|Birth name||Fernando Cueto Amorsolo|
|Born||May 30, 1892|
|Died||April 26, 1972 (aged 79)|
|Training||Liceo de Manila, University of the Philippines, Academia de San Fernando|
|Awards||National Artist of the Philippines, 1972|
Fernando Cueto Amorsolo (May 30, 1892 - April 26, 1972) is one of the most important artists in the history of painting in the Philippines. Events 1416 - The Council of Constance, called by the Emperor Sigismund a supporter of Antipope John XXIII burns Jerome of Prague following Year 1892 ( MDCCCXCII) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap year History Paco was formerly known as Dilao because of plants that produce yellow color were once plentiful in this district Events 1467 - The miraculous image in Our Lady of Good Counsel appear in Genazzano, Italy. Year 1972 ( MCMLXXII) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Events 1416 - The Council of Constance, called by the Emperor Sigismund a supporter of Antipope John XXIII burns Jerome of Prague following Year 1892 ( MDCCCXCII) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap year Events 1467 - The miraculous image in Our Lady of Good Counsel appear in Genazzano, Italy. Year 1972 ( MCMLXXII) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Philippines ( Filipino: Pilipinas, officially known as the Republic of the Philippines (fil ''Republika ng Pilipinas'' RP  Amorsolo was a portraitist and painter of rural Philippine landscapes. He is popularly known for his craftsmanship and mastery in the use of light. Born in Paco, Manila, he earned a degree from the Liceo de Manila Art School in 1909. History Paco was formerly known as Dilao because of plants that produce yellow color were once plentiful in this district 
Fernando Amorsolo was born on May 30, 1892 in Paco, Manila to Pedro Amorsolo, a bookkeeper, and Bonifacia Cueto. Bookkeeping (also book-keeping or book keeping) is the recording of all Financial transactions undertaken by an individual or Organization (including  Amorsolo spent his childhood in Daet, Camarines Norte, where he studied in a public school and was tutored at home in Spanish reading and writing. Daet is a 1st class municipality in the province of Camarines Norte, Philippines.  After his father’s death, Amorsolo and his family moved to Manila to live with Don Fabian de la Rosa, his mother's cousin and a Philippine painter. The City of Manila Fabian Cueto de la Rosa ( May 5 1869 – December 14 1937) was a Filipino painter  At the age of 13, Amorsolo became an apprentice to De la Rosa, who would eventually become the advocate and guide to Amorsolo's painting career.  During this time, Amorsolo's mother embroidered to earn money, while Amorsolo helped by selling watercolor postcards to a local bookstore for 10 centavos each. Embroidery is the Art or Handicraft of decorating fabric or other Materials with designs stitched in strands of thread or Watercolor ( US) or Watercolour ( UK) (and "aquarelle" in French is a Painting method The peso ( Filipino: piso) ( sign: ₱; code: PHP) is the currency of the Philippines.  Amorsolo's brother, Pablo, was also a painter. Pablo Cueto Amorsolo ( June 26, 1898 – 1945 is one of the known artist painters in the Philippines. 
Amorsolo's first success as a young painter came in 1908, when his painting Levendo Periodico took second place at the Bazar Escolta, a contest organized by the Asociacion Internacional de Artistas.  Between 1909 and 1914, Amorsolo enrolled at the Art School of the Liceo de Manila, where he earned honors for his paintings and drawings. 
After graduating from the Liceo, he entered the University of the Philippines' School of Fine Arts, where Dela Rosa worked at the time. The University of the Philippines (or Unibersidad ng Pilipinas in Filipino and commonly abbreviated as U  During college, Fernando Amorsolo's primary influences were the Spanish court painter Diego Velazquez, John Singer Sargent, Anders Zorn, Joaquín Sorolla y Bastida, Claude Monet, Pierre-Auguste Renoir, and Ignacio Zuloaga. Diego Rodríguez de Silva y Velázquez ( June 6, 1599 &ndash August 6, 1660) was a Spanish painter who was the leading John Singer Sargent (January 12 1856 &ndash April 14 1925 was the most successful portrait painter of his era During his career he created roughly 900 oil paintings and more than Anders Leonard Zorn ( February 18, 1860 – August 22, 1920) was a Swedish painter sculptor and Printmaker in Etching Joaquín Sorolla y Bastida ( February 27, 1863 - August 10, 1923) was a Spanish painter, born in Valencia, who Claude Monet ( French klod mɔnɛ also known as Oscar-Claude Monet or Claude Oscar Monet (14 November 1840 &ndash 5 December 1926 was a founder Pierre-Auguste Renoir ( February 25, 1841 &ndash December 3, 1919) was a French Artist who was a leading painter in Ignacio Zuloaga y Zabaleta ( July 26, 1870 - October 31, 1945) was a Spanish Basque painter, born in Eibar  Amorsolo's most notable work as a student at the Liceo was his painting of a young man and a young woman in a garden, which won him the first prize in the art school exhibition during his graduation year.  To make money during school, Amorsolo joined competitions and did illustrations for various Philippine publications, including Severino Reyes’ first novel in Tagalog, Parusa ng Diyos (God’s Punishment), and Iñigo Ed. Tagalog is one of the major languages used in the Philippines. Regalado's Madaling Araw (Dawn).  He also illustrated for the religious Pasion books.  Amorsolo graduated with medals from the University of the Philippines in 1914. 
After graduating from the University of the Philippines, Amorsolo worked as a draftsman for the Bureau of Public Works, as a chief artist at the Pacific Commercial Company, and as a part-time instructor at the University of the Philippines (where he would work for 38 years). A Liberty Bond was a special type of War bond that was sold in the United States to support the allied cause in World War I.  After three years as an instructor and commercial artist, Amorsolo was given a grant to study at the Academia de San Fernando in Madrid, Spain by Filipino businessman Enrique Zobel de Ayala. Madrid (pronounced in English in Spanish and colloquially in Spain) is the Capital and largest city of Spain. Enrique Jacobo Emilio Olgado Zobel ( January 7, 1927 &ndash May 17, 2004) was a prominent Filipino businessman  During his seven months in Spain, Amorsolo sketched at museums and along the streets of Madrid, experimenting with the use of light and color.  Through De Ayala’s grant, Amorsolo was also able to visit New York, where he encountered postwar impressionism and cubism, which would be major influences on his work. The City of New York Impressionism was a 19th-century Art movement that began as a loose association of Paris -based Artists exhibiting their art publicly in the 1860s Cubism was a 20th century Avant-garde Art movement, pioneered by Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque, that revolutionized European
Amorsolo set up his own studio upon his return to Manila and painted prodigiously during the 1920s and the 1930s.  His Rice Planting (1922), which appeared on posters and tourist brochures, became one of the most popular images of the Commonwealth era. The Commonwealth of the Philippines was the political designation of the Philippines from 1935 to 1946 when the country was a commonwealth with the United  Beginning in the 1930s, Amorsolo's work was exhibited widely both in the Philippines and abroad.  His optimistic, pastoral images set the tone for Philippine painting before World War II.  Except for his darker World War II-era paintings, Amorsolo painted quiet and peaceful scenes throughout his career. 
Amorsolo was sought after by influential Filipinos including Luis Araneta, Antonio Araneta and Jorge Vargas. Jorge B Vargas ( August 24, 1890 – February 22, 1980) was a lawyer and youth advocate born in Bago City, Negros Occidental  Amorsolo also became the favorite Philippine artist of United States officials and visitors in the Philippines. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Due to his popularity, Amorsolo had to resort to photographing his works and pasted and mounted them in an album. A photograph (often shortened to photo) is an Image created by Light falling on a light-sensitive surface usually Photographic film or an electronic An album or record album is a collection of related audio or Music tracks distributed to the public Prospective patrons could then choose from this catalogue of his works. Amorsolo did not create exact replicas of his trademark themes; he recreated the paintings by varying some elements. A replica is a copy that is relatively indistinguishable from the original
His works later appeared on the cover and pages of children's textbooks, in novels, in commercial designs, in cartoons and illustrations for the Philippine publications such The Independent, Philippine Magazine, Telembang, Renacimiento Filipino, and Excelsior.  He was the director of the University of the Philippine’s College of Fine Arts from 1938 to 1952.
During the 1950s until his death in 1972, Amorsolo averaged to finishing 10 paintings a month. However, during his later years, diabetes, cataracts, arthritis, headaches, dizziness and the death of two sons affected the execution of his works. Diabetes mellitus (ˌdaɪəˈbiːtiːz or /ˌdaɪəˈbiːtəs/ /məˈlaɪtəs/ or /ˈmɛlətəs/ often referred to simply as diabetes ( Ancient Greek: grc A cataract is a clouding that develops in the crystalline lens of the Eye or in its envelope varying in degree from slight to complete opacity Arthritis (from Greek arthro-, joint + -itis, inflammation plural arthritides is a group of conditions involving damage to the Joints of the body Amorsolo underwent a cataract operation when he was 70 years old, a surgery that did not impede him from drawing and painting.  Two months after being confined at the St. Luke’s Hospital in Manila, Amorsolo died of heart failure on April 24, 1972 at the age of 79. Heart failure is a Cardiac condition that occurs when a problem with the structure or function of the Heart impairs its ability to supply 
Four days after his death, Amorsolo was conferred as the First Philippine National Artist in Painting at the Cultural Center of the Philippines by Ferdinand E. Marcos. Cultural Center of the Philippines (or CCP is located in Pasay City, the Philippines and was opened in 1969 to promote and preserve Filipino arts and culture and Ferdinand Emmanuel Edralín Marcos ( September 11, 1917 &ndash September 28, 1989) was President of the Philippines from 1965 to 1986 
During his lifetime, Amorsolo was married twice and had 14 children.  In 1916, he married Salud Jorge, with whom he had six children.  After Jorge’s death in 1931, Amorsolo married Maria del Carmen Zaragoza, with whom he had eight more children.  Among her daughters are Sylvia Amorsolo Lazo and Luz Amorsolo.  Five of Amorsolo’s children became painters themselves.  Amorsolo was a close friend to the Philippine sculptor Guillermo Tolentino, the creator of the Caloocan City monument for Philippine hero Andres Bonifacio. National Artist of the Philippines is a title given to a Filipino who has been given the highest recognition for having made significant contributions to the development of Philippine The City of Caloocan, ( Andrés Bonifacio y de Castro ( November 30, 1863 &ndash May 10, 1897) son of Santiago Bonifacio and Catalina de Castro was a Filipino 
Amorsolo is best known for his illuminated landscapes, which often portrayed traditional Filipino customs, culture, fiestas and occupations. His pastoral works presented "an imagined sense of nationhood in counterpoint to American colonial rule" and were important to the formation of Filipino national identity. 
Amorsolo was educated in the classical tradition and aimed "to achieve his Philippine version of the Greek ideal for the human form. " In his paintings of Filipina women, Amorsolo rejected Western ideals of beauty in favor of Filipino ideals and was fond of basing the faces of his subjects on members of his family.  He said that the women he painted should have
a rounded face, not of the oval type often presented to us in newspapers and magazine illustrations. The eyes should be exceptionally lively, not the dreamy, sleepy type that characterizes the Mongolian. The nose should be of the blunt form but firm and strongly marked. . . . So the ideal Filipina beauty should not necessarily be white complexioned, nor of the dark brown color of the typical Malayan, but of the clear skin or fresh colored type which we often witness when we met a blushing girl. 
Amorsolo used natural light in his paintings and developed the backlighting technique, which became his artistic trademark and his greatest contribution to Philippine painting. A backlight is the form of illumination used in a Liquid crystal display (LCD  In a typical Amorsolo painting, figures are outlined against a characteristic glow, and intense light on one part of the canvas highlights nearby details.  Philippine sunlight was a constant feature of Amorsolo's work; he is believed to have painted only one rainy-day scene. 
Amorsolo was an incessant sketch artist, often drawing sketches at his home, at Luneta Park, and in the countryside. Rizal Park is situated in the heart of the city of Manila, Philippines.  He drew the people he saw around him, from Filipino farmers to city-dwellers coping with the Japanese occupation. Timeline of Philippine history The History of The Philippines is believed to have begun with the arrival of the first humans via Land bridges at least  Amorsolo's impressionistic tendencies, which may be seen in his paintings as well, were at their height in his sketches.  His figures were not completely finished but were mere "suggestions" of the image. 
Amorsolo also painted a series of historical paintings on pre-Colonial and Spanish Colonization events. Amorsolo’s Making of the Philippine Flag, in particular, was widely reproduced.  His The First Baptism in the Philippines required numerous detailed sketches and colored studies of its elements.  These diverse elements were meticulously and carefully set by the artist before being transferred to the final canvas.  For his pre-colonial and 16th-century depiction of the Philippines, Amorsolo referred to the written accounts of Antonio Pigafetta, other available reading materials, and visual sources. Antonio Pigafetta (c 1491 was an Italian Scholar born in Vicenza.  He consulted with the Philippine scholars of the time, H. Pardo de Tavera and Epifanio de los Santos. Epifanio de los Santos y Cristobal ( July 7, 1871 &ndash April 28, 1928) was most distinguished as a Filipino Historian, 
Amorsolo also painted oil portraits of Philippine General Emilio Aguinaldo, Philippine presidents, and other prominent Filipino individuals. For the municipality see Gen Emilio Aguinaldo Cavite General Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy ( March 22, 1869 &ndash February 6 The President of the Philippines is the head of state and government of the Republic of the Philippines.
After the onset of World War II, Amorsolo's typical pastoral scenes were replaced by the depictions of a war-torn nation. During the Japanese occupation of the Philippines during World War II, Amorsolo spent his days at his home near the Japanese garrison, where he sketched war scenes from the house's windows or rooftop. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including Garrison (various spellings (from the French garnison, itself from the verb garnir, "to equip" is the collective term for a body of Troops 
During the war, he documented the destruction of many landmarks in Manila and the pain, tragedy and death experienced by Filipino people, with his subjects including "women mourning their dead husbands, files of people with pushcarts and makeshift bags leaving a dark burning city tinged with red from fire and blood. " Amorsolo frequently portrayed the lives and suffering of Filipina women during World War II. Other WWII-era paintings by Amorsolo include a portrait in absentia of General Douglas MacArthur as well as self-portraits and paintings of Japanese occupation soldiers. General MacArthur redirects here for other meanings see General MacArthur (disambiguation.  In 1948, Amorsolo’s wartime paintings were exhibited at the Malacañang Presidential Palace. Malacañan Palace, colloquially the Malacañang Palace, is the Official residence of the President of the Philippines. 
Amorsolo's supporters consider his portrayals of the countryside as "the true reflections of the Filipino Soul. "
Amorsolo has been accused, however, of succumbing to commercialism and merely producing souvenir paintings for American soldiers.  Critic Francisco Arcellana wrote in 1948 that Amorsolo's paintings "have nothing to say" and that they were not hard to understand because "there is nothing to understand. Francisco Arcellana ( September 6, 1916 — August 1, 2002) was a Filipino Writer, Poet, Essayist, " Critics have criticized Amorsolo's portraits of Philippine Commonwealth personalities, his large, mid-career anecdotal works, and his large historical paintings.  Of the latter, critics have said that his "artistic temperament was simply not suited to generating the sense of dramatic tension necessary for such works. "
Another critic, however, while noting that most of Amorsolo's estimated ten thousand works were not worthy of his talent, argues that Amorsolo's oeuvre should nonetheless be judged by his best works instead of his worst.  Amorsolo's small landscapes, especially those of his early career, have been judged as his best works, "hold[ing] well together plastically. " Amorsolo may "be considered a master of the Philippine landscape as landscape, even outranking Luna and Hidalgo who also did some Philippine landscapes of the same measurements. Juan Luna y Novicio ( October 23, 1857 – December 7, 1899) was a Filipino painter in the late 19th century Felix Resurreccion Hidalgo y Padilla (1855-1913 is acknowledged as one of the great Filipino painters of the late 19th century and is significant in Philippine history "
The volume of paintings, sketches and studies of Amorsolo is believed to have reached more than 10,000 pieces. Amorsolo was an important influence on contemporary Filipino art and artists, even beyond the so-called "Amorsolo school. " Amorsolo's influence can be seen in many landscape paintings by Filipino artists, including early landscape paintings by abstract painter Federico Aguilar Alcuaz. Federico Aguilar Alcuaz is a Multi Awarded Filipino Painter He has exhibited extensively Internationally and has reaped awards for his Art abroad 
In 2003, Amorsolo's children founded the Fernando C. Amorsolo Art Foundation, which is dedicated to preserving Fernando Amorsolo’s legacy, promoting his style and vision, and preserving a national heritage through the conservation and promotion of his works. 
At a 2001 auction in Wellesley, Massachusetts, two original 1950s paintings by Amorsolo, The Cockfight and Resting Under the Trees, were bought by a New Jersey collector for $36,000 and $31,500, respectively. Wellesley is a town in Norfolk County, Massachusetts, United States.  During a 2002 episode of Antiques Roadshow, a Sotheby's antiques appraiser estimated that an attendee's signed 1945 rural landscape painting by Amorsolo could fetch between $30,000 and $50,000 at auction. Antiques Roadshow is a British Human interest Television show in which Antiques appraisers travel to various regions of Sotheby's ( is the world's second oldest Auction house in continuous operation (the oldest being Stockholms Auktionsverk founded in 1674  At a 1996 Christie's auction, Amorsolo's The Marketplace went for $174,000. 
Major works by Amorsolo include:
In 1972, Fernando Amorsolo became the first Filipino to be distinguished as the Philippine's National Artist in Painting. United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization ( UNESCO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established on November 16 The humanities are academic disciplines which study the Human condition, using methods that are primarily Analytic, Critical, or Speculative National Artist of the Philippines is a title given to a Filipino who has been given the highest recognition for having made significant contributions to the development of Philippine He was named as the “Grand Old Man of Philippine Art” during the inauguration of the Manila Hilton’s art center, where his paintings were exhibited on January 23, 1969. An inauguration is a ceremony of formal Investiture whereby an individual assumes an office or position of authority or power UH Hilton Hoteljpg|thumbnail|right|The Hilton University of Houston in Houston Texas, located on the campus of the University of Houston, contains the Hilton College of
Outside the Philippines, his exhibitions were held in Belgium, at the Exposicion de Panama in 1914, at a one-man show at the Grand Central Gallery in New York City in 1925, and at the National Museum in Herran on November 6, 1948. The Kingdom of Belgium is a Country in northwest Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts its headquarters as well as those Panama, officially the Republic of Panama (República de Panamá) is the southernmost country of Central America. A national museum is a Museum maintained by a Nation. List of national museums Australia Australian National Aviation Museum During the 1931 Paris Exposition, Amorsolo exhibited one of his anecdotal paintings, The Conversion of the Filipinos. Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city Amorsolo's entries at the Exposicion in Panama were a portrait of U. S. President Woodrow Wilson and the piece La Muerte de Socrates. At the 1948 National Museum in Herran, Amorsolo exhibition was sponsored by the Art Association of the Philippines. In 1950, Amorsolo exhibited two more historical paintings, Faith Among the Ruins and Baptism of Rajah Humabon at the Missionary Art Exhibit in Rome. Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 In 1979, Fernando Amorsolo's legacy as a painter was celebrated through an exhibition of his works at the Art Center of the Manila Hilton.  His art was also featured in a 2007 exhibition in Havana.