|First Anglo-Dutch War|
The Battle of Scheveningen, 10 August 1653 by Jan Abrahamsz Beerstraaten, painted c. The Battle of Scheveningen (also known as the Battle of Texel or the Battle of Ter Heijde) was the final Naval battle of the First Anglo-Dutch Events 612 BC - Killing of Sinsharishkun, King of Assyrian Empire 1654, depicts the final battle of the First Anglo-Dutch-War.
Michiel de Ruyter
Witte de With
Johan van Galen
|About 300 ships||About 300 ships|
|Casualties and losses|
|About 3,000 killed|
33 warships sunk
18 warships captured
|About 2,500 killed|
10 warships sunk
7 warships captured
The First Anglo–Dutch War (Dutch: Eerste Engelse Zeeoorlog) (1652–54) (called the First Dutch War in England, and the First English Sea-War in the Netherlands) was the first of the four Anglo-Dutch Wars. The North Sea is a marginal, Epeiric sea of the Atlantic Ocean on the European Continental shelf. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest The Treaty of Westminster was signed on May 8, 1654, which ended the First Anglo-Dutch War ( 1652 -1654 "United Netherlands" redirects here For the "Kingdom of the United Netherlands" see United Kingdom of the Netherlands. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland Maarten Harpertszoon Tromp ( April 23, 1598 &ndash August 10, 1653) was an officer and later Admiral in the Dutch Michiel Adriaenszoon de Ruyter ( 24 March 1607 – 29 April 1676) is one of the most famous Admirals in Dutch history Witte Corneliszoon de With ( 28 March 1599, Den Briel - 8 November 1658, Oresund) was a famous Dutch Johan van Galen (1604 &ndash 23 March 1653) was a Commodore of the Republic of the Seven United Provinces of the Netherlands Robert Blake may refer to Bob Blake (ice hockey (born 1914 Canadian professional ice hockey player Robert Blake (admiral (1599&ndash1657 Admiral Sir George Ayscue (ca 1616&ndash1671 was an English naval officer who served in the Civil War and the Anglo-Dutch Wars. Henry Appleton was a 19th century American individualist anarchist. George Monck 1st Duke of Albemarle, KG ( 6 December 1608 &ndash 3 January 1670) was an English soldier and politician Dutch ( is a West Germanic language spoken by around 24 million people 22 million of which are from the Netherlands, Belgium and Suriname The Anglo-Dutch Wars ( Dutch: Engels-Nederlandse Oorlogen or Engelse Zeeoorlogen) were fought in the 17th and 18th centuries between England It was fought entirely at sea between the navies of the Commonwealth of England and the United Provinces of the Netherlands. The Commonwealth of England was the Republican government which ruled first England (including Wales) and then Ireland and Scotland "United Netherlands" redirects here For the "Kingdom of the United Netherlands" see United Kingdom of the Netherlands. Caused by disputes over trade, the war began with English attacks on Dutch merchant shipping, but expanded to vast fleet actions. The English Navy gained control of the seas around England, and forced the Dutch to accept an English monopoly on trade with England and English colonies.
(Dates in this article are given in the Gregorian calendar, then ten days ahead of the Julian calendar in use in England. The Gregorian calendar is the most widely used Calendar in the world today The Julian calendar, a reform of the Roman calendar, was introduced by Julius Caesar in 46 BC and came into force in 45 BC (709 Ab urbe condita )
In the 16th century, England and the Netherlands had been close allies against the ambitions of the Habsburgs. They cooperated in defeating the Spanish Armada. The Spanish Armada ( Spanish: Grande y Felicísima Armada, "Great and Most Fortunate Navy" or Armada Invencible, "Invincible England supported the Dutch in the Eighty Years' War by sending money and troops. The Dutch Revolt, Eighty Years' War or the Revolt of the Netherlands (1568—1648 was the revolt of the Seventeen Provinces in the Low Countries There was a permanent English representative in the Dutch government to ensure coordination of the joint war effort. The weakening of Spanish power at the end of the Thirty Years' War in 1648 meant that many colonial possessions of the Portuguese and some of the Spanish empire were effectively up for grabs. For the Mauritanian Thirty Years' War see Char Bouba war. For the band see The 30 Years War. The Portuguese Empire was the earliest and longest lived of the modern European colonial empires spanning almost six centuries from the capture of Ceuta The Spanish Empire (Imperio Español was one of the largest Empires in history and one of the first Global empires In the 15th and 16th centuries The ensuing rush for empire brought the former allies into conflict. Also the Dutch, having made peace with Spain, quickly replaced the English as dominant traders with the Iberian peninsula, adding to an English resentment about Dutch trade that had steadily grown since 1590.
By the middle of the 17th century the Dutch had built by far the largest mercantile fleet of Europe, with more ships than all other nations combined, and their economy, based mainly on maritime commerce, gave them a dominant position in European, especially Baltic, trade. As a means of recording the passage of Time, the 17th Century was that Century which lasted from 1601 - 1700 in the Gregorian calendar Baltic Seven Islandsgif|right|thumb|330px|A contemporary transnational Euroregion encompasses the islands of the Baltic countries Furthermore they had conquered most of Portugal's territory in the East Indies giving them control over the enormously profitable trade in spices. The Indies or East Indies (or East India) is a term often used to refer to the islands of SE Asia, especially the Malay Archipelago A spice is a dried Seed, Fruit, Root, Bark or vegetative substance used in Nutritionally insignificant quantities as a Food additive They were even gaining significant influence over England's maritime trade with her North American colonies, profiting from the turmoil that resulted from the English Civil War. The English Civil War (1642-1651 was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians and Royalists. However, after their decisive victory over the Spanish fleet at the Battle of the Downs in 1639, the war with Spain had been confined to land, and the Dutch navy had been left to deteriorate. The naval Battle of the Downs took place on 31 October 1639 ( New style) during the Eighty Years' War and was a decisive defeat of the The Dutch had five autonomous admiralties and these after 1648 sold off large parts of the fleet to economize. By 1652 fewer than fifty ships were seaworthy and the deficiency had to be made good by arming merchantmen. All of these were very inferior in firepower to the largest English first and second rates.
The navy of the Commonwealth of England was in better condition. It had emerged victorious from the English Civil War; supported and supplied Cromwell's army in the wars in Scotland and Ireland; blockaded the royalist fleet of Prince Rupert in Lisbon; and organized a system of convoys to protect the commerce of the Commonwealth against the swarms of privateers set upon it from every European port. The English Civil War (1642-1651 was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians and Royalists. Rupert Count Palatine of the Rhine Duke of Bavaria (German Ruprecht Pfalzgraf bei Rhein Herzog von Bayern) commonly called Prince Rupert of the Rhine, (17 Lisbon (Lisboa liʒˈboɐ is the Capital and largest city of Portugal. On 24 September 1650 General-at-Sea Robert Blake had defeated the fleet of Portugal in a violent gale, sinking the Portuguese Vice-Admiral and taking seven prizes, compelling Portugal to cease protecting Rupert. Events 622 - Prophet Muhammad completes his hegira from Mecca to Medina. Robert Blake (1599 — August 17, 1657) was one of the most important military commanders of the Commonwealth of England, and one of the most famous In 1651 the royalist strongholds in the Isles of Scilly, the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands had been captured, and in 1652 General George Ayscue had recovered England's colonial possessions in the West Indies and North America. The Isle of Man (Ellan Vannin ˈɛlʲən ˈvanɪn or Mann (Mannin) is a self-governing Crown dependency, located in the Irish Sea at the geographical The Channel Islands ( Norman: Îles d'la Manche, French: Îles Anglo-Normandes or Îles de la Manche) are a group of Islands Admiral Sir George Ayscue (ca 1616&ndash1671 was an English naval officer who served in the Civil War and the Anglo-Dutch Wars. The Caribbean (ˌkærəˡbiən kæ'rəbiən Cariben|Caraïben or Caraïben; Caraïbe or more commonly Antilles; Caribe is a Region consisting The English navy had been placed on a secure financial footing by an Act of 10 November 1650, which imposed a 15 percent tax on merchant shipping and provided that the money thus raised should be used to fund the naval forces protecting the convoys. Events 1444 - Battle of Varna: The crusading forces of King Vladislaus III of Varna (aka Ulaszlo I of Hungary and Wladyslaw It had eighteen ships superior in firepower to the heaviest Dutch vessel, the Brederode. Brederode was a Ship of the line of the navy of the United Provinces of the Netherlands and the Flagship of the Dutch fleet in the First
During the English Civil War the Dutch stadtholder Frederick Henry had given very major financial support to Charles I of England, to whom he had close family ties, and had often been on the brink of intervening with his powerful army. The English Civil War (1642-1651 was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians and Royalists. A Stadtholder ( Dutch: stadhouder, " steward " or literally "place-keeper" or "stead-holder" in older Dutch in the Low Frederick Henry, or Frederik Hendrik in Dutch ( 29 January 1584 – 14 March 1647) was the Prince of Orange Charles I, (19 November 1600 &ndash 30 January 1649 was King of England, Scotland and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution. When Charles was beheaded, the Dutch were outraged by the regicide. The broad definition of regicide is the deliberate killing of a Monarch, or the person responsible for it Oliver Cromwell therefore considered the Dutch Republic as an enemy. Oliver Cromwell (25 April 1599 Old Style &ndash 3 September 1658 Old Style) was an English military and political leader best known Nevertheless the Commonwealth and The Republic had many things in common: they were both republican and protestant. Protestantism refers to the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated in the 16th century Protestant Reformation. When after the death of Frederick Henry his son stadtholder William II of Orange tried to fulfill the monarchal aspirations his late father had always fostered by establishing a military dictatorship, the States of Holland made overtures to Cromwell, seeking his support against William, suggesting vaguely the province of Holland might join the Commonwealth. William II Prince of Orange ( May 27, 1626 &ndash November 6, 1650) Stadtholder of the United Provinces of the Netherlands States of Holland and West Frisia ( Dutch: Staten van Holland en Westfriesland) were the representation of the two Estates (
In 1650 William suddenly died however, so there was no longer any need for Cromwell's support against him. When on 28 January 1651 the States-General recognised the Commonwealth, they fully expected this to be sufficient to solve all problems between the two countries. To their enormous embarrassment however on 7 March a large English delegation of 246 arrived at The Hague, headed by Oliver St John, to negotiate the conditions under which the Dutch Republic might unite itself with England, sent by Cromwell who had taken the earlier suggestions quite too seriously. Oliver St John (c 1598 - 31 December 1673) was an English Statesman and Judge. Trying to be polite the delegation left it to the Dutch to provide the first proposals. The Dutch however were too stunned and confused for a coherent reaction, so after a month the English delegation disclosed a plan by Cromwell to divide the world into two spheres of influence: the Dutch could control Africa and Asia; in return they would assist the English in conquering both Americas from the Spanish. Cromwell hoped that this way the colonial rivalry would be eased by giving the English their own profitable empire. But the Dutch saw it as an absurd grandiose scheme, which offered them little hope for profit but the certainty of much expense and a new war in the Southern Netherlands. The Southern Netherlands (Zuidelijke Nederlanden Países Bajos del Sur Pays-Bas du sud were a part of the Low Countries controlled by Spain ( Spanish After much deliberation by the delegates of the seven provinces, they on 24 June made a counter-proposal of 36 articles of which they hoped it would be agreeable to the English without involving themselves in a war for world conquest. This proposal was in essence a free trade agreement and nothing could have angered the English delegation more: precisely the fact that the English were unable to compete with the Dutch under conditions of free trade, laid at the heart of the conflict between them. They interpreted the counter-proposal as a deliberate affront.
Meanwhile other events had convinced the delegation of Dutch animosity. The Hague was the residence of the young widow of William II, Charles I's daughter Mary Henrietta Stuart, the Princess Royal. Princess Mary Princess Royal Princess of Orange and Countess of Nassau ( 4 November 1631 &ndash 24 December 1660) was the eldest daughter of Princess Royal is a style customarily (but not automatically awarded by a British Monarch to his or her eldest daughter Those English noblemen in exile not fighting with her brother Charles in Scotland had mostly gathered in The Hague, which had become a Royalist bulwark, while it had been for many years an Orangist stronghold. Charles II (Charles Stuart 29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685 was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. The delegation members could only leave their lodgings under armed escort, for fear of being assaulted by Royalists or large mobs paid by them. The States of Holland were unwilling to restore order, fearing open revolt.
Deeply disappointed the English delegates left for England in the last week of June, reporting the Dutch were untrustworthy and that the United Provinces were under control of the Orangist party and thus a threat to the security of the Commonwealth.
French support for the English royalists had led the Commonwealth to issue letters of marque against French ships and against French goods in neutral ships. A letter of marque is an official warrant or commission from a Government authorizing the designated agent to search seize or destroy specified assets These letters carried the right to search neutral ships, which were mostly Dutch. Infuriated by the treatment of the English delegation in The Hague and emboldened by their victory against Charles in the Battle of Worcester, the English Parliament passed the first of the Navigation Acts in October 1651. The Battle of Worcester took place on 3 September 1651 at Worcester England and was the final battle of the English Civil War. This article is a List of Parliaments of England Devolved English Parliament is about the debate on a devolved parliament for England The English Navigation Acts were a series of Laws which restricted the use of foreign Shipping and trade between England (later the Kingdom of Great It ordered that only English ships and ships from the originating country could import goods to England. This measure was particularly aimed at hampering the shipping of the highly trade-dependent Dutch and often used as a pretext simply to take their ships; as General Monck put it: The Dutch have too much trade, and the English are resolved to take it from them . George Monck 1st Duke of Albemarle, KG ( 6 December 1608 &ndash 3 January 1670) was an English soldier and politician Agitation among the Dutch merchants was further increased by George Ayscue's capture in early 1652 of 27 Dutch ships trading with the royalist colony of Barbados in contravention of an embargo imposed by the Commonwealth. Admiral Sir George Ayscue (ca 1616&ndash1671 was an English naval officer who served in the Civil War and the Anglo-Dutch Wars. Barbados ( Portuguese word for bearded-ones, bɑrˈbeɪdoʊz -dɒs situated just east of the Caribbean Sea, is an independent Island nation Over a hundred other Dutch ships were captured by British privateers between October 1651 and July 1652. Moreover, the death of Dutch stadtholder William II, who had favoured an expansion of the army at the expense of the navy, had led to a change in the defence policy of the United Provinces towards protecting the great trading concerns of Amsterdam and Rotterdam. Accordingly, the States-General decided on 3 March 1652 to expand the fleet by hiring and equipping 150 merchant ships as ships of war to allow effective convoying against British hostile actions. Events 1284 - Statute of Rhuddlan incorporated the Principality of Wales into England 1575 - Indian
The news of this decision reached London on 12 March 1652 and the Commonwealth too began to prepare for war, but as both nations were unready war might have been delayed if not for an unfortunate encounter between the fleets of Dutch Lieutenant-Admiral Maarten Tromp and General at Sea Robert Blake in the English Channel near Dover on 29 May 1652. Events 538 - Witiges, king of the Ostrogoths ends his siege of Rome and retreats to Ravenna, leaving Maarten Harpertszoon Tromp ( April 23, 1598 &ndash August 10, 1653) was an officer and later Admiral in the Dutch Robert Blake (1599 — August 17, 1657) was one of the most important military commanders of the Commonwealth of England, and one of the most famous Dover is a town and major ferry port in the county of Kent, England. Events 363 - Roman Emperor Julian defeats the Sassanid army in the Battle of Ctesiphon, under the walls of the An ordinance of Cromwell required all foreign fleets in the North Sea or the Channel to dip their flag in salute, reviving an ancient right the English had long insisted on, but when Tromp was tardy to comply, Blake opened fire, starting the brief Battle of Goodwin Sands. The North Sea is a marginal, Epeiric sea of the Atlantic Ocean on the European Continental shelf. The naval Battle of Goodwin Sands (also known as the Battle of Dover) fought on 29 May 1652 ( 19 May 1652 in the Julian Calendar Tromp lost two ships but escorted his convoy to safety.
The States of Holland sent their highest official, the Grand Pensionary Adriaan Pauw to London in a last desperate attempt to prevent war, but in vain: English demands had become so extreme that no self-respecting state could meet them. The Grand Pensionary (Dutch raad(spensionaris) was the most important Dutch official during the time of the United Provinces. Adriaan Pauw ( 1581 - February 21, 1653) was Grand Pensionary of Holland from 1631 to 1636 and from 1651 to 1653 War was declared by the English Parliament on 10 July 1652. Events 48 BC - Battle of Dyrrhachium, Julius Caesar barely avoids a catastrophic defeat to Pompey in Macedonia. The Dutch diplomats realized what was at stake: one of the departing ambassadors said, "The English are about to attack a mountain of gold; we are about to attack a mountain of iron. " The Dutch Orangists were jubilant however; they expected that either victory or defeat would bring them to power.
The first months of the war saw attacks by the English against the convoys of the Dutch. Blake was sent with 60 ships to disrupt Dutch fishing in the North Sea and Dutch trade with the Baltic, leaving Ayscue with a small force to guard the Channel. On 12 July 1652 Ayscue intercepted a Dutch convoy returning from Portugal, capturing seven merchantmen and destroying three. Events 1191 - Saladin 's garrison surrenders ending the two-year Siege of Acre. Tromp gathered a fleet of 96 ships to attack Ayscue but winds from the south kept him in the North Sea. Turning north to pursue Blake, Tromp caught up with the English fleet off the Shetland Islands but a storm scattered his ships and there was no battle. Shetland (formerly spelled Zetland, from etland; Old Norse non Hjaltland; Sealtainn is an Archipelago off the northeast coast of On 26 August 1652 Ayscue attacked an outward-bound Dutch convoy commanded by Vice-Commodore Michiel de Ruyter but was beaten back in the Battle of Plymouth and relieved of his command. Events 1071 - Battle of Manzikert: The Seljuk Turks defeat the Byzantine Army at Manzikert. Michiel Adriaenszoon de Ruyter ( 24 March 1607 – 29 April 1676) is one of the most famous Admirals in Dutch history For the American Civil War battle see Battle of Plymouth (1864 The Battle of Plymouth was a Naval battle in the First Anglo-Dutch War
Tromp had also been suspended after the failure at the Shetlands, and Vice-Admiral Witte de With was given command. Witte Corneliszoon de With ( 28 March 1599, Den Briel - 8 November 1658, Oresund) was a famous Dutch The Dutch convoys being at the time safe from English attack, De With saw an opportunity to concentrate his forces and gain control of the seas. At the Battle of the Kentish Knock on 8 October 1652 the Dutch attacked the English fleet near the mouth of the River Thames, but were beaten back with a high number of casualties. The Battle of the Kentish Knock (or the Battle of the Zealand Approaches) was a naval battle between the fleets of the Dutch Republic and England, fought Events 314 - Roman Emperor Licinius is defeated by his colleague Constantine I at the Battle of Cibalae, and loses The Thames ( is a major River flowing through southern England. The English Parliament, believing the Dutch to be near defeat, sent away twenty ships to strengthen the position in the Mediterranean. This division of forces left Blake with only 42 men of war by November, while the Dutch were making every effort to reinforce their fleet, and this led to an English defeat by Tromp in the Battle of Dungeness in December but didn't save the English Mediterranean fleet, largely destroyed at the Battle of Leghorn in March 1653. The naval Battle of Dungeness took place on 10 December 1652 during the First Anglo-Dutch War near the cape of Dungeness in Kent The naval Battle of Leghorn (the Dutch call the encounter by the Italian name Livorno) took place on 14 March ( 4 March Old Style 1653 during the The Dutch had effective control of the Channel, the North Sea, and the Mediterranean, with English ships blockaded in port. As a result Cromwell managed to convince Parliament to make secret peace contacts with the Dutch. In February 1653 Adriaan Pauw responded favourably, sending a letter from the States of Holland indicating their sincere desire to reach a peace agreement.
Despite its successes, the Dutch Republic was unable to sustain a prolonged naval war. As press-ganging was forbidden, enormous sums had to be paid to attract enough sailors. English privateers inflicted serious damage on Dutch shipping. Unable to assist all of their colonies the Dutch had to allow the Portuguese to reconquer Brazil. |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld
Though the politicians were close to making an end to the conflict, the war would prove to have a momentum of its own. Over the winter of 1652–1653 the English repaired their ships and considered their position. Robert Blake wrote the Sailing and Fighting Instructions, a major overhaul of naval tactics, containing the first formal description of the line of battle. Naval tactics in the Age of Sail were used from the early 1600s onward when Sailing ships replaced oared Galleys These were used until the 1860s In Naval warfare, the line of battle is a tactic in which the ships of the fleet form a line end-to-end By February 1653 the English were ready to challenge the Dutch, and in the three-day Battle of Portland in March they drove them out of The Channel. The naval Battle of Portland, or Three Days' Battle took place during 28 February - 2 March, 1653 ( Old style) during the Their success made an abrupt end to the English desire for peace. On 18 March the States-General sent a detailed peace proposal to the English Parliament, but it replied on 11 April by reiterating the same demands that had put off Pauw in June the previous year, to be accepted before negotiations were even to begin. On 30 April the States-General ignored this and asked for negotiations to begin in a neutral country; on 23 May Cromwell, having dissolved the pro-war Rump Parliament, responded that he would receive Dutch envoys in London; on 5 June the States-General decided to send them. The Rump Parliament was the name of the English Parliament after Colonel Pride on December 6 1648 had purged Long Parliament of those
Meanwhile the English navy tried to gain control over the North Sea also and in the two-day Battle of the Gabbard in June drove the Dutch back to their home ports, starting a blockade of the Dutch coast, which led to an immediate collapse of the Dutch economy and even starvation. The naval Battle of the Gabbard, also known as the Battle of Gabbard Bank, the Battle of the North Foreland or the second Battle of Nieuwpoort The Dutch were unable to feed their dense urban population without a regular supply of Baltic wheat and rye; prices of these commodities soared and the poor were soon unable to buy food. Wheat ( Triticum spp is a worldwide cultivated grass from the Levant area of the Middle East. Rye ( Secale cereale) is a grass grown extensively as a grain and forage crop
The final battle of the war was the costly Battle of Scheveningen in August. The Battle of Scheveningen (also known as the Battle of Texel or the Battle of Ter Heijde) was the final Naval battle of the First Anglo-Dutch The Dutch desperately tried to break the English blockade; after heavy fighting with much damage to both sides, the defeated Dutch retreated to the Texel but the English had to abandon the blockade. Texel is a municipality and an Island in the Netherlands, in the province of North Holland. Tromp was killed early in the battle, a blow to morale, which increased the Dutch desire to end the war. Similar feelings arose in England. Although many had gained riches from the war: Dutch prizes taken during the war (about 1200 merchantmen or 8% of their total mercantile fleet) amounted to double the value of England's entire ocean-going merchant fleet, trade as a whole had suffered. Cromwell himself was exasperated that two Protestant nations should exhaust themselves in a useless conflict, while catholic Spain profited. He decided to begin negotiations in earnest with the four Dutch envoys having arrived in late June. Hostilities largely ended until the conclusion of peace.
Cromwell again put forward his plan for a political union between the two nations, but this was rejected by the States-General on 21 October, so emphatically that now for the first time Cromwell came to understand that the Dutch hadn't the slightest inclination to join the Commonwealth. He then, repeating the line of argument the English delegation had made two years previously, proposed a military alliance against Spain, promising to repeal the Navigation Act in return for Dutch assistance in the conquest of Spanish America. This too was rejected however. As a result Cromwell, more than a little annoyed, made a proposal of 27 articles, two of which were utterly unacceptable to the Dutch: that all Royalists had to be expelled and that Denmark, the ally of the Republic, should be abandoned in its war against Sweden. In the end Cromwell gave in, on 22 April 1654 the States-General accepted and peace was declared on 8 May, 1654 with the signing of the Treaty of Westminster, in which the Dutch at least agreed to respect the Navigation Acts — although in practice they never did. Events 589 - Reccared summons the Third Council of Toledo 1450 - Jack Cade's Rebellion: Kentishmen The Treaty of Westminster was signed on May 8, 1654, which ended the First Anglo-Dutch War ( 1652 -1654 The English Navigation Acts were a series of Laws which restricted the use of foreign Shipping and trade between England (later the Kingdom of Great The treaty had a secret annex, the Act of Seclusion, forbidding the Dutch ever to appoint the son of the late stadtholder, the later William III of England, to the position of his father. The Act of Seclusion is a secret annex in the Treaty of Westminster (1654 between the United Provinces and the Commonwealth of England in which William A Stadtholder ( Dutch: stadhouder, " steward " or literally "place-keeper" or "stead-holder" in older Dutch in the Low William III or William of Orange (14 November 1650 &ndash 8 March 1702 He is informally known in Northern Ireland and Scotland as "King Billy" This clause, overtly a demand by Cromwell fearing the Orangists, was perhaps inserted on the covert wish of the leading Dutch politician, the new Grand Pensionary, the young republican Johan de Witt. Johan de Witt ( Dordrecht, Netherlands, 24 September 1625 &ndash The Hague, Netherlands, 20 August
However, the commercial rivalry between the two nations was not resolved. Commerce is a division of trade or production which deals with the exchange of goods and services from producer to final consumer Especially in the vast overseas empires hostilities continued between Dutch and English trading companies, which had warships and troops of their own. The Dutch had started on a major ship-building programme to remedy the lack of ships of the line evident at the fleet battles of the Kentish Knock, the Gabbard, and Scheveningen. A ship-of-the-line was a type of naval warship constructed from the 17th century through the mid-19th century to take part in the the naval tactic known as the Line of battle The admiralties were now forbidden by law to sell off these 60 new ships. The Second Anglo-Dutch War was in the making. The Second Anglo-Dutch War was fought between England and the United Provinces from 4 March, 1665 until 31 July, 1667.
The First Anglo-Dutch War was the first war to be fought entirely at sea, with no operations aiming at landing or supporting troops on shore, although the Dutch made plans for a raid on the Medway. History The Medway area has a long and varied history dominated Naval tactics greatly developed. Some historians see the war as the beginning of the end of Dutch trade dominance; others consider the war to have been of little significance in this respect.