Fertilizers (also spelled fertiliser) are chemical compounds given to plants to promote growth; they are usually applied either through the soil, for uptake by plant roots, or by foliar feeding, for uptake through leaves. Manure is Organic matter used as Organic fertilizer in Agriculture. American and British English spelling differences are one aspect of American and British English differences. Plants are living Organisms belonging to the kingdom Plantae. Foliar feeding is a technique of feeding plants by applying liquid fertilizer directly to their leaves Fertilizers can be organic (composed of organic matter), or inorganic (made of simple, inorganic chemicals or minerals). An organic compound is any member of a large class of Chemical compounds whose Molecules contain Carbon. Traditionally inorganic compounds are considered to be of mineral not biological origin They can be naturally occurring compounds such as peat or mineral deposits, or manufactured through natural processes (such as composting) or chemical processes (such as the Haber process). Peat is an accumulation of partially Decayed Vegetation matter. A mineral is a naturally occurring substance formed through geological processes that has a characteristic chemical composition a highly ordered atomic structure and specific Composting is the Aerobic decomposition of Biodegradable Organic matter, producing Compost. The Haber process, also called the Haber–Bosch process, is the Nitrogen fixation reaction of Nitrogen and Hydrogen, over an iron substrate These chemical compounds leave lawns, gardens, and soils looking beautiful as they are given different essential nutrients that encourage plant growth.
They typically provide, in varying proportions, the three major plant nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium: N-P-K), the secondary plant nutrients (calcium, sulfur, magnesium) and sometimes trace elements (or micronutrients) with a role in plant or animal nutrition: boron, chlorine, manganese, iron, zinc, copper, molybdenum and (in some countries) selenium. This article is about proportionality the mathematical relation Plant nutrition is the study of the chemical elements that are necessary for plant growth Nitrogen (ˈnaɪtɹəʤɪn is a Chemical element that has the symbol N and Atomic number 7 and Atomic weight 14 Phosphorus, (ˈfɒsfərəs is the Chemical element that has the symbol P and Atomic number 15 Potassium (pəˈtæsiəm is a Chemical element. It has the symbol K (kalium from qalīy Atomic number 19 and Atomic mass 39 Plant nutrition is the study of the chemical elements that are necessary for plant growth Calcium (ˈkælsiəm is the Chemical element with the symbol Ca and Atomic number 20 Sulfur or sulphur (ˈsʌlfɚ see spelling below) is the Chemical element that has the Atomic number 16 Magnesium (mægˈniːziəm is a Chemical element with the symbol Mg, Atomic number 12 Atomic weight 24 In Analytical chemistry, a trace element is an element in a sample that has an average Concentration of less than 100 Parts per million atoms Boron (ˈbɔərɒn is a Chemical element with Atomic number 5 and the chemical symbol B. Chlorine (ˈklɔriːn from the Greek word 'χλωρóς' ( khlôros, meaning 'pale green' is the Chemical element with Atomic number 17 and Manganese (ˈmæŋgəniːz is a Chemical element, designated by the symbol Mn. Iron (ˈаɪɚn is a Chemical element with the symbol Fe (ferrum and Atomic number 26 Zinc (ˈzɪŋk from Zink is a Metallic Chemical element with the symbol Zn and Atomic number 30 Copper (ˈkɒpɚ is a Chemical element with the symbol Cu (cuprum and Atomic number 29 Molybdenum (məˈlɪbdənəm from the Greek word for the metal " Lead " is a Group 6 Chemical element with the symbol Mo Selenium (səˈliniəm is a Chemical element with the Atomic number 34 represented by the chemical symbol Se, an atomic mass of 78
Both organic and inorganic fertilizers were called "manures" derived from the French expression for manual tillage, but this term is now mostly restricted to organic manure. Tillage is the agricultural preparation of the Soil by Ploughing ripping or turning it Manure is Organic matter used as Organic fertilizer in Agriculture.
Though nitrogen is plentiful in the earth's atmosphere, relatively few plants engage in nitrogen fixation (conversion of atmospheric nitrogen to a biologically useful form). Nitrogen (ˈnaɪtɹəʤɪn is a Chemical element that has the symbol N and Atomic number 7 and Atomic weight 14 Nitrogen fixation is the process by which Nitrogen is taken from its natural relatively inert molecular form (N2 in the atmosphere and converted into Most plants thus require nitrogen compounds to be present in the soil in which they grow.
While manure, cinder and ironmaking slag have been used to improve crops for centuries, the use of fertilizers is arguably one of the great innovations of the Agricultural Revolution of the 19th Century. Slag is the By-product of Smelting Ore to purify Metals They can be considered to be a mixture of metal Oxides however The British Agricultural Revolution describes a period of development in Britain between the 18th century and the end of the 19th century which saw a massive increase in agricultural
In the 1730s, Viscount Charles Townshend (1674–1738) first studied the improving effects of the four crop rotation system that he had observed in use in Flanders. Charles Townshend 2nd Viscount Townshend ( April 18, 1674 &ndash June 21, 1738) was an English statesman Flanders (Vlaanderen Flandre Flandern is a geographical region located in parts of present day Belgium, France, and the Netherlands. For this he gained the nickname of Turnip Townshend.
Chemist Justus von Liebig (1803–1883) contributed greatly to the advancement in the understanding of plant nutrition. Justus von Liebig ( May 12, 1803 &ndash April 18, 1873) was a German Chemist His influential works first denounced the vitalist theory of humus, arguing first the importance of ammonia, and later the importance of inorganic minerals. Ammonia is a compound with the formula N[[hydrogen H3]] It is normally encountered as a Gas with a characteristic pungent Odor Primarily his work succeeded in setting out questions for agricultural science to address over the next 50 years. In England he attempted to implement his theories commercially through a fertilizer created by treating phosphate of lime in bone meal with sulfuric acid. Although it was much less expensive than the guano that was used at the time, it failed because it was not able to be properly absorbed by crops. Guano (from the Quechua 'wanu' via Spanish) is the Feces of Seabirds Bats and seals
At that time in England, Sir John Bennet Lawes (1814–1900) was experimenting with crops and manures at his farm at Harpenden and was able to produce a practical superphosphate in 1842 from the phosphates in rock and coprolites. "Sir John Lawes" redirects here Distinguish from Sir John Lawes (School Harpenden is a town in the City and District of St Albans of Hertfordshire in the South East of England. Superphosphate is a Fertilizer produced by the action of concentrated Sulfuric acid on powdered Phosphate rock. A Coprolite is Fossilized animal dung Coprolites are classified as trace fossils as opposed to body fossils as they give evidence for the animal's behaviour (in Encouraged, he employed Sir Joseph Henry Gilbert, who had studied under Liebig at the University of Giessen, as director of research. Sir Joseph Henry Gilbert (1817-1901 was an English Chemist born at Hull on the 1st of August 1817 The University of Gießen (German Universität Gießen) is officially called Justus Liebig-Universität Gießen after its most famous member To this day, the Rothamsted research station that they founded still investigates the impact of inorganic and organic fertilizers on crop yields. The Rothamsted Experimental Station, one of the oldest agricultural research institutions in the world is located at Harpenden in Hertfordshire, England
In France, Jean Baptiste Boussingault (1802–1887) pointed out that the amount of nitrogen in various kinds of fertilizers is important.
Metallurgists Percy Gilchrist (1851–1935) and Sidney Gilchrist Thomas (1850–1885) invented the Thomas-Gilchrist converter, which enabled the use of high phosphorus acidic Continental ores for steelmaking. Metallurgy is a domain of Materials science that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their intermetallic compounds, and their Percy Carlyle Gilchrist ( December 27, 1851 - December 16, 1935) was a British chemist and metallurgist born in Lyme Regis Dorset and who studied Sidney Gilchrist Thomas ( April 16, 1850 - February 1, 1885) was an English inventor The Bessemer process was the first inexpensive Industrial process for the mass-production of Steel from molten Pig iron. Phosphorus, (ˈfɒsfərəs is the Chemical element that has the symbol P and Atomic number 15 Steelmaking is the second step in producing Steel from Iron ore. The dolomite lime lining of the converter turned in time into calcium phosphate, which could be used as fertilizer known as Thomas-phosphate. Calcium phosphate is the name given to a family of Minerals containing Calcium Ions (Ca2+ together with orthophosphates (PO43-
In the early decades of the 20th Century, the Nobel prize-winning chemists Carl Bosch of IG Farben and Fritz Haber developed the process that enabled nitrogen to be cheaply synthesised into ammonia, for subsequent oxidisation into nitrates and nitrites. The Nobel Prize (Nobelpriset (Nobelprisen is a Swedish prize established in the 1895 will of Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel; it was first awarded in Peace, Literature Carl Bosch ( August 27, 1874 &ndash April 26, 1940) was a German Chemist and Engineer who won the IG Farben (short for Interessen-Gemeinschaft Farbenindustrie AG, "syndicate of dyestuff corporations" and also called I Fritz Haber (9 December 1868 &ndash 29 January 1934 was a German chemist, who received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1918 for his development for The Haber process, also called the Haber–Bosch process, is the Nitrogen fixation reaction of Nitrogen and Hydrogen, over an iron substrate Nitrogen (ˈnaɪtɹəʤɪn is a Chemical element that has the symbol N and Atomic number 7 and Atomic weight 14 Ammonia is a compound with the formula N[[hydrogen H3]] It is normally encountered as a Gas with a characteristic pungent Odor In Inorganic chemistry, a nitrate is a salt of Nitric acid with an Ion composed of one Nitrogen and three Oxygen atoms The nitrite Ion is NO2− The anion is bent being Isoelectronic with O3.
In 1927 Erling Johnson developed an industrial method for producing nitrophosphate, also known as the Odda process after his Odda Smelteverk of Norway. The nitrophosphate process (also known as the Odda process) was a method for the industrial production of Nitrogen Fertilizers invented by Erling Johnson The nitrophosphate process (also known as the Odda process) was a method for the industrial production of Nitrogen Fertilizers invented by Erling Johnson is a municipality and town in the county of Hordaland, Norway Norway ( Norwegian: Norge ( Bokmål) or Noreg ( Nynorsk) officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Constitutional The process involved acidifying phosphate rock (from Nauru and Banaba Islands in the southern Pacific Ocean) with nitric acid to produce phosphoric acid and calcium nitrate which, once neutralized, could be used as a nitrogen fertilizer. A phosphate, an Inorganic chemical, is a salt of Phosphoric acid. Nauru, officially the Republic of Nauru, is an Island nation in the Micronesian South Pacific. Banaba Island (bəˈnɑːbə (also Ocean Island) an island in the Pacific Ocean, is a solitary raised The Pacific Ocean is the largest of the Earth 's Oceanic divisions Nitric acid ( H[[nitrate NO3]] also known as Aqua fortis and spirit of nitre, is a highly corrosive and Phosphoric acid, also known as orthophosphoric acid or phosphoric(V acid, is a mineral (inorganic acid having the Chemical formula Calcium nitrate, also called Norgessalpeter (Norwegian saltpeter is the Inorganic compound with the formula Ca(NO32 pH is the measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a Solution.
The Englishmen James Fison, Edward Packard, Thomas Hadfield and the Prentice brothers each founded companies in the early 19th century to create fertilizers from bonemeal. Bone meal is a mixture of crushed and coarsely ground bones that is used as an Organic fertilizer for plants and formerly in animal feed The developing sciences of chemistry and Paleontology, combined with the discovery of coprolites in commercial quantities in East Anglia, led Fisons and Packard to develop sulfuric acid and fertilizer plants at Bramford, and Snape, Suffolk in the 1850s to create superphosphates, which were shipped around the world from the port at Ipswich. Chemistry (from Egyptian kēme (chem meaning "earth") is the Science concerned with the composition structure and properties Palaeontology redirects here For the Scientific journal, see Palaeontology (journal. A Coprolite is Fossilized animal dung Coprolites are classified as trace fossils as opposed to body fossils as they give evidence for the animal's behaviour (in East Anglia is often used as a shorthand for the Kingdom of the East Angles. Sulfuric (or sulphuric acid, H 2 S[[oxygen O]]4 is a strong Mineral acid. Bramford (pronouned Bram-ford is a medium-sized Village just to the west of Ipswich, Suffolk and is in the Mid Suffolk administrative district Snape is a small Village in the English county of Suffolk, on the River Alde close to Aldeburgh. Suffolk (ˈsʌfək is a non-metropolitan county of historic origin in East Anglia, England. Superphosphate is a Fertilizer produced by the action of concentrated Sulfuric acid on powdered Phosphate rock. Ipswich ( ˈɪpswɪtʃ is a Non-metropolitan district and the County town of Suffolk, England on the Estuary of the River Orwell By 1870 there were about 80 factories making superphosphate.  After World War I these businesses came under financial pressure through new competition from guano, primarily found on the Pacific islands, as their extraction and distribution had become economically attractive. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All Guano (from the Quechua 'wanu' via Spanish) is the Feces of Seabirds Bats and seals The Pacific Ocean is the largest of the Earth 's Oceanic divisions
The interwar period saw innovative competition from Imperial Chemical Industries who developed synthetic ammonium sulfate in 1923, Nitro-chalk in 1927, and a more concentrated and economical fertilizer called CCF based on ammonium phosphate in 1931. Imperial Chemical Industries ( ICI) is a British chemical subsidiary of a Dutch conglomerate and one of the largest chemical producers Ammonium sulfate, (NH42SO4 is an inorganic chemical compound commonly used as a fertilizer Ammonium phosphate - Molecular Mass = 14912g/mol The normal Ammonium Phosphate, (NH43PO4 is obtained as a crystalline powder Competition was limited as ICI ensured it controlled most of the world's ammonium sulfate supplies. Ammonium sulfate, (NH42SO4 is an inorganic chemical compound commonly used as a fertilizer Other European and North American fertilizer companies developed their market share, forcing the English pioneer companies to merge, becoming Fisons, Packard, and Prentice Ltd. in 1929. Together they were producing 85,000 tonnes of superphosphate per annum by 1934 from their new factory and deep-water docks in Ipswich. Ipswich ( ˈɪpswɪtʃ is a Non-metropolitan district and the County town of Suffolk, England on the Estuary of the River Orwell By World War II they had acquired about 40 companies, including Hadfields in 1935, and two years later the large Anglo-Continental Guano Works, founded in 1917. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including
The post-war environment was characterized by much higher production levels as a result of the "Green Revolution" and new types of seed with increased nitrogen-absorbing potential, notably the high-response varieties of maize, wheat, and rice. The Green Revolution refers to the transformation of Agriculture that began in 1945 at the request of the Mexican government to establish an agricultural research station to High-yielding varieties (HYVs are any of a group of genetically enhanced Cultivars of crops such as Rice, Maize and Wheat that have an increased This has accompanied the development of strong national competition, accusations of cartels and supply monopolies, and ultimately another wave of mergers and acquisitions. The original names no longer exist other than as holding companies or brand names: Fisons and ICI agrochemicals are part of today's Yara International and AstraZeneca companies. Yara ( is a Norwegian company and a world leading supplier of plant nutrients in the form of mineral Fertilizers The core business of Yara is production AstraZeneca PLC (,) is a large Anglo-Swedish Pharmaceutical company formed on 6 April 1999 by the remerger of Swedish Astra AB
Naturally occurring inorganic fertilizers include Chilean sodium nitrate, mined rock phosphate, and limestone (a calcium source). Sodium nitrate is the Chemical compound with the formula NaNO3 Rock phosphate is a general term for rock that contains a high concentration of Phosphate minerals, which commonly belong to the Apatite group Limestone is a Sedimentary rock composed largely of the Mineral Calcite ( Calcium carbonate: CaCO3
Fertilizers can be divided into macronutrients or micronutrients based on their concentrations in plant dry matter. There are six macronutrients: nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, often termed "primary macronutrients" because their availability is usually managed with NPK fertilizers, and the "secondary macronutrients" — calcium, magnesium, and sulfur — which are required in roughly similar quantities but whose availability is often managed as part of liming and manuring practices rather than fertilizers. The macronutrients are consumed in larger quantities and normally present as a whole number or tenths of percentages in plant tissues (on a dry matter weight basis). There are many micronutrients, required in concentrations ranging from 5 to 100 parts per million (ppm) by mass. Plant micronutrients include iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), boron (B), copper (Cu), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), chlorine (Cl), and zinc (Zn. Iron (ˈаɪɚn is a Chemical element with the symbol Fe (ferrum and Atomic number 26 Manganese (ˈmæŋgəniːz is a Chemical element, designated by the symbol Mn. Boron (ˈbɔərɒn is a Chemical element with Atomic number 5 and the chemical symbol B. Copper (ˈkɒpɚ is a Chemical element with the symbol Cu (cuprum and Atomic number 29 Molybdenum (məˈlɪbdənəm from the Greek word for the metal " Lead " is a Group 6 Chemical element with the symbol Mo Nickel (ˈnɪkəl is a metallic Chemical element with the symbol Ni and Atomic number 28 Chlorine (ˈklɔriːn from the Greek word 'χλωρóς' ( khlôros, meaning 'pale green' is the Chemical element with Atomic number 17 and Zinc (ˈzɪŋk from Zink is a Metallic Chemical element with the symbol Zn and Atomic number 30
Synthesized materials are also called artificial, and may be described as straight, where the product predominantly contains the three primary ingredients of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K), which are known as N-P-K fertilizers or compound fertilizers when elements are mixed intentionally. Nitrogen (ˈnaɪtɹəʤɪn is a Chemical element that has the symbol N and Atomic number 7 and Atomic weight 14 Phosphorus, (ˈfɒsfərəs is the Chemical element that has the symbol P and Atomic number 15 Potassium (pəˈtæsiəm is a Chemical element. It has the symbol K (kalium from qalīy Atomic number 19 and Atomic mass 39 They are named or labeled according to the content of these three elements, which are macronutrients. The mass fraction (percent) nitrogen is reported directly. However, phosphorus is reported as phosphorus pentoxide (P2O5), the anhydride of phosphoric acid, and potassium is reported as potassium oxide (K2O), which is the anhydride of potassium hydroxide. Phosphorus pentoxide is a Chemical compound with formula P 2 O 5 In Chemistry, an anhydride is a compound that can be considered as derived from another compound by subtracting the molecules of water. Phosphoric acid, also known as orthophosphoric acid or phosphoric(V acid, is a mineral (inorganic acid having the Chemical formula Potassium oxide is a compound of Potassium and Oxygen. This pale yellow solid the simplest oxide of potassium is a rarely encountered highly reactive Potassium hydroxide is the Inorganic compound with the formula K[[hydroxide OH]] Fertilizer composition is expressed in this fashion for historical reasons in the way it was analyzed (conversion to ash for P and K); this practice dates back to Justus von Liebig (see more below). Justus von Liebig ( May 12, 1803 &ndash April 18, 1873) was a German Chemist Consequently, an 18-51-20 fertilizer would have 18% nitrogen as N, 51% phosphorus as P2O5, and 20% potassium as K2O, The other 11% is known as ballast and may or may not be valuable to the plants, depending on what is used as ballast. Although analyses are no longer carried out by ashing first, the naming convention remains. If nitrogen is the main element, they are often described as nitrogen fertilizers.
In general, the mass fraction (percentage) of elemental phosphorus, [P] = 0. 436 x [P2O5]
and the mass fraction (percentage) of elemental potassium, [K] = 0. 83 x [K2O]
(These conversion factors are mandatory under the UK fertilizer-labelling regulations if elemental values are declared in addition to the N-P-K declaration. )
An 18−51−20 fertilizer therefore contains, by weight, 18% elemental nitrogen (N), 22% elemental phosphorus (P) and 16% elemental potassium (K).
In general, agricultural fertilizers contain only one or two macronutrients. Agricultural fertilizers are intended to be applied infrequently and normally prior to or alongside seeding. Examples of agricultural fertilizers are granular triple superphosphate, potassium chloride, urea, and anhydrous ammonia. Triple Superphosphate is a Fertilizer produced by the action of concentrated Phosphoric acid on ground Phosphate rock The Chemical compound potassium chloride (KCl is a Metal Halide salt composed of Potassium and Chlorine. Urea is an Organic compound with the Chemical formula ( N[[hydrogen H]]22 C[[oxygen O]] Ammonia is a compound with the formula N[[hydrogen H3]] It is normally encountered as a Gas with a characteristic pungent Odor The commodity nature of fertilizer, combined with the high cost of shipping, leads to use of locally available materials or those from the closest/cheapest source, which may vary with factors affecting transportation by rail, ship, or truck. In other words, a particular nitrogen source may be very popular in one part of the country while another is very popular in another geographic region only due to factors unrelated to agronomic concerns. Nitrogen (ˈnaɪtɹəʤɪn is a Chemical element that has the symbol N and Atomic number 7 and Atomic weight 14
Horticultural or specialty fertilizers, on the other hand, are formulated from many of the same compounds and some others to produce well-balanced fertilizers that also contain micronutrients. Some materials, such as ammonium nitrate, are used minimally in large scale production farming. The Chemical compound ammonium nitrate, the Nitrate of Ammonia with the chemical formula N[[Hydrogen H]]4 N[[Oxygen O]]3 The 18-51-20 example above is a horticultural fertilizer formulated with high phosphorus to promote bloom development in ornamental flowers. Horticultural fertilizers may be water-soluble (instant release) or relatively insoluble (controlled release). Controlled release fertilizers are also referred to as sustained release or timed release. Many controlled release fertilizers are intended to be applied approximately every 3-6 months, depending on watering, growth rates, and other conditions, whereas water-soluble fertilizers must be applied at least every 1-2 weeks and can be applied as often as every watering if sufficiently dilute. Unlike agricultural fertilizers, horticultural fertilizers are marketed directly to consumers and become part of retail product distribution lines.
|Country||Total N consumption|
|of which used|
for feed & pasture
|USA||9. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the 1||4. 7|
|China||18. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National 7||3. 0|
|France||2. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. 5||1. 3|
|Germany||2. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. 0||1. 2|
|Canada||1. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page 6||0. 9|
|UK||1. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located 3||0. 9|
|Brazil||1. |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld 7||0. 7|
|Spain||1. Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. 2||0. 5|
|Mexico||1. The United Mexican States ( or commonly Mexico (ˈmɛksɪkoʊ () is a federal constitutional Republic in North America. 3||0. 3|
|Turkey||1. Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches 5||0. 3|
|Argentina||0. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Argentina topics. 4||0. 1|
Nitrogen fertilizer is often synthesized using the Haber-Bosch process, which produces ammonia. The Haber process, also called the Haber–Bosch process, is the Nitrogen fixation reaction of Nitrogen and Hydrogen, over an iron substrate Ammonia is a compound with the formula N[[hydrogen H3]] It is normally encountered as a Gas with a characteristic pungent Odor This ammonia is applied directly to the soil or used to produce other compounds, notably ammonium nitrate and urea, both dry, concentrated products that may be used as fertilizer materials or mixed with water to form a concentrated liquid nitrogen fertilizer, UAN. The Chemical compound ammonium nitrate, the Nitrate of Ammonia with the chemical formula N[[Hydrogen H]]4 N[[Oxygen O]]3 Urea is an Organic compound with the Chemical formula ( N[[hydrogen H]]22 C[[oxygen O]] UAN is a Solution of Urea and Ammonium nitrate in water used as a fertilizer Ammonia can also be used in the Odda Process in combination with rock phosphate and potassium fertilizer to produce compound fertilizers such as 10-10-10 or 15-15-15. The nitrophosphate process (also known as the Odda process) was a method for the industrial production of Nitrogen Fertilizers invented by Erling Johnson
The production of ammonia currently consumes about 5% of global natural gas consumption, which is somewhat under 2% of world energy production.  Natural gas is overwhelmingly used for the production of ammonia, but other energy sources, together with a hydrogen source, can be used for the production of nitrogen compounds suitable for fertilizers. The cost of natural gas makes up about 90% of the cost of producing ammonia.  The price increases in natural gas in the past decade, among other factors such as increasing demand, have contributed to an increase in fertilizer price.
Nitrogen-based fertilizers are most commonly used to treat fields used for growing maize, followed by barley, sorghum, rapeseed, soyabean and sunflower. Maize (ˈmeɪz ( Zea mays L. ssp mays) known as corn in some countries is a cereal grain domesticated in Mesoamerica Barley ( Hordeum vulgare) is an annual Cereal Grain, which serves as a major animal Feed crop, with smaller amounts used for Sorghum is a genus of numerous species of grasses, some of which are raised for grain and many of which are used as Fodder plants either cultivated or as part Rapeseed ( Brassica napus) also known as rape, oilseed rape, rapa, rapaseed and (in the case of one particular group of The sunflower ( Helianthus annuus) is an Annual plant in the family Asteraceae and native to the Americas, with a large flowering
Inorganic fertilizers sometimes do not replace trace mineral elements in the soil which become gradually depleted by crops grown there. This has been linked to studies which have shown a marked fall (up to 75%) in the quantities of such minerals present in fruit and vegetables.  One exception to this is in Western Australia where deficiencies of zinc, copper, manganese, iron and molybdenum were identified as limiting the growth of crops and pastures in the 1940s and 1950s. Western Australia is a state occupying the entire western third of the Australian continent. Zinc (ˈzɪŋk from Zink is a Metallic Chemical element with the symbol Zn and Atomic number 30 Copper (ˈkɒpɚ is a Chemical element with the symbol Cu (cuprum and Atomic number 29 Manganese (ˈmæŋgəniːz is a Chemical element, designated by the symbol Mn. Iron (ˈаɪɚn is a Chemical element with the symbol Fe (ferrum and Atomic number 26 Molybdenum (məˈlɪbdənəm from the Greek word for the metal " Lead " is a Group 6 Chemical element with the symbol Mo Soils in Western Australia are very old, highly weathered and deficient in many of the major nutrients and trace elements. Since this time these trace elements are routinely added to inorganic fertilizers used in agriculture in this state.
In many countries there is the public perception that inorganic fertilizers "poison the soil" and result in "low quality" produce. However, there is very little (if any) scientific evidence to support these views. When used appropriately, inorganic fertilizers enhance plant growth, the accumulation of organic matter and the biological activity of the soil, preventing overgrazing and soil erosion. The nutritional value of plants for human and animal consumption is typically improved when inorganic fertilizers are used appropriately.
There are concerns though about arsenic, cadmium and uranium accumulating in fields treated with phosphate fertilizers. Arsenic (ˈɑrsənɪk is a Chemical element that has the symbol As and Atomic number of 33 Cadmium (ˈkædmiəm is a Chemical element with the symbol Cd and Atomic number 48 Uranium (jʊˈreɪniəm is a silvery-gray Metallic Chemical element in the The phosphate minerals contain trace amounts of these elements and if no cleaning step is applied after mining the continuous use of phosphate fertilizers leads towards an accumulation of these elements in the soil. Eventually these can build up to unacceptable levels and get into the produce. (See cadmium poisoning. Cadmium has no constructive purpose in the Human body It and its compounds are extremely Toxic even in low concentrations and will Bioaccumulate in )
Another problem with inorganic fertilizers is that they are presently produced in ways which cannot be continued indefinitely. Potassium and phosphorus come from mines (or from saline lakes such as the Dead Sea in the case of potassium fertilizers) and resources are limited. The Dead Sea (יָם הַמֶּלַח, "Sea of Salt"البَحْر المَيّت, "Dead Sea" is a salt lake between Nitrogen is unlimited, but nitrogen fertilizers are presently made using fossil fuels such as natural gas. Fossil fuels or mineral fuels are fossil source Fuels that is Hydrocarbons found within the top layer of the Earth’s crust. Natural gas is a Gaseous Fossil fuel consisting primarily of Methane but including significant quantities of Ethane, Propane, Theoretically fertilizers could be made from sea water or atmospheric nitrogen using renewable energy, but doing so would require huge investment and is not competitive with today's unsustainable methods. Seawater is Water from a Sea or Ocean. On average seawater in the world's oceans has a Salinity of about 3 Renewable energy is Energy generated from Natural resources mdashsuch as Sunlight, Wind, Rain, tides and geothermal Innovative thermal depolymerization biofuel schemes are trialling the production of byproducts with 9% nitrogen fertilizer sourced from organic waste
Naturally occurring organic fertilizers include manure, slurry, worm castings, peat, seaweed, sewage , and guano. Thermal depolymerization ( TDP) is a process using Hydrous pyrolysis for the reduction of complex Organic materials (usually Waste products of Manure is Organic matter used as Organic fertilizer in Agriculture. Vermicompost (also called worm Compost, vermicast worm castings worm humus or worm manure is the end-product of the breakdown of Organic matter by some Peat is an accumulation of partially Decayed Vegetation matter. Seaweed is a loose colloquial term encompassing macroscopic Multicellular, benthic marine Algae. Sewage is the mainly liquid Waste containing some solids produced by humans which typically consists of washing water Feces, Urine, laundry waste and other Guano (from the Quechua 'wanu' via Spanish) is the Feces of Seabirds Bats and seals Green manure crops are also grown to add nutrients to the soil. In Agriculture, a green manure is a type of Cover crop grown primarily to add Nutrients and Organic matter to the Soil. Soil, often typeset as SOiL, is a four piece rock band from Chicago Illinois United States founded by Shaun Glass Tom Schofield Tim King and Adam Zadel Naturally occurring minerals such as mine rock phosphate, sulfate of potash and limestone are also considered Organic Fertilizers.
Manufactured organic fertilizers include compost, bloodmeal, bone meal and seaweed extracts. Compost (ˈkɒmpɒst or US /ˈkɒmpoʊst/ also known as brown manure is the aerobically decomposed remnants of Organic matter. Blood meal is dried powdered blood used as a high- Nitrogen fertilizer Bone meal is a mixture of crushed and coarsely ground bones that is used as an Organic fertilizer for plants and formerly in animal feed Seaweed is a loose colloquial term encompassing macroscopic Multicellular, benthic marine Algae. Other examples are natural enzyme digested proteins, fish meal, and feather meal. Fish meal, or fishmeal, is a commercial product made from both whole Fish and the bones and Offal from processed fish
The decomposing crop residue from prior years is another source of fertility. There are two types of agricultural crop residues. Field residues are materials left in an agricultural field or Orchard after the crop has been Harvested Though not strictly considered "fertilizer", the distinction seems more a matter of words than reality.
Some ambiguity in the usage of the term 'organic' exists because some of synthetic fertilizers, such as urea and urea formaldehyde, are fully organic in the sense of organic chemistry. Urea is an Organic compound with the Chemical formula ( N[[hydrogen H]]22 C[[oxygen O]] Urea-formaldehyde, also known as urea-methanal, named so for its common synthesis pathway and overall structure is a transparent thermosetting Resin Organic chemistry is a discipline within Chemistry which involves the scientific study of the structure properties composition reactions, and preparation In fact, it would be difficult to chemically distinguish between urea of biological origin and that produced synthetically. On the other hand, some fertilizer materials commonly approved for organic agriculture, such as powdered limestone, mined rock phosphate and Chilean saltpeter, are inorganic in the use of the term by chemistry. Limestone is a Sedimentary rock composed largely of the Mineral Calcite ( Calcium carbonate: CaCO3 Rock phosphate is a general term for rock that contains a high concentration of Phosphate minerals, which commonly belong to the Apatite group Sodium nitrate is the Chemical compound with the formula NaNO3
Although the density of nutrients in organic material is comparatively modest, they have some advantages. Some or all organic fertilizer can be produced on-site, lowering transport costs. The majority of nitrogen supplying organic fertilizers contain insoluble nitrogen and act as a slow-release fertilizer.
Modern theories of organic agriculture admit the obvious success of Leibig's theory, but stress that there are serious limitations to the current methods of implementing it via chemical fertilization. Justus von Liebig ( May 12, 1803 &ndash April 18, 1873) was a German Chemist They re-emphasize the role of humus and other organic components of soil, which are believed to play several important roles:
Organics also have the advantage of avoiding certain problems associated with the regular heavy use of artificial fertilizers:
Organic fertilizers can have disadvantages:
In non-organic farming a compromise between the use of artificial and organic fertilizers is common, often using inorganic fertilizers supplemented with the application of organics that are readily available such as the return of crop residues or the application of manure. Organic farming is a form of agriculture that relies on Crop rotation, Green manure, Compost, Biological pest control, and mechanical Cultivation
The problem of over-fertilization is primarily associated with the use of artificial fertilizers, because of the massive quantities applied and the destructive nature of chemical fertilizers on soil nutrient holding structures. The high solubilities of chemical fertilizers also exacerbate their tendency to degrade ecosystems, particularly through eutrophication. An ecosystem is a natural unit consisting of all plants animals and micro-organisms( Biotic factors in an area functioning together with all of the non-living physical ( Eutrophication is an increase in chemical Nutrients -- typically compounds containing Nitrogen or Phosphorus -- in an Ecosystem, and may occur
Storage and application of some nitrogen fertilizers in some weather or soil conditions can cause emissions of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). Greenhouse gases are gaseous constituents of the atmosphere bothnatural and anthropogenic that absorb and emit radiation at specific wavelengths within the spectrum of thermal infrared Nitrous oxide, commonly known as " laughing gas," is a Chemical compound with the Chemical formula N 2 O. Ammonia gas (NH3) may be emitted following application of inorganic fertilizers, or manure or slurry. Ammonia is a compound with the formula N[[hydrogen H3]] It is normally encountered as a Gas with a characteristic pungent Odor Besides supplying nitrogen, ammonia can also increase soil acidity (lower pH, or "souring"). In Computer science, ACID ( Atomicity Consistency Isolation Durability) is a set of properties that guarantee that Database transactions are pH is the measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a Solution. Excessive nitrogen fertilizer applications can also lead to pest problems by increasing the birth rate, longevity and overall fitness of certain pests.      
The concentration of up to 100 mg/kg of cadmium in phosphate minerals (for example, minerals from Nauru and the Christmas islands) increases the contamination of soil with cadmium, for example in New Zealand. Cadmium (ˈkædmiəm is a Chemical element with the symbol Cd and Atomic number 48 Phosphate minerals are those Minerals that contain the tetrahedrally coordinated Phosphate (PO43- Anion along with the freely substituting Nauru, officially the Republic of Nauru, is an Island nation in the Micronesian South Pacific. The Territory of Christmas Island is a small territory of Australia located in the Indian Ocean, 2600 kilometres (1600 mi northwest of  Uranium is another example of a contaminant often found in phosphate fertilizers. Uranium (jʊˈreɪniəm is a silvery-gray Metallic Chemical element in the  
For these reasons, it is recommended that knowledge of the nutrient content of the soil and nutrient requirements of the crop are carefully balanced with application of nutrients in inorganic fertilizer especially. This process is called nutrient budgeting. Nutrient budgeting is used in Agriculture. The process involves balancing Nutrients coming into the farming system with those leaving By careful monitoring of soil conditions, farmers can avoid wasting expensive fertilizers, and also avoid the potential costs of cleaning up any pollution created as a byproduct of their farming.
It is also possible to over-apply organic fertilizers; however, their nutrient content, their solubility, and their release rates are typically much lower than chemical fertilizers. By their nature, most organic fertilizers also provide increased physical and biological storage mechanisms to soils, which tend to mitigate their risks.
The growth of the world's population to its current figure has only been possible through intensification of agriculture associated with the use of fertilizers. The world population is the total number of living Humans on Earth at a given time Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants and fungi and the raising of domesticated Animals The study of agriculture  There is an impact on the sustainable consumption of other global resources as a consequence. Sustainability, in a general sense is the capacity to maintain a certain process or state indefinitely The ecological footprint is a measure of human demand on the Earth's Ecosystems.
The use of fertilizers on a global scale emits significant quantities of greenhouse gas into the atmosphere. See also Global warming, Climate change, Climate change denial Attribution of recent climate change is the effort to scientifically ascertain Greenhouse gases are gaseous constituents of the atmosphere bothnatural and anthropogenic that absorb and emit radiation at specific wavelengths within the spectrum of thermal infrared Emissions come about through the use of: 
By changing processes and procedures, it is possible to mitigate some, but not all, of these effects on anthropogenic climate change. Climate change is any long-term significant change in the “average weather” that a given region experiences