal, basing the declaration in the claim that this was a formulation of traditional Christian belief handed down from the Apostles. This belief was expressed in the Nicene Creed.
By and large, many creeds were acceptable to the members of the council. From his perspective, even Arius could cite such a creed.
For Bishop Alexander and others, however, greater clarity was required. Some distinctive elements in the Nicene Creed, perhaps from the hand of Hosius of Cordova, were added. The Nicene Creed (ˈnaɪsiːn is an ecumenical Christian statement of faith accepted in the Eastern Orthodox Church, Assyrian Church of
Of the third article only the words "and in the Holy Spirit" were left; the original Nicene Creed ended with these words. In mainstream Christianity, the Holy Spirit or Holy Ghost is one of the three entities of the Holy Trinity which make up the single substance Then followed immediately the canons of the council. Canon law is internal ecclesiastical law governing the Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox churches and the Anglican Communion of churches Thus, instead of a baptismal creed acceptable to both the homoousian and Arian parties, as proposed by Eusebius, the council promulgated one which was unambiguous in the aspects touching upon the points of contention between these two positions, and one which was incompatible with the beliefs of Arians. From earliest times, various creeds served as a means of identification for Christians, as a means of inclusion and recognition, especially at baptism. In Rome, for example, the Apostles' Creed was popular, especially for use in Lent and the Easter season. Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 Lent, in some Christian denominations, is the forty-day-long liturgical season of fasting and prayer before Easter. In the Council of Nicaea, one specific creed was used to define the Church's faith clearly, to include those who professed it, and to exclude those who did not.
The text of this profession of faith is preserved in a letter of Eusebius to his congregation, in Athanasius, and elsewhere. Although the most vocal of anti-Arians, the Homoousians (from the Koine Greek word translated as "of same substance" which was condemned at the Council of Antioch in 264-268), were in the minority, the Creed was accepted by the council as an expression of the bishops' common faith and the ancient faith of the whole Church. Ousia () is the Ancient Greek noun formed on the feminine present participle of ( to be) it is analogous to the English participle Koine Greek (Κοινὴ Ἑλληνική, "common Greek" or, ciˈni ðiˈale̞kto̞s "the common dialect" is the popular form of Greek which emerged in Beginning with three Synods convened between 264 and 269 in the matter of Paul of Samosata, more than thirty councils were held in
Bishop Hosius of Cordova, one of the firm Homoousians, may well have helped bring the council to consensus. At the time of the council, he was the confidant of the emperor in all Church matters. Hosius stands at the head of the lists of bishops, and Athanasius ascribes to him the actual formulation of the creed. Great leaders such as Eustathius of Antioch, Alexander of Alexandria, Athanasius, and Marcellus of Ancyra all adhered to the Homoousian position. St Eustathius redirects here see also Saint Eustace. Eustathius of Antioch, sometimes surnamed the Great, was a Bishop Pope Alexander of Alexandria (died April 17, 326) was the nineteenth Pope of Alexandria from 313 to his death Marcellus of Ancyra (? - c 374 CE) was one of the Bishops present at the Councils of Ancyra and of Nicaea.
In spite of his sympathy for Arius, Eusebius of Caesarea adhered to the decisions of the council, accepting the entire creed. The initial number of bishops supporting Arius was small. After a month of discussion, on June 19, there were only two left: Theonas of Marmarica in Libya, and Secundus of Ptolemais. Libya ( ليبيا ar-Latn Lībiyā; Libyan vernacular: Lībya; Amazigh:) officially the Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Maris of Chalcedon, who initially supported Arianism, agreed to the whole creed. Similarly, Eusebius of Nicomedia and Theognis of Nice also agreed, except for the certain statements. Eusebius of Nicomedia (died 341 was a bishop of Berytus (modern-day Beirut) in Phoenicia, then of Nicomedia where the imperial court resided in Bithynia
The emperor carried out his earlier statement: everybody who refuses to endorse the Creed will be exiled. Exile means to be away from one's home (ie city state or country while either being explicitly refused permission to return and/or being threatened by prison or death upon return Arius, Theonas, and Secundus refused to adhere to the creed, and were thus exiled, in addition to being excommunicated. Excommunication is a religious Censure used to deprive or suspend membership in a religious community The works of Arius were ordered to be confiscated and consigned to the flames. Book burning (a category of biblioclasm or book destruction is the practice of destroying often ceremoniously, one or more copies of a book or other written material  Nevertheless, the controversy, already festering, continued in various parts of the empire.
After the June 19 settlement of the most important topic, the question of the date of the Christian Passover (Easter) was brought up. Events 1179 - The Norwegian Battle of Kalvskinnet outside Nidaros. This article is about a holiday celebrated by a small number of Christians Easter ( Greek: Πάσχα Pascha or Pasxa) is the most important religious feast in the Christian Liturgical year. This feast is linked to the Jewish Passover, as the crucifixion and resurrection of Jesus occurred during that festival. Passover ( Hebrew, Yiddish: פֶּסַח Pesach, Tiberian: pɛsaħ Israeli: Pesah, Pesakh, Yiddish Crucifixion (from Latin crucifixio, noun of process crucifixio, from perfect passive participle crucifixus, fixed to a cross from This article concerns itself with Jesus Christ Christian, Islamic and other religious interpretations of resurrection in general By the year 300, some Churches had adopted a divergent style of celebrating the feast, placing the emphasis on the resurrection which they believed occurred on Sunday. Others however celebrated the feast on the 14th of the Jewish month Nisan, the date of the crucifixion according to the Bible's Hebrew calendar (Leviticus 23:5,John 19:14). This article is about the Jewish month of Nisan See Nissan Motors for the automobile manufacturer Etymology According to the Online Etymology Dictionary, the word bible is from Latin biblia, traced from the same word through Medieval Latin and Late Latin The Hebrew calendar (הלוח העברי ha'luach ha'ivri) or Jewish calendar is a Lunisolar calendar used by Jews for predominantly religious Hence this group was called Quartodecimans, which is derived from the Latin for 14. See also Easter controversy, Easter Quartodecimanism (derived from the Vulgate Latin: quarta decima, meaning fourteen Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. The Eastern Churches of Syria, Cilicia, and Mesopotamia determined the date of Christian Passover in relation to the 14th day of Nisan, in the Bible's Hebrew calendar. Syria ( سوريّة or) officially the Syrian Arab Republic (Arabic ar الجمهورية العربية السورية Geography Cilicia extended along the Aegean coast east from Pamphylia, to Mount Amanus ( Gavurdağı Mount) which separated it from Syria Mesopotamia (from the Greek meaning "land between the rivers" is an area geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers largely corresponding Alexandria and Rome, however, followed a different calculation, attributed to Pope Soter, so that Christian Passover would never coincide with the Jewish observance and decided in favour of celebrating on the first Sunday after the first full moon following the vernal equinox, independently of the Bible's Hebrew calendar. Alexandria ( Egyptian Arabic: اسكندريه Eskendereyya; Standard Arabic: ar الإسكندرية Al-Iskandariyya; Ἀλεξάνδρεια Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 An equinox is the event of the Sun passing over the Earth's equator in its annual cycle
Epiphanius of Salamis wrote in the mid-4th century, "… the emperor … convened a council of 318 bishops … in the city of Nicea. Abbé Louis Marie Olivier Duchesne ( September 13, 1843 - April 21, 1922) was a French priest philologist, teacher and Theodoret (c 393 &ndash c 457 was an influential author theologian and Christian Bishop of Cyrrhus Syria (423-457 Epiphanius (ca 310&ndash320 &ndash 403 was bishop of Salamis and metropolitan of Cyprus at the end of the 4th century AD … They passed certain ecclesiastical canons at the council besides, and at the same time decreed in regard to the Passover that there must be one unanimous concord on the celebration of God's holy and supremely excellent day. For it was variously observed by people…"
The council assumed the task of regulating these differences, in part because some dioceses were determined not to have Christian Passover correspond with the Jewish calendar. In many rites of the Roman Catholic Church and in Anglican churches, a diocese is an administrative territorial unit administered by a Bishop. "The feast of the resurrection was thenceforth required to be celebrated everywhere on a Sunday, and never on the day of the Jewish passover, but always after the fourteenth of Nisan, on the Sunday after the first vernal full moon. The leading motive for this regulation was opposition to Judaism, which had dishonored the passover by the crucifixion of the Lord. Anti-Judaism has been called "a total or partial opposition to Judaism &mdashand to Jews as adherents of it&mdashby persons who accept a competing system The responsibility for the death of Jesus has in Christianity, both Historical and Theological aspects " Constantine wrote that: "… it appeared an unworthy thing that in the celebration of this most holy feast we should follow the practice of the Jews, who have impiously defiled their hands with enormous sin, and are, therefore, deservedly afflicted with blindness of soul. … Let us then have nothing in common with the detestable Jewish crowd; for we have received from our Saviour a different way. " Theodoret recorded the Emperor as saying: "It was, in the first place, declared improper to follow the custom of the Jews in the celebration of this holy festival, because, their hands having been stained with crime, the minds of these wretched men are necessarily blinded. Theodoret (c 393 &ndash c 457 was an influential author theologian and Christian Bishop of Cyrrhus Syria (423-457 … Let us, then, have nothing in common with the Jews, who are our adversaries. … avoiding all contact with that evil way. … who, after having compassed the death of the Lord, being out of their minds, are guided not by sound reason, but by an unrestrained passion, wherever their innate madness carries them. … a people so utterly depraved. … Therefore, this irregularity must be corrected, in order that we may no more have any thing in common with those parricides and the murderers of our Lord. … no single point in common with the perjury of the Jews. "
The Council of Nicaea, however, did not declare the Alexandrian or Roman calculations as normative. Instead, the council gave the Bishop of Alexandria the privilege of announcing annually the date of Christian Passover to the Roman curia. The Patriarch of Alexandria is the Archbishop of Alexandria and Cairo, Egypt. The Roman Curia is the administrative apparatus of the Holy See and the central governing body of the entire Roman Catholic Church, together with the Pope Although the synod undertook the regulation of the dating of Christian Passover, it contented itself with communicating its decision to the different dioceses, instead of establishing a canon. There was subsequent conflict over this very matter. The Easter controversy is a series of controversies about the proper date to celebrate the Christian festival of Easter. See also Computus and Reform of the date of Easter. Computus ( Latin for Computation) is the Calculation of the date of Easter in the Christian calendar. The current system for determining the date of Easter is often seen as presenting two significant problems Its date varies from year to year (by the Western
The suppression of the Meletian schism was one of the three important matters that came before the Council of Nicaea. Melitius (died after 325 was bishop of Lycopolis in Egypt He is known to us mainly as the founder and namesake of the Melitians (c Meletius, it was decided, should remain in his own city of Lycopolis, but without exercising authority or the power to ordain new clergy; moreover he was forbidden to go into the environs of the town or to enter another diocese for the purpose of ordaining its subjects. Lycopolis and Lykopolis redirect here for the ancient city bearing those names located in the delta of the Nile see Lycopolis (Delta In many rites of the Roman Catholic Church and in Anglican churches, a diocese is an administrative territorial unit administered by a Bishop. Melitius retained his episcopal title, but the ecclesiastics ordained by him were to receive again the imposition of hands, the ordinations performed by Meletius being therefore regarded as invalid. The laying on of hands is a religious practice found throughout the world in varying forms Clergy ordained by Meletius were ordered to yield precedence to those ordained by Alexander, and they were not to do anything without the consent of Bishop Alexander. 
In the event of the death of a non-Meletian bishop or ecclesiastic, the vacant see might be given to a Meletian, provided he were worthy and the popular election were ratified by Alexander. An episcopal see is the ecclesiastical domain of authority of a Bishop. As to Meletius himself, episcopal rights and prerogatives were taken from him. These mild measures, however, were in vain; the Meletians joined the Arians and caused more dissension than ever, being among the worst enemies of Athanasius. The Meletians ultimately died out around the middle of the fifth century.
Finally, the council promulgated twenty new church laws, called canons, (though the exact number is subject to debate), that is, unchanging rules of discipline. Canon law is internal ecclesiastical law governing the Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox churches and the Anglican Communion of churches The twenty as listed in the Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers are as follows:
On July 25, 325, in conclusion, the fathers of the council celebrated the emperor's twentieth anniversary. Events 285 - Diocletian appoints Maximian as Caesar, co-ruler Events By Place Roman Empire Gladiatorial combat is outlawed in the Roman Empire In his valedictory address, Constantine again informed his hearers how averse he was to dogmatic controversy; he wanted the Church to live in harmony and peace. In a circular letter, he announced the accomplished unity of practice by the whole Church in the date of the celebration of Christian Passover (now called Easter).
The long-term effects of the Council of Nicaea were significant. For the first time, representatives of many of the bishops of the Church convened to agree on a doctrinal statement. Also for the first time, the Emperor played a role, by calling together the bishops under his authority, and using the power of the state to give the Council's orders effect.
In the short-term, however, the council did not completely solve the problems it was convened to discuss and a period of conflict and upheaval continued for some time. Constantine himself was succeeded by two Arian Emperors in the Eastern Empire: his son, Constantine II and Valens. Flavius Claudius Constantinus, known in English as Constantine II, (316 – 340 was Roman Emperor from 337 to 340 This article is about the Roman Emperor For other people called Valens see Valens Flavius Julius Valens ( Latin: DOMINVS Valens could not resolve the outstanding ecclesiastical issues, and unsuccessfully confronted St. Basil over the Nicene Creed. Basil of Caesarea, also called Saint Basil the Great (c 330 – January 1, 379) (Άγιος Βασίλειος ο Μέγας Latin  Pagan powers within the Empire sought to maintain and at times re-establish Paganism into the seat of Emperor (see Arbogast and Julian the Apostate). Flavius Arbogastes (died September 6 394) or Arbogast was a Frankish general in the Roman Empire. Flavius Claudius Julianus, known also as Julian or Julian the Apostate (331 or 332 to 26 June 363) was Roman Emperor (Caesar Arians and the Meletians soon regained nearly all of the rights they had lost, and consequently, Arianism continued to spread and to cause division in the Church during the remainder of the fourth century. Almost immediately, Eusebius of Nicomedia, an Arian bishop and cousin to Constantine I, used his influence at court to sway Constantine's favor from the orthodox Nicene bishops to the Arians. Eusebius of Nicomedia (died 341 was a bishop of Berytus (modern-day Beirut) in Phoenicia, then of Nicomedia where the imperial court resided in Bithynia Eustathius of Antioch was deposed and exiled in 330. St Eustathius redirects here see also Saint Eustace. Eustathius of Antioch, sometimes surnamed the Great, was a Bishop Athanasius, who had succeeded Alexander as Bishop of Alexandria, was deposed by the First Synod of Tyre in 335 and Marcellus of Ancyra followed him in 336. Pope Alexander of Alexandria (died April 17, 326) was the nineteenth Pope of Alexandria from 313 to his death The First Synod of Tyre (335 ce was a gathering of bishops called together by Emperor Constantine I for the primary purpose of evaluating charges brought against Marcellus of Ancyra (? - c 374 CE) was one of the Bishops present at the Councils of Ancyra and of Nicaea. Arius himself returned to Constantinople to be readmitted into the Church, but died shortly before he could be received. Constantine died the next year, after finally receiving baptism from Arian Bishop Eusebius of Nicomedi , and "with his passing the first round in the battle after the Council of Nicaea was ended. "