Fire is the heat and light energy released during a chemical reaction, in particular a combustion reaction. Thermal energy is the sum of the sensible energy and latent energy. Light, or visible light, is Electromagnetic radiation of a Wavelength that is visible to the Human eye (about 400–700 A chemical reaction is a process that always results in the interconversion of Chemical substances The substance or substances initially involved in a chemical reaction are called Combustion or burning is a complex sequence of Exothermic chemical reactions between a Fuel and an Oxidant accompanied by the production of Depending on the substances alight, and any impurities within, the color of the flame and the fire intensity might vary. A flame is often defined as the visible (light-emitting part of a Fire. In Physics, intensity is a measure of the time-averaged Energy Flux.
Flaming fires involve the chemical oxidation of a fuel (combustion or release of energy) with associated flame, heat, and light. Combustion or burning is a complex sequence of Exothermic chemical reactions between a Fuel and an Oxidant accompanied by the production of In Physics, heat, symbolized by Q, is Energy transferred from one body or system to another due to a difference in Temperature Light, or visible light, is Electromagnetic radiation of a Wavelength that is visible to the Human eye (about 400–700 The flame itself occurs within a region of gas where intense exothermic reactions are taking place. An exothermic reaction is a chemical reaction whereby heat and energy are released as a substance changes to a more stable chemical form (in the case of fire, usually generating carbon dioxide and water). An exothermic reaction is a Chemical reaction that releases Heat. As chemical reactions occur within the fuel being burned, light and heat are released. Depending upon the specific chemical and physical change taking place within the fuel, the flame may or may not emit light in the visible spectrum. For example, burning alcohol or burning hydrogen is usually invisible to the naked eye although the heat given off is tremendous.
The visible flame has little mass, and it is comprised of luminous gases which emit energy (photons) as part of the oxidation process. In Physics, the photon is the Elementary particle responsible for electromagnetic phenomena The color of the flame is dependent upon the energy level of the photons emitted. Lower energy levels produce colors toward the red end of the light spectrum while higher energy levels produce colors toward the blue end of the spectrum. The hottest flames are white in appearance. The color of a fire may also be affected by chemical elements in the flame, such as barium giving a green flame color. Colored fire is a common pyrotechnic effect used in stage productions fireworks and by fire performers the world over A chemical element is a type of Atom that is distinguished by its Atomic number; that is by the number of Protons in its nucleus. Barium (ˈbɛəriəm is a Chemical element. It has the symbol Ba, and Atomic number 56 Green is a Color, the perception of which is evoked by light having a spectrum dominated by energy with a Wavelength of roughly 520–570- nm. A flame test is a procedure used in Chemistry to detect the presence of certain Metal ions based on each element's characteristic Emission spectrum The flame color depends also on the unoxidized carbon particles. In some cases there is a partial fuel oxidation due to oxygen lack in the central part of the flame, where combustion reactions take place. In such cases the unoxidized hot carbon particles emit radiation in the light spectrum, resulting in a yellow/red flame, such that of a common house fireplace.
Fires start when a flammable and/or a combustible material with an adequate supply of oxygen or another oxidizer is subjected to enough heat and is able to sustain a chain reaction. Flammability is the ease with which a substance will ignite causing Fire or Combustion. For an Authority Having Jurisdiction, combustibility is defined by the local code Oxygen (from the Greek roots ὀξύς (oxys (acid literally "sharp" from the taste of acids and -γενής (-genēs (producer literally begetteris the An oxidizing agent or oxidising agent (also called an oxidant, oxidizer or oxidiser) can be defined as either a Chemical compound In Physics, heat, symbolized by Q, is Energy transferred from one body or system to another due to a difference in Temperature A chain reaction is a sequence of Reactions where a reactive product or by-product causes additional reactions to take place This is commonly called the fire tetrahedron. The fire triangle or combustion triangle is a simple model from the science of firefighting, for understanding the ingredients necessary for most Fires No fire can exist without all of these elements being in place.
Once ignited, a chain reaction must take place whereby fires can sustain their own heat by the further release of heat energy in the process of combustion and may propagate, provided there is a continuous supply of an oxidizer and fuel. Thermal energy is the sum of the sensible energy and latent energy. Combustion or burning is a complex sequence of Exothermic chemical reactions between a Fuel and an Oxidant accompanied by the production of An oxidizing agent or oxidising agent (also called an oxidant, oxidizer or oxidiser) can be defined as either a Chemical compound Fuel is any material that is burned or altered in order to obtain energy
Fire can be extinguished by removing any one of the elements of the fire tetrahedron. Fire protection is the study and practice of mitigating the unwanted effects of Fires ref>NFPA Fire Protection Handbook pg Fire extinguishing by the application of water acts by cooling the fuel to stop the reaction whilst also starving the fire of oxygen. Whereas application of carbon dioxide is intended primarily to starve the fire of oxygen. Carbon dioxide ( Chemical formula:) is a Chemical compound composed of two Oxygen Atoms covalently bonded to a single Other gaseous fire suppression agents, such as halon or HFC-227, interfere with the chemical reaction itself. Bromotrifluoromethane, also known by the trade name Halon 1301 is an Organic halide with the chemical formula C[[bromine Br]] F 3
A flame is an exothermic, self-sustaining, oxidizing chemical reaction producing energy and glowing hot matter, of which a very small portion is plasma. A flame is often defined as the visible (light-emitting part of a Fire. In Thermodynamics, the word exothermic "outside heating" describes a process or reaction that releases Energy usually in the form of Heat, but In Physics and other Sciences energy (from the Greek grc ἐνέργεια - Energeia, "activity operation" from grc ἐνεργός In Physics and Chemistry, plasma is an Ionized Gas, in which a certain proportion of Electrons are free rather than being bound It consists of reacting gases and solids emitting visible and infrared light, the frequency spectrum of which depends on the chemical composition of the burning elements and intermediate reaction products. Infrared ( IR) radiation is Electromagnetic radiation whose Wavelength is longer than that of Visible light, but shorter than that of Familiar concepts associated with a Frequency are colors musical notes radio/TV channels and even the regular rotation of the earth
In many cases, such as the burning of organic matter, for example wood, or the incomplete combustion of gas, incandescent solid particles called soot produce the familiar red-orange glow of 'fire'. Organic matter (or organic material) is Matter that has come from a once-living Organism; is capable of Combustion or burning is a complex sequence of Exothermic chemical reactions between a Fuel and an Oxidant accompanied by the production of Incandescence is the emission of Light (visible Electromagnetic radiation) from a hot body due to its temperature Soot (ˈsʊt is a general term that refers to the black impure carbon particles resulting from the incomplete combustion of a hydrocarbon This light has a continuous spectrum. Complete combustion of gas has a dim blue color due to the emission of single-wavelength radiation from various electron transitions in the excited molecules formed in the flame. Usually oxygen is involved, but hydrogen burning in chlorine also produces a flame, producing hydrogen chloride (HCl). Hydrogen (ˈhaɪdrədʒən is the Chemical element with Atomic number 1 Chlorine (ˈklɔriːn from the Greek word 'χλωρóς' ( khlôros, meaning 'pale green' is the Chemical element with Atomic number 17 and Other possible combinations producing flames, amongst many more, are fluorine and hydrogen, and hydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide. Fluorine, fluorum meaning "to flow" is the Chemical element with the symbol F and Atomic number 9 Hydrogen (ˈhaɪdrədʒən is the Chemical element with Atomic number 1 Hydrazine is a Chemical compound with the formula N2H4 It has an Ammonia -like odor and is derived from the same industrial chemistry Nitrogen tetroxide ( dinitrogen tetroxide or nitrogen peroxide) is the Chemical compound N2O4
The glow of a flame is complex. Black-body radiation is emitted from soot, gas, and fuel particles, though the soot particles are too small to behave like perfect blackbodies. In Physics, a black body is an object that absorbs all light that falls on it There is also photon emission by de-excited atoms and molecules in the gases. In Physics, the photon is the Elementary particle responsible for electromagnetic phenomena History See also Atomic theory, Atomism The concept that matter is composed of discrete units and cannot be divided into arbitrarily tiny In Chemistry, a molecule is defined as a sufficiently stable electrically neutral group of at least two Atoms in a definite arrangement held together by Much of the radiation is emitted in the visible and infrared bands. Infrared ( IR) radiation is Electromagnetic radiation whose Wavelength is longer than that of Visible light, but shorter than that of The color depends on temperature for the black-body radiation, and on chemical makeup for the emission spectra. An element's 'emission spectrum' is the relative intensity of Electromagnetic radiation of each Frequency it emits when it is Heated (or more generally when The dominant color in a flame changes with temperature. The photo of the forest fire is an excellent example of this variation. Near the ground, where most burning is occurring, the fire is white, the hottest color possible for organic material in general, or yellow. Above the yellow region, the color changes to orange, which is cooler, then red, which is cooler still. Above the red region, combustion no longer occurs, and the uncombusted carbon particles are visible as black smoke.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) of the United States has recently found that gravity plays a role. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration ( NASA, ˈnæsə is an agency of the United States government, responsible for the nation's public space program The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Gravitation is a natural Phenomenon by which objects with Mass attract one another Modifying the gravity causes different flame types.  The common distribution of a flame under normal gravity conditions depends on convection, as soot tends to rise to the top of a general flame, as in a candle in normal gravity conditions, making it yellow. Convection in the most general terms refers to the movement of molecules within Fluids (i A candle is a Light source and sometimes a Heat source consisting of a solid block of Fuel and an embedded wick. In microgravity or zero gravity, such as an environment in outer space, convection no longer occurs, and the flame becomes spherical, with a tendency to become more blue and more efficient (although it will go out if not moved steadily, as the CO2 from combustion does not disperse in microgravity, and tends to smother the flame). Weightlessness is a phenomenon experienced by people during Free-fall. Outer space, often simply called space, comprises the relatively empty regions of the Universe outside the escape velocities of Celestial bodies. There are several possible explanations for this difference, of which the most likely is that the temperature is evenly distributed enough that soot is not formed and complete combustion occurs.  Experiments by NASA reveal that diffusion flames in microgravity allow more soot to be completely oxidized after they are produced than diffusion flames on Earth, because of a series of mechanisms that behave differently in microgravity when compared to normal gravity conditions. In Combustion, a diffusion flame is a Flame in which the Oxidizer combines with the Fuel by Diffusion.  These discoveries have potential applications in applied science and industry, especially concerning fuel efficiency. For the song by 311, see Grassroots. Applied science is the application of knowledge from one or more natural scientific For other uses of this term see Industry (disambiguation An industry (from Latin industrius, "diligent industrious" Fuel efficiency, in its basic sense is the same as Thermal efficiency, meaning the efficiency of a process that converts chemical potential energy contained in a carrier
In combustion engines, various steps are taken to eliminate a flame. The method depends mainly on whether the fuel is oil, wood, or a high-energy fuel such as jet fuel. Jet fuel is a type of Aviation fuel designed for use in Aircraft powered by gas-turbine engines.
The temperature of flames with carbon particles emitting light can be assessed by their color:
The ability to control fire was a major change in the habits of early humans. A wildfire, also known as a wildland fire, forest fire, brush fire, vegetation fire, grass fire, Peat fire, The control of Fire by early humans was a turning point in human cultural evolution that allowed for humans to proliferate due to the incorporation Making fire to generate heat and light made it possible for people to cook food, increasing the variety and availability of nutrients. Many different techniques for making fire exist Smoldering plants and trees or any source of hot Coals from natural fires is the oldest way to make a fire Cooking is the process of preparing Food by applying Heat, selecting measuring and combining of ingredients in an ordered procedure for producing safe and edible Fire also kept nocturnal predators at bay. Archaeology indicates that ancestors or relatives of modern humans might have controlled fire as early as 790,000 years ago. Archaeology, archeology, or archæology (from Greek grc ἀρχαιολογία archaiologia – grc ἀρχαῖος archaīos The Cradle of Humankind site has evidence for controlled fire from 1 to 1. The Cradle of Humankind is a World Heritage Site first named by UNESCO in 1999 about 50 Kilometres northwest of Johannesburg, South Evidence in its broadest sense includes anything that is used to determine or demonstrate the Truth of an assertion 8 million years ago. 
By the Neolithic Revolution, during the introduction of grain based agriculture, people all over the world used fire as a tool in landscape management. The Neolithic Revolution was the first Agricultural revolution &mdashthe transition from hunting and gathering communities and bands to Agriculture and Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants and fungi and the raising of domesticated Animals The study of agriculture Landscape comprises the visible features of an area of land including physical elements such as Landforms living elements of flora and fauna abstract elements such as lighting These fires were typically controlled burns or "cool fires", as opposed to uncontrolled "hot fires" that damage the soil. Hot fires destroy plants and animals, and endanger communities. This is especially a problem in the forests of today where traditional burning is prevented in order to encourage the growth of timber crops. Cool fires are generally conducted in the spring and fall. They clear undergrowth, burning up biomass that could trigger a hot fire should it get too dense. Biomass refers to living and recently dead Biological material that can be used as fuel or for industrial production They provide a greater variety of environments, which encourages game and plant diversity. For humans, they make dense, impassable forests traversable.
The first technical application of the fire may have been the extracting and treating of metals. There are numerous modern applications of fire. In its broadest sense, fire is used by nearly every human being on earth in a controlled setting every day. Users of internal combustion vehicles employ fire every time they drive. The internal combustion engine is an engine in which the Combustion of Fuel and an Oxidizer (typically air occurs in a confined space called a Thermal power stations provide electricity for a large percentage of humanity. A power station (also referred to as generating station, power plant or powerhouse) is an industrial facility for the generation of
The use of fire in warfare has a long history. Conventional warfare is a form of Warfare conducted by using conventional military weapons and battlefield tactics between two or more states in open confrontation Military history is a Humanities discipline within the scope of general historical recording of armed conflict in the history of humanity Hunter-gatherer groups around the world have been noted as using grass and forest fires to injure their enemies and destroy their ability to find food, so it can be assumed that fire has been used in warfare for as long as humans have had the knowledge to control it. Homer detailed the use of fire by Greek commandos who hid in a wooden horse to burn Troy during the Trojan war. Homer ( Ancient Greek:, Homēros) is a legendary ancient Greek epic Poet, traditionally said to be the author of the epic poems the In Military science, the term commando can refer to an individual a Military unit, or a raiding style of military operation. The Trojan Horse was part of the Trojan War, as told in Virgil 's Latin Epic poem The Aeneid. Troy ( Greek: grc Τροία Troia, also, Ilion; Latin: Trōia, Īlium, Hittite: Wilusa or In Greek mythology, the Trojan War was waged against the city of Troy by the Achaeans after Paris of Troy stole Helen from her Later the Byzantine fleet used Greek fire to attack ships and men. Greek fire was a burning-liquid weapon used by the Byzantine Empire. In the First World War, the first modern flamethrowers were used by infantry, and were successfully mounted on armoured vehicles in the Second World War. A flamethrower is a mechanical device designed to project a long controllable stream of Fire. In the latter war, incendiary bombs were used by Axis and Allies alike, notably on Rotterdam, London, Hamburg and, notoriously, at Dresden, in the latter two cases firestorms were deliberately caused in which a ring of fire surrounding each city was drawn inward by an updraft caused by a central cluster of fires. Dresden (etymologically from Old Sorbian Drežďany, meaning people of the riverside forest, Drježdźany is the Capital city of the German A firestorm is a Conflagration which attains such intensity that it creates and sustains its own wind system The United States Army Air Force also extensively used incendiaries against Japanese targets in the latter months of the war, devastating entire cities constructed primarily of wood and paper houses. In the Second World War, the use of napalm and molotov cocktails was popularized, though the former did not gain public attention until the Vietnam War. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including Napalm is the name given to any of a number of Flammable Liquids used in Warfare often jellied Gasoline. The Molotov cocktail, also known as the booze bomb, alcohol bomb or Molotov bomb, is a generic name used for a variety of improvised incendiary The Vietnam War, also known as the Second Indochina War, or the Vietnam Conflict, occurred in Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia More recently many villages were burned during the Rwandan Genocide. The Rwandan Genocide was the 1994 mass killing of hundreds of thousands of Rwanda 's minority Tutsis and the moderates of its Hutu majority
Setting fuel aflame releases usable energy. A fossil fuel power plant burns Fossil fuels such as Coal, Natural gas or Petroleum (oil to produce Electricity. Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES Fuel is any material that is burned or altered in order to obtain energy Wood was a prehistoric fuel, and is still viable today. Wood is hard fibrous lignified structural tissue produced as secondary Xylem in the stems of Woody plants notably trees but also shrubs Stone Age Paleolithic See also Paleolithic, Recent African Origin, Early Homo sapiens, Early human migrations "Paleolithic" The use of fossil fuels, such as petroleum, natural gas and coal, in power plants supplies the vast majority of the world's electricity today; the International Energy Agency states that nearly 80% of the world's power comes from these sources. Fossil fuels or mineral fuels are fossil source Fuels that is Hydrocarbons found within the top layer of the Earth’s crust. Petroleum ( L petroleum, from Greek πετρέλαιον, lit Natural gas is a Gaseous Fossil fuel consisting primarily of Methane but including significant quantities of Ethane, Propane, A fossil fuel power plant burns Fossil fuels such as Coal, Natural gas or Petroleum (oil to produce Electricity. The International Energy Agency ( IEA, or AIE in Romance languages) is a Paris -based intergovernmental organization founded by the Organisation  The fire in a power station is used to heat water, creating steam that drives turbines. A power station (also referred to as generating station, power plant or powerhouse) is an industrial facility for the generation of A turbine is a rotary Engine that extracts Energy from a Fluid flow The turbines then spin an electric generator to produce power.
The unburnable solid remains of a combustible material left after a fire is called clinker if its melting point is below the flame temperature, so that it fuses and then solidifies as it cools, and ash if its melting point is above the flame temperature. Incomplete combustion of a carbonaceous fuel can result in the production of soot.
Fire fighting services are provided in most developed areas to extinguish or contain uncontrolled fires. Fire protection is the study and practice of mitigating the unwanted effects of Fires ref>NFPA Fire Protection Handbook pg A structure fire is a Fire involving the structural components of various residential or commercial Buildings such as Single-family homes Distinguish from a Firefight, which means a battle with firearms Trained firefighters use fire trucks, water supply resources such as water mains and fire hydrants or they might use A and B class foam depending on what is feeding the fire. Firefighters are rescuers extensively trained primarily to put out hazardous Fires that threaten civilian populations and property to rescue people from car accidents collapsed A fire apparatus, fire engine, fire truck, or fire appliance is a vehicle designed to assist in fighting Fires by transporting Firefighters A water supply network is a system of engineered Hydrologic and Hydraulic components including the watershed or geographic area that collects A fire hydrant (also known colloquially as a fire plug in the United States or as a johnny pump in New York City, because the firemen of the An array of other equipment to combat the spread of fires.
Fire prevention is intended to reduce sources of ignition, and is partially focused on programs to educate people from starting fires.  Buildings, especially schools and tall buildings, often conduct fire drills to inform and prepare citizens on how to react to a building fire. A school (from Greek σχολεῖον - scholeion) is an Institution designed to allow and encourage Students (or "pupils" While determining the world's tallest structure has generally been straightforward the definition of the world's tallest building or the Purposely starting destructive fires constitutes arson and is a criminal offense in most jurisdictions.
Model building codes require passive fire protection and active fire protection systems to minimize damage resulting from a fire. In Communications a code is a rule for converting a piece of Information (for example a letter, Word, Phrase, or Passive fire protection (PFP is an integral component of the three components of structural Fire protection and fire safety in a Building. Active fire protection (AFP is an integral part of Fire protection. Fire damage refers to the damage or destruction of goods and property caused by Fire. The most common form of active fire protection is fire sprinklers. A fire sprinkler is the part of a Fire sprinkler system that discharges water when the effects of a fire have been detected such as when a predetermined temperature has To maximize passive fire protection of buildings, building materials and furnishings in most developed countries are tested for fire-resistance, combustibility and flammability. For other kinds of building materials see Hardware, Biology, Star formation. The decorative arts are traditionally defined as ornamental and functional works in Ceramic, Wood, Glass, Metal, or Textile. A fire-resistance rating typically means the duration for which a Passive fire protection System can withstand a standard fire resistance test. Combustion or burning is a complex sequence of Exothermic chemical reactions between a Fuel and an Oxidant accompanied by the production of Flammability is the ease with which a substance will ignite causing Fire or Combustion. Upholstery, carpeting and plastics used in vehicles and vessels are also tested. Upholstery is the work of providing Furniture, especially seats with Padding, springs Webbing, and fabric or Leather Fitted carpet, also wall-to-wall carpet or carpeting, is a Carpet intended to cover a Floor entirely and permanently Plastic is the general common term for a wide range of synthetic or semisynthetic organic solid materials suitable for the manufacture of industrial products Vehicles, derived from the Latin word vehiculum, are non-living Means of transport. Containerization (or containerisation) is a system of Intermodal freight transport Cargo Transport using standard ISO containers
In order to facilitate consistent extinguishment approaches, and maximize occupant and fire fighter safety, fires are classified using code letters in many countries. Ordinary combustibles "Ordinary combustible" fires are the most common type of fire and are designated "Class A" under both systems Below is a table showing the standard operated in Europe and Australasia against the system used in the United States.
|Type of Fire||European/Australian Classification||United States Classification|
|Fires that involve flammable solids such as wood, cloth, rubber, paper, and some types of plastics. A solid' object is in the States of matter characterized by resistance to Deformation and changes of Volume. Wood is hard fibrous lignified structural tissue produced as secondary Xylem in the stems of Woody plants notably trees but also shrubs A textile is a flexible material comprised of a network of natural or artificial Fibres often referred to as thread or Yarn. Paper is thin material mainly used for writing upon printing upon or packaging Plastic is the general common term for a wide range of synthetic or semisynthetic organic solid materials suitable for the manufacture of industrial products||Class A||Class A|
|Fires that involve flammable liquids or liquifiable solids such as petrol/gasoline, oil, paint, some waxes & plastics, but not cooking fats or oils||Class B||Class B|
|Fires that involve flammable gases, such as natural gas, hydrogen, propane, butane||Class C|
|Fires that involve combustible metals, such as sodium, magnesium, and potassium||Class D||Class D|
|Fires that involve any of the materials found in Class A and B fires, but with the introduction of an electrical appliances, wiring, or other electrically energized objects in the vicinity of the fire, with a resultant electrical shock risk if a conductive agent is used to control the fire||Class E||Class C|
|Fires involving cooking fats and oils. Liquid is one of the principal States of matter. A liquid is a Fluid that has the particles loose and can freely form a distinct surface at the boundaries of Petroleum ( L petroleum, from Greek πετρέλαιον, lit Paint is any Liquid, liquifiable or mastic composition which after application to a substrate in a thin layer is converted to an opaque Solid Wax has traditionally referred to a substance that is secreted by Bees ( Beeswax) and used by them in constructing their This page is about the physical properties of gas as a state of matter Natural gas is a Gaseous Fossil fuel consisting primarily of Methane but including significant quantities of Ethane, Propane, Hydrogen (ˈhaɪdrədʒən is the Chemical element with Atomic number 1 Propane is a three- Carbon Alkane, normally a gas but compressible to a liquid that is transportable Butane, also called n -butane, is the unbranched Alkane with four Carbon Atoms CH3CH2CH2CH3 Combustion or burning is a complex sequence of Exothermic chemical reactions between a Fuel and an Oxidant accompanied by the production of The M acro E xpansion T emplate A ttribute L anguage complements TAL, providing macros which allow the reuse of code across Sodium (ˈsoʊdiəm is an element which has the symbol Na( Latin natrium, from Arabic natrun) atomic number 11 atomic mass 22 Magnesium (mægˈniːziəm is a Chemical element with the symbol Mg, Atomic number 12 Atomic weight 24 Potassium (pəˈtæsiəm is a Chemical element. It has the symbol K (kalium from qalīy Atomic number 19 and Atomic mass 39 Electrical conduction is the movement of electrically charged particles through a Transmission medium ( Electrical conductor) The high temperature of the oils when on fire far exceeds that of other flammable liquids making normal extinguishing agents ineffective.||Class F||Class K|
Fire causes injury in forms of first-, second-, and third-degree burns. A burn is a type of Injury that may be caused by Heat, cold, Electricity, Chemicals, Light, Radiation, or A first-degree burn damages the epidermis only, while a second-degree burn goes through the epidermis and dermis. Epidermis is the outermost layer of the Skin. It forms the waterproof protective wrap over the body's surface and is made up of stratified squamous Epithelium with The dermis is a layer of Skin beneath the epidermis that consists of Connective tissue, and cushions the body from stress and strain A third-degree burn destroys both the epidermis and dermis, and kills all nerve receptors underneath the skin. A common result of second- and third-degree burns is large amounts of granulation tissue, or scar tissue, in place of the burnt skin. Granulation tissue is the perfused, fibrous connective tissue that replaces a Fibrin clot in healing wounds. 
Fire is or has been used: